2. Types of Communication
Communication in organization can be studied
A. Channel or Network – 1)Formal and 2)
B. Direction of Message 1) Downward (2)
Upward 3) Horizontal 4)Diagonal
C. Method of Expression :1)Oral
3. Channels of Communication
Formal Communication – It refers to the
official communication which takes place
following the chain of command in the
4. Advantages of Formal Communication
1)Orderly Flow of Information
4)Answerability for Actions
5)Justification of authority
7. Grapevine has the following features
1.It transmits in every direction
2.Grapevine is selective with regard to the
person who receives the information.
3.Grapevine is based on people rather than
4.Grapevine does not follow a fixed pattern.
8. 5)Grapevine generally occurs orally.
6)Grapevine extends beyond the formal
hierarchy system of an organization. It can
occur off the job.
9. Channels of Communication
Advantages of Informal Communication
5)Better Human Relations
22. Merits of Horizontal communication
It speeds up the flow of work in the organization
It facilitates problem-solving among members at
the same level and brings about co-ordination.
It helps in reviewing activities assigned to people
working at identical positions.
It develops mutual trust and confidence.
It relieves top managers burden of solving
problems of lower levels.
23. Limitations of Horizontal
1.Managers lack knowledge of other
2.Personal likes and dislikes among different
work group can obstruct free flow of
3. Differences in perception and attitudes of
functional heads can be counter – productive
in horizontal communication.