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LOL Diagram Notes.ppt

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LOL Diagram Notes.ppt

  1. 1. LOL Diagrams How to represent the role of energy in physical change © Modeling Instruction in Chemistry
  2. 2. Constructing an LOL Diagram Consider this example A cup of hot coffee cools as it sits on the table.  1. Determine what is in the system  Everything else makes up the surroundings cup coffee
  3. 3. Decide whether Ech is involved  In this case, you start with coffee and end with coffee; particles are not rearranged to form new substances  So, ignore Ech for now.
  4. 4. Assign values to Eph  Due to interactions between particles, the energy stored due to the arrangement of particles is ranked: solids < liquids < gases  We choose to represent these phases by using:  Solids = 1 box  Liquids = 2 boxes  Gases = 4 boxes
  5. 5. Assign values to Eph  Use two Eph bars before and after cup coffee
  6. 6. Choose bars for Eth depending on temperature  Use 4 bars for hot coffee and 2 bars for room temp coffee  Other values might also work; try to be consistent in your representations cup coffee
  7. 7. Now show energy transfer  Final situation has 2 less bars of E than initial; 2 bars had to leave the system
  8. 8. Now, consider phase change  A tray of ice cubes (-8 ˚C) is placed on the counter and becomes water at room temperature  What do we know about the situation?  The system is the tray of ice cubes.  The solid water turns to liquid water - no change in Ech  The Eph increases (solidliquid)  The Eth increases (temp rises)  Now represent these changes in bar graph.
  9. 9. Initial & Final States  A tray of ice cubes (-8 ˚C) is placed on the counter and becomes water at room temperature
  10. 10. A tray of ice cubes (-8 ˚C) is placed on the counter and becomes water at room temperature Tray of ice 5 – 3 = 2 NOTE: Since the ice does not chemically change while melting we need to keep the Ech the same, other numbers of boxes can work as long as it is the same from initial to final.
  11. 11. Notes to keep in mind:  We only use whole boxes.  We must have at least one box in each section, even for chemical energy.  If the chemical energy is not changing then just keep it the same in both diagrams.  It is always final – initial when determining length of the arrows.  If it is negative it should point out of the circle.  If it is positive it should point into the circle.

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