Apush review-key-terms-people-and-events-specifically-mentioned-in-the-new-curriculum-part-1-ppt

Sandra Waters
Sandra WatersLead Teacher, Instructional Leader at North Carolina Virtual Public School em North Carolina Virtual Public School
APUSH REVIEW: KEY TERMS,
PEOPLE, AND EVENTS
SPECIFICALLY MENTIONED IN THE
NEW CURRICULUM!
PART 1: 1491 - 1877
PERIODS 1 - 5 (50% OF THE NEW CURRICULUM)
If it’s BOLD, KNOW it!
Period 1 Overview (1491 -
1607)
Test structure:
Period 1 is roughly 5% of the exam:
You will NOT see an essay exclusively on this period
You could see a topic that incorporates this period as part of a
broader idea
For example - Experiences of European countries in America
Why was 1491 - 1607 chosen for the dates?
1491 = 1 year prior to European contact
1607 = first permanent English settlement - Jamestown
Much of the focus of this period is on Native life PRIOR to contact, and
interactions between Natives, Africans, and Europeans (Columbian
Exchange)
Period 1: 1491 - 1607
Maize - corn, grown by Natives in the SW US and Mexico
Great Plains and Great Basin - lack of resources, led to nomadic
lifestyles
Columbian Exchange - exchange of goods, ideas, diseases, and
people between Europe, Africa, and the Americas
Impact on Americas - diseases impacted Natives, guns and horses
transformed Native life, racially mixed populations (Mestizos)
Impact on Europe - potatoes and maize led to large population
growth, increase in capitalism
Impact on Africa - Slave trade - Middle Passage (Spanish and
Portuguese in West Africa)
Period 1: 1491 - 1607
Encomienda System - royal grants of land by the
Spanish Crown to settlers
Settlers promised to Christianize Natives
Eventually was replaced with African slave labor
Autonomy - independence, self-rule
Africans and Natives sought to preserve their
autonomy after contact with Europeans
Period 2 Overview (1607 -
1754)
Test structure:
Period 2 is roughly 10% of the exam:
Essay topics could include:
Comparing and Contrasting European powers
Characteristics of British colonies
Why was 1607 - 1754 chosen for the dates?
1607 = first permanent English settlement - Jamestown
1754 = Beginning of the Seven Years War
This time period continues to focus on European colonization,
with England representing a significant amount of focus
Period 2: 1607 - 1754
New England Colonies:
Established by Puritans - like-minded community, mix of agriculture and
commerce
Middle Colonies:
Cereal crops - religiously, demographically, and ethnically diverse
Chesapeake Colonies: (Maryland and Virginia)
Grew tobacco
Relied on indentured servants, and later African slaves
Southern Colonies and West Indies:
Grew staple crops (sugar), heavy use of slave labor
Africans made up a majority of the population in some areas
Period 2: 1607 - 1754
Pueblo Revolt:
Native American rebellion in SW portion of US
Spanish sought to end Native practices that were inconsistent with
Christianity
The Pueblos rebelled, expelled Spanish for over 10 years
Eventually, the Spanish regained control, began to advocate the
religious assimilation of Natives
Anglicization of the British Colonies:
Process of colonies “becoming” or taking on British characteristics
Seen through: trans-Atlantic print culture, commercial ties, etc.
Period 2: 1607 - 1754
Enlightenment:
Focus on reason and intelligence
Individuals began to question forms of government
Montesquieu - Separation or Powers, Locke - Consent
of the Governed
Mercantilism:
Goal is to make $ for the mother country
Positive balance of trade that favors the mother country
Period 3 Overview (1754 -
1800)
Test structure:
Period 3 is roughly 12% of the exam:
Essays could be on The 7 Years War as a turning point, the American
Revolution, Comparing and Contrasting the Articles and Constitution
Why was 1754 - 1800 chosen for the dates?
1754 = Beginning of the Seven Years War
1800 = Jefferson’s election
This time period focuses on the shift in the relationship between the
British and the Colonists, which culminates in the American Revolution
Additionally, the structure of American government is a focus with the
Articles of Confederation and Constitution
Period 3: 1754 - 1800
Seven Years’ War:
Fought between the British/colonists and the French/Natives
Britain won, France is removed from North America
WATERSHED event - Britain ends salutary neglect, begins to tax colonies -
> colonial resistance
Be able to identify/explain two new taxes, and the colonists’ response
Stamp Act -> Stamp Act Congress -> Repeal of Stamp Act ->
Declaratory Act
T-Paine’s Common Sense:
Enlightenment thinker, urged the colonists to break away from Great
Britain
Period 3: 1754 - 1800
Declaration of Independence:
Written by Jefferson, Adams, and Franklin, inspired by
Common Sense and Enlightenment thinkers (Locke)
List of grievances against KG3
Colonial War for Independence:
US won in spite of: loyalist opposition, military and
financial advantages by Great Britain; because of -
support from Europe (France), ideological
commitment
Period 3: 1754 - 1800
Articles of Confederation:
Created a very weak central government:
Could not tax, no national military, 9 out of 13 states to
pass laws, all 13 required to amend Articles
Northwest Land Ordinance:
Process for admitting states into the Union (60,000
inhabitants)
Outlawed slavery in the Northwest Territory
Established public education
Period 3: 1754 - 1800
Constitution:
Based on Federalism and Separation of Powers
Prevents one branch/ level of government from abusing its power
Series of Compromises with limits on national powers
Great Compromise - established a bicameral legislature, one house based on population,
one had equal representation per state (Senate)
3/5 Compromise - 60% of slaves would count as population towards representation
Slave Trade Compromise - outlawed the international slave trade after 1808
The Constitution did not deal with slavery - postponed a solution to the problems of
slavery
Bill of Rights:
Added AFTER the Constitutional Convention
Guarantees rights - satisfied the Anti-federalists to ratify the Constitution
Period 3: 1754 - 1800
Impact of the ideals of the Declaration of
Independence and American Revolution?
French Revolution:
Inspired by Enlightenment ideas as well
Helped lead to divisions between Jefferson and
Hamilton
Haiti and Latin America experienced rebellions as
well
Period 3: 1754 - 1800
George Washington’s Farewell Address warned
against:
Foreign Alliances
Political Parties
Tensions with Britain and France helped lead to
political parties
After WWII (Period 8), the US entered into peace time
alliances
Period 3: 1754 - 1800
“Republican Motherhood”
Encouraged women to raise children and instill
republican values in their families
Women gained more access to education
Period 4 Overview (1800 -
1848)
Test structure:
Period 4 is roughly 10% of the exam:
Essay topics could include:
Reform movements inspired by the 2nd Great Awakening
Westward Expansion and impact on slavery
Impact of Market Revolution on regions of the US
Why was 1800 - 1848 chosen for the dates?
1800 = Jefferson’s election
1848 = Seneca Falls Convention - Women’s Rights Convention
This time period focuses on the Market Revolution, the increase in
democracy, and several reforms inspired by the Second Great Awakening
Period 4: 1800 - 1848
Federalists and Democratic-Republicans:
First political parties, formed in response to Hamilton’s Financial Plan, French
Revolution
Federalists tended to be upper-class, advocate a loose interpretation of the
Constitution, were pro-British (trade), favored merchants, and liked the BUS
Democratic-Republicans tended to be commoners - middle-class, advocate a strict
interpretation (pre LA Purchase), were pro-French (Rev. War), favored farmers, and
disliked the BUS
Democrats and Whigs:
2nd Party System - Whigs were formed in response to “King Andrew I”
Democrats tended to be the party of the “Common Man”, favored universal, white
male suffrage, Spoils System, wanted to lower tariffs
Whigs tended to favor tariffs, a strong Congress, BUS, and internal improvements
Period 4: 1800 - 1848
Louisiana Purchase: Beginning of Manifest Destiny
Doubled the size of the US
Jefferson switched from strict to loose interpretation
The Supreme Court in the early 19th Century:
Helped assert federal power over state laws and determined the meaning of the
Constitution
Gibbons v. Ogden - Supreme Court ruled that the federal government, NOT states controlled
interstate trade
Slavery:
Defended in the South, seen as a “positive good”
Second Great Awakening
Inspired many to achieve perfection
Focused on secular reforms, especially abolitionism and women’s rights - Seneca Falls
Xenophobia - fear of foreigners (similar to nativism)
Period 4: 1800 - 1848
Textile Machinery - spinning Jenny
Steam engines - allowed boats to go AGAINST the current
Interchangeable Parts - Eli Whitney - increased production
of goods
Canals - Erie, increase in shipping
Railroads - especially in the 1840s, faster shipment of
goods and people
Telegraph - spread of information more quickly
Agricultural Inventions - steel plow, McCormick reaper
Period 4: 1800 - 1848
American System:
Henry Clay!’s system, sought to unify the national economy
3 parts: Bank of US, Tariffs which would fund, internal improvements
Connected the North and Midwest more than the South
Migrants from Europe:
Irish settled in cities, Germans on the frontier as farmers
Settled in the East and Midwest
Led to interdependence between the Northeast and Old Northwest
Market Revolution:
Transformation in how goods were produced - more outside the home; an
increase in technology and transportation as well
Period 4: 1800 - 1848
National Bank, Tariffs, and Internal Improvements
Major political issues, regional interests trumped national concerns
Federal government attempts to assert authority over states brought resistance
Hartford Convention, Nullification Crisis
Missouri Compromise (Compromise of 1820)
Tallmadge Amendment - Never passed; proposed the gradual emancipation of
slaves in MO
3 parts: MO added as a slave state, ME added as a free state, 36°30’ - above free,
below slave
# of free and slave states were equal at 12
Short-term solution, eventually, the Compromise broke down (Kansas-Nebraska
Act, Dred Scott)
Period 5 Overview (1844 -
1877)
Test structure:
Period 5 is roughly 13% of the exam
Essay topics could include:
Change and Continuity for African Americans
The Civil War and Reconstruction as turning points
Why was 1844 - 1877 chosen for the dates?
1844 = Election of James K. Polk
1877 = End of Reconstruction
This time period analyzes the causes for, and impacts of Manifest
Destiny including tensions, the Civil War, and ultimately, the end of
Reconstruction in 1877
Period 5: 1844 - 1877
Manifest Destiny:
Belief that it was the US’ God-given right to expand
Built on a belief in white racial superiority and American cultural
superiority
Many political debates were focused on this issue:
1844 election - Clay v. Polk
Mexican-American War:
US won, gained the Mexican Cession -> led to controversy over
slavery in the territories
Wilmot Proviso - proposed that slavery would be banned in al land
gained from Mexican Cession
Period 5: 1844 - 1877
Asia:
US sought to expand trade to other areas
Matthew Perry in Japan
Influx of “Old immigrants” - prior to the Civil War, led to:
A nativist movement
Anti-Catholic
Hoped to limit the power of the immigrants
Know-Nothing Party
Period 5: 1844 - 1877
New legislation promoting national development
During and after the Civil War
Homestead Act - 160 acres of land - encouraged westward settlement
Morill Land Grant - sold land and provided $ for colleges
Abolitionists:
Small portion of the North, although were highly visible
Used many methods against slavery, including:
Fierce arguments - William Lloyd Garrison - The Liberator
Helping slaves runaway - Underground RR
Violence - John Brown
How was slavery defended in the South?
As a “Positive Good” - John C. Calhoun
Racist Stereotyping - “Jim Crow” Minstrel Shows
Period 5: 1844 - 1877
Proposals to resolve the issue of slavery:
Compromise of 1850:
Created to address the land from the Mexican Cession
The country was on the brink of war
5 parts:
Popular Sovereignty in Mexican Cession; a new, more strict Fugitive Slave
Law; Slave trade in D.C. was abolished; California was admitted to the
Union as a free state - tipped the balance in favor of free states; Texas was
paid $ to give up claims to bordering states
Impacts of Compromise?
North detested the Fugitive Slave Law - helped increase the abolitionist
movement and non-enforcement of the law (essentially nullification)
Period 5: 1844 - 1877
Proposals to resolve the issue of slavery:
Kansas-Nebraska Act
Steven Douglas (D-IL) sought to build a RR through the
Nebraska territory
He proposed this act, which would allow for popular
sovereignty in Kansas and Nebraska
The expectation was that Kansas would be slave, Nebraska
would be free
Overturned the Missouri Compromise of 1820
Voters turn out in full force in Kansas -> “Bleeding Kansas”
Period 5: 1844 - 1877
Proposals to resolve the issue of slavery:
Dred Scott
1857 Supreme Court Case that sought to settle the slavery question
in territories
The court ruled that:
African Americans were not citizens and could not sue in court
Slaves were property, could not be taken without “due process”
The Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional and that Congress
could not regulate slavery in the territories
The North was furious, increased tensions between North and South
Period 5: 1844 - 1877
The Republican Party:
Started as a sectional party in the North and Midwest
Made up of many former Whigs
The Election of 1860:
Lincoln ran on a free-soil platform
This did not mean slavery would end, rather he opposed the
extension of slavery
Impact of this election?
Immediate cause of Southern Secession, and ultimately the
Civil War
Period 5: 1844 - 1877
The Civil War:
Emancipation Proclamation - freed slaves in areas of rebellion
Impacts?
Changed the purpose of the war
Increase in black soldiers joining the military
Helped keep Europe from aiding the South
Could be compared with the Gettysburg Address, or the 13th Amendment
Why did the North win?
Military Leadership (Grant and Sherman), Effective Strategies (Anaconda
Plan, March to the Sea), Key Victories (Antietam), More resources and people
Period 5: 1844 - 1877
13th Amendment:
1865, abolished slavery
South tried to get around it with sharecropping:
 Freedmen worked on farms and exchanged labor for using land and housing
 Half of their crops were typically given to the land owner
 Sharecroppers had to borrow $ to get started
 Local stores gave loans at high rates (crop lien system)
Radical Republicans - Thaddeus Stevens, Charles Sumner
Sought to increase power in the South and increase rights for African Americans
They were not successful because:
Reconstruction ended in the Compromise of 1877
The North’s waning resolve to assist African Americans
Period 5: 1844 - 1877
14th Amendment:
Granted citizenship to African Americans and those born in the US
Provided equal protection of the laws
15th Amendment:
Provided suffrage for ALL adult males
Impact of these amendments on Women’s Rights Groups?
They were split
Some favored providing suffrage for blacks PRIOR to suffrage for
women
Others, did not support it unless women were granted suffrage as well
Period 5: 1844 - 1877
Other impacts of the amendments?
Rights were stripped away from African Americans over time
through:
Segregation - Jim Crow (upheld by Supreme Court cases
such as Plessy v. Ferguson’s “separate but equal”)
Violence - KKK and the White League, lynching
Local political tactics - poll taxes, literacy tests,
grandfather clauses
In the future (Period 8), these amendments will be used to
uphold civil rights
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Apush review-key-terms-people-and-events-specifically-mentioned-in-the-new-curriculum-part-1-ppt

  • 1. APUSH REVIEW: KEY TERMS, PEOPLE, AND EVENTS SPECIFICALLY MENTIONED IN THE NEW CURRICULUM! PART 1: 1491 - 1877 PERIODS 1 - 5 (50% OF THE NEW CURRICULUM) If it’s BOLD, KNOW it!
  • 2. Period 1 Overview (1491 - 1607) Test structure: Period 1 is roughly 5% of the exam: You will NOT see an essay exclusively on this period You could see a topic that incorporates this period as part of a broader idea For example - Experiences of European countries in America Why was 1491 - 1607 chosen for the dates? 1491 = 1 year prior to European contact 1607 = first permanent English settlement - Jamestown Much of the focus of this period is on Native life PRIOR to contact, and interactions between Natives, Africans, and Europeans (Columbian Exchange)
  • 3. Period 1: 1491 - 1607 Maize - corn, grown by Natives in the SW US and Mexico Great Plains and Great Basin - lack of resources, led to nomadic lifestyles Columbian Exchange - exchange of goods, ideas, diseases, and people between Europe, Africa, and the Americas Impact on Americas - diseases impacted Natives, guns and horses transformed Native life, racially mixed populations (Mestizos) Impact on Europe - potatoes and maize led to large population growth, increase in capitalism Impact on Africa - Slave trade - Middle Passage (Spanish and Portuguese in West Africa)
  • 4. Period 1: 1491 - 1607 Encomienda System - royal grants of land by the Spanish Crown to settlers Settlers promised to Christianize Natives Eventually was replaced with African slave labor Autonomy - independence, self-rule Africans and Natives sought to preserve their autonomy after contact with Europeans
  • 5. Period 2 Overview (1607 - 1754) Test structure: Period 2 is roughly 10% of the exam: Essay topics could include: Comparing and Contrasting European powers Characteristics of British colonies Why was 1607 - 1754 chosen for the dates? 1607 = first permanent English settlement - Jamestown 1754 = Beginning of the Seven Years War This time period continues to focus on European colonization, with England representing a significant amount of focus
  • 6. Period 2: 1607 - 1754 New England Colonies: Established by Puritans - like-minded community, mix of agriculture and commerce Middle Colonies: Cereal crops - religiously, demographically, and ethnically diverse Chesapeake Colonies: (Maryland and Virginia) Grew tobacco Relied on indentured servants, and later African slaves Southern Colonies and West Indies: Grew staple crops (sugar), heavy use of slave labor Africans made up a majority of the population in some areas
  • 7. Period 2: 1607 - 1754 Pueblo Revolt: Native American rebellion in SW portion of US Spanish sought to end Native practices that were inconsistent with Christianity The Pueblos rebelled, expelled Spanish for over 10 years Eventually, the Spanish regained control, began to advocate the religious assimilation of Natives Anglicization of the British Colonies: Process of colonies “becoming” or taking on British characteristics Seen through: trans-Atlantic print culture, commercial ties, etc.
  • 8. Period 2: 1607 - 1754 Enlightenment: Focus on reason and intelligence Individuals began to question forms of government Montesquieu - Separation or Powers, Locke - Consent of the Governed Mercantilism: Goal is to make $ for the mother country Positive balance of trade that favors the mother country
  • 9. Period 3 Overview (1754 - 1800) Test structure: Period 3 is roughly 12% of the exam: Essays could be on The 7 Years War as a turning point, the American Revolution, Comparing and Contrasting the Articles and Constitution Why was 1754 - 1800 chosen for the dates? 1754 = Beginning of the Seven Years War 1800 = Jefferson’s election This time period focuses on the shift in the relationship between the British and the Colonists, which culminates in the American Revolution Additionally, the structure of American government is a focus with the Articles of Confederation and Constitution
  • 10. Period 3: 1754 - 1800 Seven Years’ War: Fought between the British/colonists and the French/Natives Britain won, France is removed from North America WATERSHED event - Britain ends salutary neglect, begins to tax colonies - > colonial resistance Be able to identify/explain two new taxes, and the colonists’ response Stamp Act -> Stamp Act Congress -> Repeal of Stamp Act -> Declaratory Act T-Paine’s Common Sense: Enlightenment thinker, urged the colonists to break away from Great Britain
  • 11. Period 3: 1754 - 1800 Declaration of Independence: Written by Jefferson, Adams, and Franklin, inspired by Common Sense and Enlightenment thinkers (Locke) List of grievances against KG3 Colonial War for Independence: US won in spite of: loyalist opposition, military and financial advantages by Great Britain; because of - support from Europe (France), ideological commitment
  • 12. Period 3: 1754 - 1800 Articles of Confederation: Created a very weak central government: Could not tax, no national military, 9 out of 13 states to pass laws, all 13 required to amend Articles Northwest Land Ordinance: Process for admitting states into the Union (60,000 inhabitants) Outlawed slavery in the Northwest Territory Established public education
  • 13. Period 3: 1754 - 1800 Constitution: Based on Federalism and Separation of Powers Prevents one branch/ level of government from abusing its power Series of Compromises with limits on national powers Great Compromise - established a bicameral legislature, one house based on population, one had equal representation per state (Senate) 3/5 Compromise - 60% of slaves would count as population towards representation Slave Trade Compromise - outlawed the international slave trade after 1808 The Constitution did not deal with slavery - postponed a solution to the problems of slavery Bill of Rights: Added AFTER the Constitutional Convention Guarantees rights - satisfied the Anti-federalists to ratify the Constitution
  • 14. Period 3: 1754 - 1800 Impact of the ideals of the Declaration of Independence and American Revolution? French Revolution: Inspired by Enlightenment ideas as well Helped lead to divisions between Jefferson and Hamilton Haiti and Latin America experienced rebellions as well
  • 15. Period 3: 1754 - 1800 George Washington’s Farewell Address warned against: Foreign Alliances Political Parties Tensions with Britain and France helped lead to political parties After WWII (Period 8), the US entered into peace time alliances
  • 16. Period 3: 1754 - 1800 “Republican Motherhood” Encouraged women to raise children and instill republican values in their families Women gained more access to education
  • 17. Period 4 Overview (1800 - 1848) Test structure: Period 4 is roughly 10% of the exam: Essay topics could include: Reform movements inspired by the 2nd Great Awakening Westward Expansion and impact on slavery Impact of Market Revolution on regions of the US Why was 1800 - 1848 chosen for the dates? 1800 = Jefferson’s election 1848 = Seneca Falls Convention - Women’s Rights Convention This time period focuses on the Market Revolution, the increase in democracy, and several reforms inspired by the Second Great Awakening
  • 18. Period 4: 1800 - 1848 Federalists and Democratic-Republicans: First political parties, formed in response to Hamilton’s Financial Plan, French Revolution Federalists tended to be upper-class, advocate a loose interpretation of the Constitution, were pro-British (trade), favored merchants, and liked the BUS Democratic-Republicans tended to be commoners - middle-class, advocate a strict interpretation (pre LA Purchase), were pro-French (Rev. War), favored farmers, and disliked the BUS Democrats and Whigs: 2nd Party System - Whigs were formed in response to “King Andrew I” Democrats tended to be the party of the “Common Man”, favored universal, white male suffrage, Spoils System, wanted to lower tariffs Whigs tended to favor tariffs, a strong Congress, BUS, and internal improvements
  • 19. Period 4: 1800 - 1848 Louisiana Purchase: Beginning of Manifest Destiny Doubled the size of the US Jefferson switched from strict to loose interpretation The Supreme Court in the early 19th Century: Helped assert federal power over state laws and determined the meaning of the Constitution Gibbons v. Ogden - Supreme Court ruled that the federal government, NOT states controlled interstate trade Slavery: Defended in the South, seen as a “positive good” Second Great Awakening Inspired many to achieve perfection Focused on secular reforms, especially abolitionism and women’s rights - Seneca Falls Xenophobia - fear of foreigners (similar to nativism)
  • 20. Period 4: 1800 - 1848 Textile Machinery - spinning Jenny Steam engines - allowed boats to go AGAINST the current Interchangeable Parts - Eli Whitney - increased production of goods Canals - Erie, increase in shipping Railroads - especially in the 1840s, faster shipment of goods and people Telegraph - spread of information more quickly Agricultural Inventions - steel plow, McCormick reaper
  • 21. Period 4: 1800 - 1848 American System: Henry Clay!’s system, sought to unify the national economy 3 parts: Bank of US, Tariffs which would fund, internal improvements Connected the North and Midwest more than the South Migrants from Europe: Irish settled in cities, Germans on the frontier as farmers Settled in the East and Midwest Led to interdependence between the Northeast and Old Northwest Market Revolution: Transformation in how goods were produced - more outside the home; an increase in technology and transportation as well
  • 22. Period 4: 1800 - 1848 National Bank, Tariffs, and Internal Improvements Major political issues, regional interests trumped national concerns Federal government attempts to assert authority over states brought resistance Hartford Convention, Nullification Crisis Missouri Compromise (Compromise of 1820) Tallmadge Amendment - Never passed; proposed the gradual emancipation of slaves in MO 3 parts: MO added as a slave state, ME added as a free state, 36°30’ - above free, below slave # of free and slave states were equal at 12 Short-term solution, eventually, the Compromise broke down (Kansas-Nebraska Act, Dred Scott)
  • 23. Period 5 Overview (1844 - 1877) Test structure: Period 5 is roughly 13% of the exam Essay topics could include: Change and Continuity for African Americans The Civil War and Reconstruction as turning points Why was 1844 - 1877 chosen for the dates? 1844 = Election of James K. Polk 1877 = End of Reconstruction This time period analyzes the causes for, and impacts of Manifest Destiny including tensions, the Civil War, and ultimately, the end of Reconstruction in 1877
  • 24. Period 5: 1844 - 1877 Manifest Destiny: Belief that it was the US’ God-given right to expand Built on a belief in white racial superiority and American cultural superiority Many political debates were focused on this issue: 1844 election - Clay v. Polk Mexican-American War: US won, gained the Mexican Cession -> led to controversy over slavery in the territories Wilmot Proviso - proposed that slavery would be banned in al land gained from Mexican Cession
  • 25. Period 5: 1844 - 1877 Asia: US sought to expand trade to other areas Matthew Perry in Japan Influx of “Old immigrants” - prior to the Civil War, led to: A nativist movement Anti-Catholic Hoped to limit the power of the immigrants Know-Nothing Party
  • 26. Period 5: 1844 - 1877 New legislation promoting national development During and after the Civil War Homestead Act - 160 acres of land - encouraged westward settlement Morill Land Grant - sold land and provided $ for colleges Abolitionists: Small portion of the North, although were highly visible Used many methods against slavery, including: Fierce arguments - William Lloyd Garrison - The Liberator Helping slaves runaway - Underground RR Violence - John Brown How was slavery defended in the South? As a “Positive Good” - John C. Calhoun Racist Stereotyping - “Jim Crow” Minstrel Shows
  • 27. Period 5: 1844 - 1877 Proposals to resolve the issue of slavery: Compromise of 1850: Created to address the land from the Mexican Cession The country was on the brink of war 5 parts: Popular Sovereignty in Mexican Cession; a new, more strict Fugitive Slave Law; Slave trade in D.C. was abolished; California was admitted to the Union as a free state - tipped the balance in favor of free states; Texas was paid $ to give up claims to bordering states Impacts of Compromise? North detested the Fugitive Slave Law - helped increase the abolitionist movement and non-enforcement of the law (essentially nullification)
  • 28. Period 5: 1844 - 1877 Proposals to resolve the issue of slavery: Kansas-Nebraska Act Steven Douglas (D-IL) sought to build a RR through the Nebraska territory He proposed this act, which would allow for popular sovereignty in Kansas and Nebraska The expectation was that Kansas would be slave, Nebraska would be free Overturned the Missouri Compromise of 1820 Voters turn out in full force in Kansas -> “Bleeding Kansas”
  • 29. Period 5: 1844 - 1877 Proposals to resolve the issue of slavery: Dred Scott 1857 Supreme Court Case that sought to settle the slavery question in territories The court ruled that: African Americans were not citizens and could not sue in court Slaves were property, could not be taken without “due process” The Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional and that Congress could not regulate slavery in the territories The North was furious, increased tensions between North and South
  • 30. Period 5: 1844 - 1877 The Republican Party: Started as a sectional party in the North and Midwest Made up of many former Whigs The Election of 1860: Lincoln ran on a free-soil platform This did not mean slavery would end, rather he opposed the extension of slavery Impact of this election? Immediate cause of Southern Secession, and ultimately the Civil War
  • 31. Period 5: 1844 - 1877 The Civil War: Emancipation Proclamation - freed slaves in areas of rebellion Impacts? Changed the purpose of the war Increase in black soldiers joining the military Helped keep Europe from aiding the South Could be compared with the Gettysburg Address, or the 13th Amendment Why did the North win? Military Leadership (Grant and Sherman), Effective Strategies (Anaconda Plan, March to the Sea), Key Victories (Antietam), More resources and people
  • 32. Period 5: 1844 - 1877 13th Amendment: 1865, abolished slavery South tried to get around it with sharecropping:  Freedmen worked on farms and exchanged labor for using land and housing  Half of their crops were typically given to the land owner  Sharecroppers had to borrow $ to get started  Local stores gave loans at high rates (crop lien system) Radical Republicans - Thaddeus Stevens, Charles Sumner Sought to increase power in the South and increase rights for African Americans They were not successful because: Reconstruction ended in the Compromise of 1877 The North’s waning resolve to assist African Americans
  • 33. Period 5: 1844 - 1877 14th Amendment: Granted citizenship to African Americans and those born in the US Provided equal protection of the laws 15th Amendment: Provided suffrage for ALL adult males Impact of these amendments on Women’s Rights Groups? They were split Some favored providing suffrage for blacks PRIOR to suffrage for women Others, did not support it unless women were granted suffrage as well
  • 34. Period 5: 1844 - 1877 Other impacts of the amendments? Rights were stripped away from African Americans over time through: Segregation - Jim Crow (upheld by Supreme Court cases such as Plessy v. Ferguson’s “separate but equal”) Violence - KKK and the White League, lynching Local political tactics - poll taxes, literacy tests, grandfather clauses In the future (Period 8), these amendments will be used to uphold civil rights