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Consumerism and Ethics in
Retailing
Dr. Gopal Thapa
Tribhuvan University
Three Basic Issues
 Consumerism
 Corporate Social Responsibility
 Ethics
2/5/2023 Prepared by Dr. Gopal Thapa 2
Consumerism
 Consumerism is organized group pressure, by all
consumers, to protect and benefit consumer
groups and the environment.
 This means it is not solely those consumers buying
from a company, it is a broad movement to bring
about improved exchange relationships.
2/5/2023 Prepared by Dr. Gopal Thapa 3
Corporate Social Responsibility
 This is the decision of a firm to conduct its
business in the interest of society as a whole as
well as its own interests.
2/5/2023 Prepared by Dr. Gopal Thapa 4
Ethics
 Ethics involves personal decisions on the moral
principles of what would be the right or wrong
activity for individual employees.
 These decisions will be linked to the values and
culture of the organization.
 Ethical values are the core beliefs and standards
such as honesty and fairness that will dictate the
stance a company takes in relation to retail
marketing.
2/5/2023 Prepared by Dr. Gopal Thapa 5
The Different Pressures for a
Company to be Socially Responsible
 The concept on which to base the ensuring of
long-term satisfaction is not a straightforward one.
 Consumer satisfaction is linked to aspirations and
these may change in relation to political systems,
and the products and services other consumers
enjoy.
2/5/2023 Prepared by Dr. Gopal Thapa 6
The Different Pressures for a
Company to be Socially Responsible
 Satisfaction is based upon personal concepts of
acceptability of the type of products available, the
potential to purchase them, and how companies
act in the transaction process of creating and
supplying products or services.
 We often use relative standards when judging the
circumstances of a specific action.
2/5/2023 Prepared by Dr. Gopal Thapa 7
Corporate Social Responsibility &
Business Ethics
 Corporate social responsibility relates to the social
aspects of the responsibility a company may adopt for
its own business operation within the society it serves.
 To be corporately responsible, a company would
develop and operate economic, stakeholder, or
philanthropic policies which were beyond its required
legal duties.
 Business ethics is the code by which an organization
should behave based upon carefully developed rules
of moral philosophy.
2/5/2023 Prepared by Dr. Gopal Thapa 8
The Different Pressures for a
Company to be Socially Responsible
 Utilitarianism – which judges not the actions but the
consequences of those actions.
 If the result is that there is a net increase in the
happiness or welfare of society then the action can be
believed to be morally right;
 Intuitionism – the premise that a decision is right if
the individual’s intuition or conscience informs him or
her that it is right.
 If a person believes his or her motives are good and
honest and no other person is harmed by a decision
then that decision can be made.
2/5/2023 Prepared by Dr. Gopal Thapa 9
The Different Pressures for a
Company to be Socially Responsible
 Absolute standards are based upon rigid rules
which provide clear guidance as to the judgment
of whether any action is right or wrong.
 As such there is no ambiguity as to what
constitutes ethical behavior and no account is
taken of the circumstances which may surround
the situation.
 These standards are based upon religious
teachings such as ‘thou shall not lie’ or ‘thou shall
not steal’.
2/5/2023 Prepared by Dr. Gopal Thapa 10
The Different Pressures for a
Company to be Socially Responsible
 One major change in the acceptability of the
behavior of companies can be traced to the
widespread realization that the world needs to
have its environment protected
 Green issues are creating more awareness of the
environment in Western societies.
 Pollution due to acid rain, the motor car and
leaded petrol, nuclear waste, chemicals in farming
and untreated sewage is of topical concern.
2/5/2023 Prepared by Dr. Gopal Thapa 11
The Different Pressures for a
Company to be Socially Responsible
 This has led to the emergence of the ‘green’
consumer who will seek out and buy
environmentally friendly products.
 The same consumer will expect a retail company
to adopt responsible attitudes in terms of the way
it carries out its business.
2/5/2023 Prepared by Dr. Gopal Thapa 12
The Different Pressures for a
Company to be Socially Responsible
 This could be related to the organization of waste
recycling, energy conservation and some control
of the products it stocks or sells.
 There is the further concern that financial services
institutions should work with acceptable political
regimes and provide loans only for ethical
business ventures
2/5/2023 Prepared by Dr. Gopal Thapa 13
The Different Pressures for a
Company to be Socially Responsible
 In the late 1990s, various retailers were accused of
exploiting workers in developing countries.
 The recognition of the power of the consumer, based
upon emerging values which deem unethical processes
unacceptable, has led companies to adopt more
socially responsible policies.
 The recognition by different companies of the need to
be more aware of the personal values of those in
society is primarily due to consumerism.
2/5/2023 Prepared by Dr. Gopal Thapa 14
Consumerism
 This is organized group pressure which has
become a set of values held not only by the
consumers of a company’s products but also
within the wider society.
 Hence consumerism has the objective of
protecting all consumers from organizations with
which there may be an exchange relationship.
2/5/2023 Prepared by Dr. Gopal Thapa 15
Consumerism
 As a movement, it attempts to influence the
policies and behaviour of organizations and
groups to minimize the likelihood of detriments
being inflicted on individuals, society or the
environment.
 The values of the movement are based upon
scepticism of the motives of businesses
2/5/2023 Prepared by Dr. Gopal Thapa 16
Consumerism
 There is a belief that businesses are more likely to
maximize their profits than think about issues of
public interest.
 This leads to a large number of individuals
believing that retailers combine with producers to
ensure that they, the consumers, are ‘ripped off’.
2/5/2023 Prepared by Dr. Gopal Thapa 17
Consumerism
 In recent years the consumer has not been passive.
 Consumers have realized their economic power
and have used this to bring about change.
 Consumerism has been used for political ends
with purchasing power being applied to influence
the policies of different governments
2/5/2023 Prepared by Dr. Gopal Thapa 18
Consumerism
 There has been concern over the sale of fur
products, genetically modified foods, or the use of
cheap child labour in developing countries.
 In 1996 a boycott took place related to retailers
sourcing in Burma, a country where the military
regime abused human rights.
2/5/2023 Prepared by Dr. Gopal Thapa 19
Consumerism
 Rights of the consumer
 the right to safety – that there are no hidden
dangers;
 the right to be informed – that there should be
honest communications;
 the right to choose – that there should be real
competition among sellers;
 the right to be heard – that there should be
channels or bodies for complaints.
2/5/2023 Prepared by Dr. Gopal Thapa 20
Consumerism
 The protection of the consumer and supplier is
often represented by pressure groups.
 Consumerism as a movement is often based upon
the activities of a number of pressure groups who
influence government, the media and affect the
values within society
2/5/2023 Prepared by Dr. Gopal Thapa 21
Criticism of the exploitation of
workers
 Western retailers are accused of attempting to make
maximum profits through the exploitation and
manipulation of suppliers in Third World countries.
 Whether it be a fruit farm worker in South Africa, a
toy worker in China or a factory worker in
Bangladesh, Sri Lanka or Pakistan, many are on
subsistence wages;
 some are forced to work unpaid overtime, may be
fired or even beaten if they cannot keep up with the
production schedules
2/5/2023 Prepared by Dr. Gopal Thapa 22
Criticism of marketing activity
 The disregard of the effects of promotion
 An overemphasis on profitable products
 The invasion of privacy
 The waste of resources on retail marketing
 Need for more protection of children
2/5/2023 Prepared by Dr. Gopal Thapa 23
Product Misuse and Safety Issues
 The most dangerous aspect of any purchase
concerns the way the customer uses the product.
 In fact, the most dangerous aspect of any purchase
often relates to the type of consumer utilizing it.
 E.g. Electricappliances, tiles, marbles, gas and
heater , lift etc.
 Such dangers have prompted public policy makers
to urge or insist on safe designs and testing.
2/5/2023 Prepared by Dr. Gopal Thapa 24
Product Misuse and Safety Issues
 However, there is a limit to the precautionary
notes which can be presented on a label and a
manual or leaflet may often be discarded without
due notice to safety hints.
 Consumerism would like greater safety but
individuals may easily misuse products simply
because of the type of user
2/5/2023 Prepared by Dr. Gopal Thapa 25
Product Misuse and Safety Issues
 Types of User
 Enthusiastic users
 Desensitized users
 Hedonistic users
2/5/2023 Prepared by Dr. Gopal Thapa 26
Company should:
 require products to be marked with clear warnings
and instructions;
 issue mandatory standards that may force firms to
redesign products;
 require manufacturers and resellers to notify if
they find a product has a defect that would create a
substantial risk of injury;
 require manufacturers to conduct reasonable
testing programs to make sure the products
conform to established safety standards.
2/5/2023 Prepared by Dr. Gopal Thapa 27
 Green issues
 Finding merchandise which is environmentally
acceptable
2/5/2023 Prepared by Dr. Gopal Thapa 28
 The acceptability of a societal marketing
approach
2/5/2023 Prepared by Dr. Gopal Thapa 29
International Retailing
 International retailing is the management of retail
operations in markets which are different from each
other in their regulation, economic development,
social conditions, cultural environment, and retail
structures.
 Alexander (1997)
 International retailing is the process of a retailer
transferring its retail operations, concept, management
expertise, technology, and/or buying function across
national borders.
 David Gilbertt
2/5/2023 Prepared by Dr. Gopal Thapa 30
International Retailing
 Operations
 Concepts
 Management expertise
 Technology
 Buying
2/5/2023 Prepared by Dr. Gopal Thapa 31
Common market-entry strategies
 acquisition – taking over a retail company already
established in the market;
 joint venture – establishing a company with a partner, most
usually one which is indigenous to the market or has
experience of operating there.
 organic growth – opening new outlets using existing brand
or creating a new brand;
 shareholding – acquiring shares of a retailer already
operating in the chosen market;
 franchise – allowing entrepreneurs to open outlets under a
single brand which are operated under certain controlled
conditions.
Prepared by Dr. Gopal Thapa 32
Factors determining market-entry
strategy
 retail sector
 market conditions/level of competition
 company size/capital
 management culture/philosophy/calibre of staff
 degree of control
 time scale
 capital available
2/5/2023 Prepared by Dr. Gopal Thapa 33

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Consumerism and Ethics in Retailing.ppt

  • 1. Consumerism and Ethics in Retailing Dr. Gopal Thapa Tribhuvan University
  • 2. Three Basic Issues  Consumerism  Corporate Social Responsibility  Ethics 2/5/2023 Prepared by Dr. Gopal Thapa 2
  • 3. Consumerism  Consumerism is organized group pressure, by all consumers, to protect and benefit consumer groups and the environment.  This means it is not solely those consumers buying from a company, it is a broad movement to bring about improved exchange relationships. 2/5/2023 Prepared by Dr. Gopal Thapa 3
  • 4. Corporate Social Responsibility  This is the decision of a firm to conduct its business in the interest of society as a whole as well as its own interests. 2/5/2023 Prepared by Dr. Gopal Thapa 4
  • 5. Ethics  Ethics involves personal decisions on the moral principles of what would be the right or wrong activity for individual employees.  These decisions will be linked to the values and culture of the organization.  Ethical values are the core beliefs and standards such as honesty and fairness that will dictate the stance a company takes in relation to retail marketing. 2/5/2023 Prepared by Dr. Gopal Thapa 5
  • 6. The Different Pressures for a Company to be Socially Responsible  The concept on which to base the ensuring of long-term satisfaction is not a straightforward one.  Consumer satisfaction is linked to aspirations and these may change in relation to political systems, and the products and services other consumers enjoy. 2/5/2023 Prepared by Dr. Gopal Thapa 6
  • 7. The Different Pressures for a Company to be Socially Responsible  Satisfaction is based upon personal concepts of acceptability of the type of products available, the potential to purchase them, and how companies act in the transaction process of creating and supplying products or services.  We often use relative standards when judging the circumstances of a specific action. 2/5/2023 Prepared by Dr. Gopal Thapa 7
  • 8. Corporate Social Responsibility & Business Ethics  Corporate social responsibility relates to the social aspects of the responsibility a company may adopt for its own business operation within the society it serves.  To be corporately responsible, a company would develop and operate economic, stakeholder, or philanthropic policies which were beyond its required legal duties.  Business ethics is the code by which an organization should behave based upon carefully developed rules of moral philosophy. 2/5/2023 Prepared by Dr. Gopal Thapa 8
  • 9. The Different Pressures for a Company to be Socially Responsible  Utilitarianism – which judges not the actions but the consequences of those actions.  If the result is that there is a net increase in the happiness or welfare of society then the action can be believed to be morally right;  Intuitionism – the premise that a decision is right if the individual’s intuition or conscience informs him or her that it is right.  If a person believes his or her motives are good and honest and no other person is harmed by a decision then that decision can be made. 2/5/2023 Prepared by Dr. Gopal Thapa 9
  • 10. The Different Pressures for a Company to be Socially Responsible  Absolute standards are based upon rigid rules which provide clear guidance as to the judgment of whether any action is right or wrong.  As such there is no ambiguity as to what constitutes ethical behavior and no account is taken of the circumstances which may surround the situation.  These standards are based upon religious teachings such as ‘thou shall not lie’ or ‘thou shall not steal’. 2/5/2023 Prepared by Dr. Gopal Thapa 10
  • 11. The Different Pressures for a Company to be Socially Responsible  One major change in the acceptability of the behavior of companies can be traced to the widespread realization that the world needs to have its environment protected  Green issues are creating more awareness of the environment in Western societies.  Pollution due to acid rain, the motor car and leaded petrol, nuclear waste, chemicals in farming and untreated sewage is of topical concern. 2/5/2023 Prepared by Dr. Gopal Thapa 11
  • 12. The Different Pressures for a Company to be Socially Responsible  This has led to the emergence of the ‘green’ consumer who will seek out and buy environmentally friendly products.  The same consumer will expect a retail company to adopt responsible attitudes in terms of the way it carries out its business. 2/5/2023 Prepared by Dr. Gopal Thapa 12
  • 13. The Different Pressures for a Company to be Socially Responsible  This could be related to the organization of waste recycling, energy conservation and some control of the products it stocks or sells.  There is the further concern that financial services institutions should work with acceptable political regimes and provide loans only for ethical business ventures 2/5/2023 Prepared by Dr. Gopal Thapa 13
  • 14. The Different Pressures for a Company to be Socially Responsible  In the late 1990s, various retailers were accused of exploiting workers in developing countries.  The recognition of the power of the consumer, based upon emerging values which deem unethical processes unacceptable, has led companies to adopt more socially responsible policies.  The recognition by different companies of the need to be more aware of the personal values of those in society is primarily due to consumerism. 2/5/2023 Prepared by Dr. Gopal Thapa 14
  • 15. Consumerism  This is organized group pressure which has become a set of values held not only by the consumers of a company’s products but also within the wider society.  Hence consumerism has the objective of protecting all consumers from organizations with which there may be an exchange relationship. 2/5/2023 Prepared by Dr. Gopal Thapa 15
  • 16. Consumerism  As a movement, it attempts to influence the policies and behaviour of organizations and groups to minimize the likelihood of detriments being inflicted on individuals, society or the environment.  The values of the movement are based upon scepticism of the motives of businesses 2/5/2023 Prepared by Dr. Gopal Thapa 16
  • 17. Consumerism  There is a belief that businesses are more likely to maximize their profits than think about issues of public interest.  This leads to a large number of individuals believing that retailers combine with producers to ensure that they, the consumers, are ‘ripped off’. 2/5/2023 Prepared by Dr. Gopal Thapa 17
  • 18. Consumerism  In recent years the consumer has not been passive.  Consumers have realized their economic power and have used this to bring about change.  Consumerism has been used for political ends with purchasing power being applied to influence the policies of different governments 2/5/2023 Prepared by Dr. Gopal Thapa 18
  • 19. Consumerism  There has been concern over the sale of fur products, genetically modified foods, or the use of cheap child labour in developing countries.  In 1996 a boycott took place related to retailers sourcing in Burma, a country where the military regime abused human rights. 2/5/2023 Prepared by Dr. Gopal Thapa 19
  • 20. Consumerism  Rights of the consumer  the right to safety – that there are no hidden dangers;  the right to be informed – that there should be honest communications;  the right to choose – that there should be real competition among sellers;  the right to be heard – that there should be channels or bodies for complaints. 2/5/2023 Prepared by Dr. Gopal Thapa 20
  • 21. Consumerism  The protection of the consumer and supplier is often represented by pressure groups.  Consumerism as a movement is often based upon the activities of a number of pressure groups who influence government, the media and affect the values within society 2/5/2023 Prepared by Dr. Gopal Thapa 21
  • 22. Criticism of the exploitation of workers  Western retailers are accused of attempting to make maximum profits through the exploitation and manipulation of suppliers in Third World countries.  Whether it be a fruit farm worker in South Africa, a toy worker in China or a factory worker in Bangladesh, Sri Lanka or Pakistan, many are on subsistence wages;  some are forced to work unpaid overtime, may be fired or even beaten if they cannot keep up with the production schedules 2/5/2023 Prepared by Dr. Gopal Thapa 22
  • 23. Criticism of marketing activity  The disregard of the effects of promotion  An overemphasis on profitable products  The invasion of privacy  The waste of resources on retail marketing  Need for more protection of children 2/5/2023 Prepared by Dr. Gopal Thapa 23
  • 24. Product Misuse and Safety Issues  The most dangerous aspect of any purchase concerns the way the customer uses the product.  In fact, the most dangerous aspect of any purchase often relates to the type of consumer utilizing it.  E.g. Electricappliances, tiles, marbles, gas and heater , lift etc.  Such dangers have prompted public policy makers to urge or insist on safe designs and testing. 2/5/2023 Prepared by Dr. Gopal Thapa 24
  • 25. Product Misuse and Safety Issues  However, there is a limit to the precautionary notes which can be presented on a label and a manual or leaflet may often be discarded without due notice to safety hints.  Consumerism would like greater safety but individuals may easily misuse products simply because of the type of user 2/5/2023 Prepared by Dr. Gopal Thapa 25
  • 26. Product Misuse and Safety Issues  Types of User  Enthusiastic users  Desensitized users  Hedonistic users 2/5/2023 Prepared by Dr. Gopal Thapa 26
  • 27. Company should:  require products to be marked with clear warnings and instructions;  issue mandatory standards that may force firms to redesign products;  require manufacturers and resellers to notify if they find a product has a defect that would create a substantial risk of injury;  require manufacturers to conduct reasonable testing programs to make sure the products conform to established safety standards. 2/5/2023 Prepared by Dr. Gopal Thapa 27
  • 28.  Green issues  Finding merchandise which is environmentally acceptable 2/5/2023 Prepared by Dr. Gopal Thapa 28
  • 29.  The acceptability of a societal marketing approach 2/5/2023 Prepared by Dr. Gopal Thapa 29
  • 30. International Retailing  International retailing is the management of retail operations in markets which are different from each other in their regulation, economic development, social conditions, cultural environment, and retail structures.  Alexander (1997)  International retailing is the process of a retailer transferring its retail operations, concept, management expertise, technology, and/or buying function across national borders.  David Gilbertt 2/5/2023 Prepared by Dr. Gopal Thapa 30
  • 31. International Retailing  Operations  Concepts  Management expertise  Technology  Buying 2/5/2023 Prepared by Dr. Gopal Thapa 31
  • 32. Common market-entry strategies  acquisition – taking over a retail company already established in the market;  joint venture – establishing a company with a partner, most usually one which is indigenous to the market or has experience of operating there.  organic growth – opening new outlets using existing brand or creating a new brand;  shareholding – acquiring shares of a retailer already operating in the chosen market;  franchise – allowing entrepreneurs to open outlets under a single brand which are operated under certain controlled conditions. Prepared by Dr. Gopal Thapa 32
  • 33. Factors determining market-entry strategy  retail sector  market conditions/level of competition  company size/capital  management culture/philosophy/calibre of staff  degree of control  time scale  capital available 2/5/2023 Prepared by Dr. Gopal Thapa 33