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  1. To provide training in (CAI/CMI). To provide detailed computer knowledge to the pupils To impart computer operational skills To provide various experiences of computer education for various fields of life To remove various misconceptions regarding computers To provide knowledge about computer applications
  2. Characteristics It is not the solution of educational problems. It is a new instructional strategy for the behaviour modification of the learner It is a teaching method and not a test. It helps the students in learning a material It is not an audio visual aid. It is a part of educational technology It cannot replace the teacher It requires more creativity and imaginative efforts
  3. Principles of Programmed learning Principle of immediate confirmation Principle of small steps Principle of active responding Principle of self pacing Principle of evaluation
  4. Types of programming Question1 Linear Programming of B.F.Skinner Branched programming of Norman Crowder Answer 1 Question 2 Answer 2 Question 3 Answer 3 Question 4
  5. Question 1 ALT 1a ALT 1b ALT 1c Question 2 ALT 1a ALT 1b ALT 1c Question 3 Frame 2 Frame 3 Frame 4 Frame 5 Frame 6 Frame 7 Frame 8
  6. Steps in programming
  7. Benefits To help student to learn without the presence of a teacher To help students to learn by doing To provide the situation to learn at his own pace To present the content in a controlled manner and in logically related steps To study by himself and assess his own performance
  8. Constructed Response Devices Multiple Choice Machines The Gilder Machines Audio Visual Combination The Type Writer input Computing Machine The Disk Type Machine
  9. Uses of Teaching Machines No teacher can be a tutor to each individual. But auto instruction can be tutorial instruction Every student can proceed at his own rate of learning Some machines have time limits also. The pupils know whether the answers are correct or wrong They provide feedback to the learner They contain logically arranged well structured programmes They supervise the learning of each individual student They elicit overt or covert response of the student
  10. Models of Teaching
  11. Characteristics of a Model of Teaching Criterion of performance Specifications of learning outcome Specification of environment Specification of operations What the student will perform, after completing an instructional sequence, is specified in detail The learner would demonstrate after completing specific instructional sequences Mechanisms that provide for students reaction and interaction with the environment
  12. Designing the curriculum Guiding the teacher Developme nt of study material Functions of Models of Teaching
  13. On observable skills and behaviours. Eg: Mastery Learning Linked more to the concepts and principles developed in Cognitive Psychology Inquiry Training / Inductive Thinking Concept Attainment Intellectual Development On outcomes Facilitative teaching Increasing Personal Awareness Synectics Developing the concepts and skills needed to work in groupsdeveloping the concepts and skills needed to work in groups Cooperative Learning Role playing Laboratory Method
  14. ELEMENTS OF A MODEL A syntax • Description of the model in action • sequence of steps involved in the organization of the complete programme of teaching Social System • Students and teacher roles • Norms or the student behaviour which is rewarded Principles of Reaction • Tells the teacher as to how to deal with the learner • rewarding desirable behaviour and maintain a neutral stance towards undesirable behaviour Support System • To provide facilities to teacher and the student, to successfully implement the strategy of teaching • Provide a number of audio visual aids to cater to the needs of individual learner
  15. Discipline associated with ‘Communication and Control’ The term cybernetic is used by Norbest Wiener (1948) The science of control and communication in the animal and the machine Cybernetics is a branch of training psychology
  16. Output of Cybernetics
  17. Advantages of cybernetics in Education It is applied in group as well as individual classroom instruction It provides the basis for self education Teacher education programme can be improved by employing the mechanism of feedback devices The innovative practices in teacher education programme are based on the theory of feedback The input, process and output units of teaching enable the teacher to understand and analyse teaching in more scientific manner Teaching activities can be made highly structured