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Connecting the Dots: Open Access, Open Education and an Open Future

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We live at a time of transition between two worlds — the disconnected, analog past and the wired, digital future. Nowhere is this transition more apparent than in higher education, where cutting-edge technologies regularly mix side by side with centuries-old traditions. Openness is about overcoming barriers and paradigms of the past to unleash the transformative power of freely and fully using information in today’s world. Considerable strides have already been made toward Open Access in the realm of scholarly and scientific research, with millions of papers now available online through Open Access journals or institutional repositories, and hundreds of institutions adopting self-archiving policies. The movement for open education is following suit, expanding the use of Open Educational Resources (OER) to hundreds of thousands of students and saving tens of millions dollars on textbooks. Open Access and OER are essential building blocks for a more open future, and they are stronger together. Nicole’s talk will connect the dots between the areas of overlap and common lessons learned from the movements for Open Access and Open Educational Resources, as well as identify strategies for moving toward a more open future in higher education.

Publicada em: Educação
  • __If it's not $1,200, how much do students spend on course materials each year? Source: NACS, National Association of College Stores _ http://www.nacs.org/toolsresources/cmip/faq/textbooks.aspx _ 'While this information varies based on factors such as course load and subject matter, students estimated spending an average of $370 on required course materials during the fall 2013 term, according to NACS’ Student Watch™ fall 2013 report. Required course materials can be any type of book or media required or recommended by faculty for classes. These could be new or used textbooks, regular or general books, as well as coursepacks, readers, customized materials or digital/electronic educational materials. This amount does not include the savings achieved by students selling their used textbooks, which further reduces net costs for most students. Further, 40.6% of students said they usually pay for course materials with grants, scholarships and student loans during the fall 2013 term. Financial assistance covered, on average, 57% of the costs of the course materials for those students.
    Educational supplies are an additional cost that may include blue books, pens, paper, binders, highlighters and other necessary expenses. On average, educational supplies cost $193 for the fall 2013 term.'
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  • __Hi Nicole, a quick note re: Slide 13 - When citing The College Board Survey figure, $1,207, please add NOTE: 'Note that the data for books and supplies [-] are estimates, often based on estimates of student budgets by financial aid offices.' [NCES National Center for Education Statistics - http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2006/2006153.pdf ]. The College Board Survey reports the average amount calculated by Students in their budgets for books and supplies expenses, as submitted on their Financial Aid applications. Please prevent a common misunderstanding which has lead to others [including BCcampus] quoting 'Students spend $1200/yr on textbooks'. The average U.S. student spending on new textbooks can be estimated by dividing Higher Education publishing sales [approx. $6B] by the number of students [approx.19.5 million] - approx. $300.
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Connecting the Dots: Open Access, Open Education and an Open Future

  1. 1. Connecting the Dots: Open Access, Open Ed and @txtbks | #openUBC an Open Future Nicole Allen (nicole@sparc.arl.org) Director of Open Education, SPARC #OpenUBC | Vancouver | Oct. 28, 2014 Except where otherwise noted...
  2. 2. Open Access Week: October 20-26, 2014 @txtbks | #openUBC www.righttoresearch.org
  3. 3. STATUS QUO @txtbks | #openUBC
  4. 4. @txtbks | #openUBC 425% 375% 325% 275% 225% 175% 125% 75% 25% -25% 1986 1989 1992 1995 1998 2001 2004 2007 2010 % Change Since 1986 Monograph and Serial Costs in ARL Libraries, 1986-2011* Serial Expenditures Monograph Expenditures (+71%) Monographs Purchased (10%) Source: ARL Statistics 2010-11 Association of Research Libraries, Washington, D.C. *Includes electronic resources from 1999-2000 onward. Adapted from slides by Nick Shockey (SPARC) available under CCBY
  5. 5. Average Journal Prices @txtbks | #openUBC Chemistry = $4,450 Biology = $2,653 Physics = $3,893 Source: Library Journal 2013 Periodicals Pricing Survey “The Winds of Change | Periodicals Price Survey 2013,” by Stephen Bosch and Kittie Henderson. Library Journal, April 25, 2013: http://lj.libraryjournal.com/2013/04/publishing/the-winds-of-change-periodicals-price- survey-2013 Adapted from slides by Nick Shockey (SPARC) available under CCBY Health Sciences = $1,482
  6. 6. Average Journal Prices @txtbks | #openUBC Source: Library Journal 2013 Periodicals Pricing Survey “The Winds of Change | Periodicals Price Survey 2013,” by Stephen Bosch and Kittie Henderson. Library Journal, April 25, 2013: http://lj.libraryjournal.com/2013/04/publishing/the-winds-of-change-periodicals-price- survey-2013 Adapted from slides by Nick Shockey (SPARC) available under CCBY
  7. 7. @txtbks | #openUBC
  8. 8. @txtbks | #openUBC www.sparc.arl.org
  9. 9. @txtbks | #openUBC www.sparc.arl.org
  10. 10. @txtbks | #openUBC www.sparc.arl.org
  11. 11. @txtbks | #openUBC www.righttoresearch.org
  12. 12. while tuition and fees increased by 89 percent and overall consumer prices grew by 28 percent. Figure 1: Estimated Increases in New College Textbook Prices, College Tuition and Fees, and Overall Consumer Price Inflation, 2002 to 2012 @txtbks | #openUBC Source http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-13-368 8
  13. 13. @txtbks | #openUBC $1,207 Average U.S. student budget for books and supplies for the 2013-2014 academic year Source http://trends.collegeboard.org/college-pricing/figures-tables/average-estimated-undergraduate-budgets- 2013-14
  14. 14. @txtbks | #openUBC Source http://www.studentpirgs.org/sites/student/files/reports/A-Cover-To-Cover-Solution_4.pdf
  15. 15. @txtbks | #openUBC www.sparc.arl.org
  16. 16. @txtbks | #openUBC www.sparc.arl.org
  17. 17. @txtbks | #openUBC www.sparc.arl.org
  18. 18. @txtbks | #openUBC www.sparc.arl.org
  19. 19. @txtbks | #openUBC Source http://www.coursesmart.com/calculus-early-transcendentals-7th-edition/ stewart/dp/9780538497909
  20. 20. @txtbks | #openUBC Source http://www.coursesmart.com/calculus-early-transcendentals-7th-edition/ stewart/dp/9780538497909
  21. 21. @txtbks | #openUBC Image © from http://www.cnn.com/2013/06/28/showbiz/heat-director-buddy-cop/
  22. 22. @txtbks | #openUBC
  23. 23. @txtbks | #openUBC 2 in 3 Students say they decided against buying a textbook because the cost is too high Source http://www.uspirg.org/reports/usp/fixing-broken-textbook-market
  24. 24. @txtbks | #openUBC 1 in 2 Students say they have at some point taken fewer courses due to the cost of textbooks Source http://www.openaccesstextbooks.org/pdf/2012_Florida_Student_Textbook_Survey.pdf
  25. 25. Students can’t learn from materials they can’t afford @txtbks | #openUBC
  26. 26. @txtbks | #openUBC “Market Failure” www.sparc.arl.org
  27. 27. @txtbks | #openUBC “Market Failure” www.sparc.arl.org
  28. 28. We can do better. @txtbks | #openUBC
  29. 29. Electronic Education in the Year 2000 @txtbks | #openUBC (as depicted by an artist in 1900) Source http://www.selectism.com/2011/03/03/villemard-in-the-year- 2000/year-2000-04/
  30. 30. @txtbks | #openUBC Source http://www.phdcomics.com/comics/archive.php?comicid=1200
  31. 31. 80% of research is publicly funded @txtbks | #openUBC Source: “Academic Publishing: Survey of funders supports the benign Open Access outcome priced into shares, HSBC Global Research,” February 11, 2013: https://www.research.hsbc.com/midas/Res/RDV?ao=20&key=RxArFbnG1P&n=360010.PDF 1 Adapted from slides by Nick Shockey (SPARC) available under CCBY
  32. 32. @txtbks | #openUBC Source: U.S. Department of Education http://nces.ed.gov/fastfacts/display.asp?id=31
  33. 33. @txtbks | #openUBC www.sparc.arl.org
  34. 34. @txtbks | #openUBC 1227 pages!
  35. 35. @txtbks | #openUBC How do we enable everything that today’s technology makes possible?
  36. 36. OPENNESS @txtbks | #openUBC
  37. 37. @txtbks | #openUBC 1. Free (no cost, no barriers) 2. Open (right to fully use)
  38. 38. Free, immediate online access to scientific & scholarly articles with full reuse rights @txtbks | #openUBC Budapest Open Access Initiative Adapted from slides by Nick Shockey (SPARC) available under CCBY
  39. 39. Teaching, learning and research resources that reside in the public domain or are released under an intellectual property license that permits their free use and repurposing by others” @txtbks | #openUBC Hewlett Foundation
  40. 40. @txtbks | #openUBC 1. Free (no cost, no barriers) 2. Open (right to fully use)
  41. 41. @txtbks | #openUBC Image © from http://www.wired.co.uk/news/archive/2013-07/11/copyright-hub-lacks-cc-options
  42. 42. Open Licensing Uses copyright to enable free sharing and reuse @txtbks | #openUBC
  43. 43. (easy-to-use open licenses) www.creativecommons.org @txtbks | #openUBC
  44. 44. OA @txtbks | #openUBC most open least open Adapted from slides by Cable Green available under CCBY at http://www.slideshare.com/cgreen OER not either
  45. 45. The$5Rs$ Retain • Make and own copies Reuse • Use in a wide range of ways Revise • Adapt, modify, and improve Remix • Combine two or more @txtbks | #openUBC The “5R” Permissions Redistribute • Share with others Adapted from slides by David Wiley, available under CCBY. See www.opencontent.org for full 5R definition.
  46. 46. @txtbks | #openUBC HOW IT WORKS
  47. 47. Two paths to Open Access @txtbks | #openUBC 2. Self-archiving 1. OA Journals Adapted from slides by Nick Shockey (SPARC) available under CCBY
  48. 48. @txtbks | #openUBC Three Paths to OER 1. Creating OER 2. Sharing OER 3. Supporting OER www.sparc.arl.org
  49. 49. 1st path to OA: Publish in an open access journal @txtbks | #openUBC x 10,000+ Source: Directory of Open Access Journals: www.doaj.org www.sparc.arl.org
  50. 50. @txtbks | #openUBC McKiernan, Erin (2014): Being open as an early career researcher. figshare. www.righttoresearch.org http://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.954994
  51. 51. (open textbooks, open courses) @txtbks | #openUBC 1. Creating OER www.sparc.arl.org
  52. 52. @txtbks | #openUBC Open Textbook (Example) • Free online • Free PDF • Free ePub • Print $49.73 • Instructor can adapt and distribute http://openstaxcollege.org/textbooks/college-physics
  53. 53. @txtbks | #openUBC Captured from http://openstaxcollege.org/
  54. 54. @txtbks | #openUBC Captured from http://openstaxcollege.org/ • Building 20 open textbooks for highest enrollment courses • Educational tools to support books and sustainability • Authors paid • $30 million saved by students
  55. 55. @txtbks | #openUBC http://oregonstate.edu/ua/ncs/archives/2014/feb/osu-open-textbook-initiative-aims-reduce-student- costs-enhance-learning
  56. 56. @txtbks | #openUBC Source http://opencourselibrary.org/
  57. 57. @txtbks | #openUBC Source http://opencourselibrary.org/ • Funded by state legislature • 81 highest enrollment courses • Free and low cost materials • $7M+ savings to date, 4x original investment
  58. 58. @txtbks | #openUBC http://oli.cmu.edu/courses/
  59. 59. @txtbks | #openUBC http://oli.cmu.edu/courses/ • Free and open courses • Data driven design that include real time feedback • Data used to improve materials • Data also used in research on how students learn
  60. 60. @txtbks | #openUBC Source https://oli.cmu.edu/jcourse/lms/students/syllabus.do?section=434add4180020c a60127a17583becaeb
  61. 61. @txtbks | #openUBC Source https://oli.cmu.edu/jcourse/lms/students/syllabus.do?section=434add4180020c a60127a17583becaeb
  62. 62. @txtbks | #openUBC 2. Sharing OER www.sparc.arl.org (OCW, repositories)
  63. 63. 2nd path to OA: Publish (most) anywhere, deposit into an open-access repository @txtbks | #openUBC X 2,000 Adapted from slides by Nick Shockey (SPARC) available under CCBY
  64. 64. @txtbks | #openUBC Source: www.sherpa.ac.uk/romeo/statistics.php?la=en&fIDnum=|&mode=simple Adapted from slides by Nick Shockey (SPARC) available under CCBY
  65. 65. Research Funder Open Access Policies 88 Research Funders in 18 countries Data from roarmap.eprints.org @txtbks | #openUBC
  66. 66. @txtbks | #openUBC Captured from http://ocw.mit.edu/about/
  67. 67. @txtbks | #openUBC Captured from
  68. 68. @txtbks | #openUBC Captured from https://itunes.apple.com/us/itunes-u/id499270153
  69. 69. @txtbks | #openUBC Captured from
  70. 70. @txtbks | #openUBC http://cnx.org
  71. 71. @txtbks | #openUBC http://www.oercommons.org
  72. 72. @txtbks | #openUBC Source http://www.doleta.gov/taaccct/
  73. 73. @txtbks | #openUBC Source http://www.californiacommunitycolleges.cccco.edu/Portals/0/DocDownloads/PressReleases/SEP2013/ PRESS_RELEASE_CreativeCommonsBY_090913_FINAL.pdf
  74. 74. 3. Supporting OER @txtbks | #openUBC www.sparc.arl.org
  75. 75. @txtbks | #openUBC Image © from http://www.teleread.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/02/bookstorerummage.jpg
  76. 76. @txtbks | #openUBC
  77. 77. @txtbks | #openUBC http://open.umn.edu
  78. 78. @txtbks | #openUBC http://open.umn.edu • Catalog of open textbooks containing 100+ • Faculty reviews • Runs workshops at campuses • BCCampus is a partner
  79. 79. @txtbks | #openUBC www.sparc.arl.org
  80. 80. @txtbks | #openUBC www.sparc.arl.org • Digital coursepack pilot • Library provides support services to faculty for identifying OA articles • Integrates coursepack into LMS (Moodle) for student access
  81. 81. @txtbks | #openUBC Adapted from slides by Kristi Jensen available under CCBY
  82. 82. @txtbks | #openUBC Source http://guides.library.umass.edu/content.php?pid=87648&sid=4778777
  83. 83. • Offers mini grants to faculty to switch to OER/affordable materials consultation sessions for 30+ faculty participants • $1,000,000 student @txtbks | #openUBC • Workshops and savings Captured from http://guides.library.umass.edu/content.php?pid=87648&sid=4778777
  84. 84. @txtbks | #openUBC About Lumen Learning Open Educational Resources represent a largely untapped opportunity to reduce costs to both institutions and learners, while at the same time improving student success. However, many institutional leaders are unsure what to do to help their institutions, faculty, and learners take full advantage of OER. This is where Lumen enters the picture. Co-founded by open education visionary Dr. David Wiley and education technology strategist Kim Thanos, Lumen is dedicated to facilitating broad, successful adoption of OER. After years of pioneering work in open education as individuals, David and Kim collaborated on the Next Generation Learning Challenges grant-funded Kaleidoscope Open Course Initiative in 2012 to replace textbooks with OER in community college classrooms. Project goals included lowering textbook costs by 50% and improving student success rates. No one was quite prepared for the actual project outcomes, which resulted in moving the cost of required textbooks to $0 and improving average student success rates by over 10% compared to student performance in the same courses offered by the same instructors in prior years. You can read more about the Kaleidoscope Open Course Initiative on the Successful Projects page. http://www.lumenlearning.org Adding this concrete proof to the body of evidence supporting OER, David and Kim decided to join forces to help more educational institutions and students realize gains like these. Lumen helps institutional leaders and faculty address the major challenges of OER adoption:
  85. 85. • Startup company provides soup to nuts support for OER adoption • Template courses that • Performs assessments on @txtbks | #openUBC About Lumen Learning faculty adapt Open Educational Resources represent a largely untapped opportunity to reduce costs to both institutions and learners, while at the same time improving student success. However, many institutional leaders are unsure what to do to help their institutions, faculty, and learners take full advantage of OER. This is where Lumen enters the picture. outcomes Co-founded by open education visionary Dr. David Wiley and education technology strategist Kim Thanos, Lumen is dedicated to facilitating broad, successful adoption of OER. After years of pioneering work in open education as individuals, David and Kim collaborated on the Next Generation Learning Challenges grant-funded Kaleidoscope Open Course Initiative in 2012 to replace textbooks with OER in community college classrooms. Project goals included lowering textbook costs by 50% and improving student success rates. No one was quite prepared for the actual project outcomes, which resulted in moving the cost of required textbooks to $0 and improving average student success rates by over 10% compared to student performance in the same courses offered by the same instructors in prior years. You can read more about the Kaleidoscope Open Course Initiative on the Successful Projects page. http://www.lumenlearning.org Adding this concrete proof to the body of evidence supporting OER, David and Kim decided to join forces to help more educational institutions and students realize gains like these. Lumen helps institutional leaders and faculty address the major challenges of OER adoption:
  86. 86. Tidewater Community College is making college more affordable. The cost of college textbooks has risen 812% since 1978, more than the rates of inflation, health care, new home prices, and college tuition. As of May 2013, if a TCC student purchased all of the textbooks required for a business administration degree, that student would spend $3,678.95 on new books. While used textbooks may lower this price, their availability is, at best, uneven. Beginning in Fall 2013, TCC became the first college in the U.S. to create an Associate of Science degree based solely on open educational resources (OER), academically vetted and publicly licensed content. After a one-semester pilot project, the true measures of accomplishment are @txtbks | #openUBC More and more, college students are unable to afford their textbooks, and as many as 70% of students have reported avoiding buying at least one textbook for their courses. Not surprisingly, these students do not do as well academically. But the problem with printed textbooks goes beyond financial cost; textbooks “ cost” students and teachers in other ways as well. Because textbooks are frequently written for broad audiences in the hopes that they will fill the learning support needs and be adopted by large numbers of faculty and departments, they are filled with content and exercises that are superfluous to a specific course’ s learning outcomes. The cost here is in teaching efficiency and effectiveness. Fortunately a solution to both problems exists. • student success • and increased instructor effectiveness. Source http://www.tcc.edu/news/press/2014/zdegreecbn.htm Early data suggest the Z-Degree will meet both goals. Z Courses experienced greater student retention and fewer student withdrawals. Grades were comparable with textbook-based courses. Almost 99% of students
  87. 87. • Entire 2-year degree that Tidewater Community College is making college more affordable. uses OER in every course • Students can graduate The cost of college textbooks has risen 812% since 1978, more than the rates of inflation, health care, new home prices, and college tuition. with $0 textbook costs • Higher course retention • Available to any other @txtbks | #openUBC More and more, college students are unable to afford their textbooks, and as many as 70% of students have reported avoiding buying at least one textbook for their courses. Not surprisingly, these students do not do as well academically. As of May 2013, if a TCC student purchased all of the textbooks required rates for a business administration degree, that student would spend $3,678.95 on new books. While used textbooks may lower this price, their availability is, at best, uneven. But the problem with printed textbooks goes beyond financial cost; textbooks “ cost” students and teachers in other ways as well. Because textbooks are frequently written for broad audiences in the hopes that they will fill the learning support needs and be adopted by large numbers of faculty and departments, they are filled with content and exercises that are superfluous to a specific course’ s learning outcomes. The cost here is in teaching efficiency and effectiveness. Fortunately a solution to both problems exists. college Beginning in Fall 2013, TCC became the first college in the U.S. to create an Associate of Science degree based solely on open educational resources (OER), academically vetted and publicly licensed content. After a one-semester pilot project, the true measures of accomplishment are • student success • and increased instructor effectiveness. Source http://www.tcc.edu/news/press/2014/zdegreecbn.htm Early data suggest the Z-Degree will meet both goals. Z Courses experienced greater student retention and fewer student withdrawals. Grades were comparable with textbook-based courses. Almost 99% of students
  88. 88. @txtbks | #openUBC IMPACT
  89. 89. @txtbks | #openUBC Source: “OA Policy Development and Implementation at Queensland University of Technology,” Professor Tom Cochrane, Deputy Vice-Chancellor (Delivered November 2012): http://www.berlin10.org/images/ws2cochrane.pdf Adapted from slides by Nick Shockey (SPARC) available under CCBY
  90. 90. $1M student savings, and counting @txtbks | #openUBC
  91. 91. @txtbks | #openUBC Adapted from slides by Nick Shockey (SPARC) available under CCBY
  92. 92. @txtbks | #openUBC Developmental Math Results" Percentage passing with C or better 48.40% 60.18% Supporting Adoption 70.00% 60.00% 50.00% 40.00% 30.00% 20.00% 10.00% 0.00% Spring 2011 No OER Spring 2013 All OER n=2,842 Adapted from slides by David Wiley available under CC BY at http://www.slideshare.net/opencontent About Lumen Learning Open Educational Resources represent a and learners, while at the same time improving unsure what to do to help their institutions, This is where Lumen enters the picture. Co-founded by open education visionary Lumen is dedicated to facilitating broad, After years of pioneering work in open education Generation Learning Challenges grant-funded textbooks with OER in community college 50% and improving student success rates. resulted in moving the cost of required textbooks 10% compared to student performance in You can read more about the Kaleidoscope Adding this concrete proof to the body of help more educational institutions and students Lumen helps institutional leaders and faculty ! Finding quality content and mapping around the country to review and aggregate into Open Courses that match general course frameworks online. This process individual or institution to download and ! Incorporating OER into academic consulting services to help institutional sense to introduce OER into courses
  93. 93. @txtbks | #openUBC Source http://www.ploscollections.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.00 98826
  94. 94. @txtbks | #openUBC Source http://pm4id.org/
  95. 95. @txtbks | #openUBC The Medieval Lecture http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Laurentius_de_Voltolina_001.jpg (public domain)
  96. 96. @txtbks | #openUBC The Modern Lecture http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:5th_Floor_Lecture_Hall.j pg (CC BY-SA)
  97. 97. Advance our systems for sharing information @txtbks | #openUBC toward openness
  98. 98. @txtbks | #openUBC WHAT YOU CAN DO
  99. 99. Raise awareness of OA and OER, starting where people are at @txtbks | #openUBC www.sparc.arl.org
  100. 100. “Whether it’s lack of motivation, conservatism, or a dominant tenure and promotion system, faculty may be slow to accept that our scholarly communication system is badly in need of reform. If that describes your institution, then you may decide, like I did nearly four years ago, to shift the conversation to OER.” @txtbks | #openUBC Source http://lj.libraryjournal.com/2014/03/opinion/steven-bell/what-you-need-to-know-about- the-other-open-week-from-the-bell-tower/ - Steven Bell, Temple University
  101. 101. Support the sharing of scholarship created on your campus, in all of its forms @txtbks | #openUBC www.sparc.arl.org
  102. 102. @txtbks | #openUBC www.sparc.arl.org
  103. 103. @txtbks | #openUBC Engage the next generation to advance openness. www.sparc.arl.org
  104. 104. #textbookbroke @txtbks | #openUBC
  105. 105. @txtbks | #openUBC www.openaccessbutton.org
  106. 106. November 15-17 | Washington, D.C. www.opencon2014.org | @open_con @txtbks | #openUBC www.sparc.arl.org
  107. 107. @txtbks | #openUBC www.sparc.arl.org
  108. 108. Connecting the Dots: Open Access, Open Ed and @txtbks | #openUBC an Open Future Nicole Allen (nicole@sparc.arl.org) Director of Open Education, SPARC #OpenUBC | Vancouver | Oct. 28, 2014 Except where otherwise noted...

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