• What is the reason why we write manuscripts?
• What is a manuscript?
• Before we start to write…
• Structure of manuscripts
• Before we send a manuscript to the editor…
• Evaluation process
• After the manuscript has been accepted for publication
•More information (plagiarism, what is the impact factor, h-
3. Data Knowledge
Sharing of information
• Articles are considered tools used for sharing of R&D information,
thus being a means of progress in diverse spheres of research
carried out by experts.
• From the practical point of view, articles represent a tool to
measure the “scientific performance”.
What Is the Reason Why We Write Research Articles?
4. Article in a Research Journal
• Full articles/Original articles
The most important article type – includes significant research results.
The number of pages is usually 10-25.
• Letters/Rapid Communications/Short Communications
Include important information, advances in the relevant field. Usually
published in a shortened publication process. Shorter than full
• Summary of recent developments in the relevant field providing
reference to previously published papers on the same topic.
• Often by invitation only.
5. Before We Start to Write a Research Article
1) Do I have sufficient important (innovative) data?
•Knowledge of the state of the art in the given field is necessary (data sources:
electronic information resources, books …)
•If the research result is an extensive study, it is recommendable to rather
prepare one manuscript of a good quality and comprising all necessary
information than several manuscripts of an average level.
2) Which journal to choose?
•Consider the type of study to be published as regards its specialization,
readership, quality of the journal (see below), impact of the study – importance of
• Selected journals publish by invitation only.
• Review recent publications in the relevant journal.
• References may indicate which journal is suitable for you to choose.
3) How to start?
•Writing of research publications adheres to relatively strict rules including
• The required format enables to read articles on several levels.
•Differences in formatting styles may occur, each journal has its own Guide for
6. Structure of a Research Article
Title A clear description of the contents
Authors and affiliations Listing of the group of authors
Abstract A brief description of the article
Keywords Identification in databases
Introduction Provision of context for the article
Methods Explanation reg. the method of
obtaining the data
Results Description of what has been
monitored (found out)
Discussion Discussion on the impact of the
Conclusions Include a description of the advance
produced by the article
Acknowledgments Include persons who have helped
the author during his/her research
References Citation of scientific publications on
which the article is based
7. Style and Formatting of Academic Texts in English -
1) One idea = one sentence
2) Verb tenses
•Present tense for known facts and hypotheses
(e.g. “The average life of a honeybee is 6 weeks.”)
•Past tense for the description of experiments carried out
(e.g. “All the honeybees were maintained at 23°C.”)
• Past tense for the description of results
(e.g. “The average life span of bees was 8 weeks.”)
8. Style and Formatting of Academic Texts in
English - Recommendations
3) Writing style
• Try to avoid embellishment, eliminate redundant phrases.
• Use short sentences. The active voice may shorten sentences.
• E.g. “It was found that there had been…” (passive voice)
“We found that…” (active voice)
• Contracted verb forms are NOT allowed (e.g. “it’s”, “weren’t”, “hasn’t”).
• Minimize the use of adverbs (e.g. : “however”, “in addition”. ..).
• Carefully check the use of all words and phrases unknown to you.
A manuscript written in poor English has low chances to be
accepted for publication!
(Often regardless of the quality of the results obtained)
9. Structure of a Research Article
• Should clearly and accurately describe the content of the article.
•The reader should immediately see whether the given article deals with the field of
• The use of expressions such as “Study on …” or “Observations of ” should be
limited as well as the use of abbreviations and colloquial language.
• An effective title of the publication a) Identifies the main topic of the article.
b) Begins with the subject of the article
c) Avoids being ambiguous, too ambitious
d) Is comprehensive and clear
e) Is short
2) Authors and affiliation
•Among the authors, all those should be listed who have a certain mental share in
the relevant manuscript.
“Tomas Bata University in Zlin, nam. T.G. Masaryka 5555, 76001 Zlin,
Please observe a uniform way of writing your name and surname in all
10. 3) Abstract
•It is a summary of the article, usually not exceeding 200 words. It has
an informative value also as an independent text.
• It contains a brief summary of the issue dealt with, methods, results
•It should provide the reader with sufficient information for the reader to
decide as to whether to read the rest of the article.
Structure of a Research Article
4) Key words
• Index the relevant article for the purposes of database search.
• Influence the evaluation process in the editorial office of the journal
11. Structure of a Research Article
•Usually 2 to 3 paragraphs clearly stating the essential part of the issue dealt
•The necessity/substantiation of the research carried out should be included,
with the reference to papers already published.
• Specification of the novelty/originality of the given article
• Brief information about the hypothesis and arrangement of the experiment
6) Materials and methods, Experimental part …
•Provides the reader with sufficient information in order to reproduce the same
experiment, i.e. for example listing of the materials, procedures, devices used,
statistical methods used for calculating the experimental data, etc.).
• Past tense, avoid using the first person “I …”
12. Structure of a Research Article
• Logical and clear presentation of the obtained/measured data
•Results should predominantly be presented after modification, i.e. depending on
the parameters chosen (the so-called “raw data” can be included in annexes,
“supplementary materials” according to the type and specialization of the journal).
•Use numbered graphs and tables (no Excel), with references to graphs and
tables included in the text.
• The format of graphs and tables must meet the requirements of the relevant
journal (see the Guide for Authors).
•Explanation of results achieved, putting the results into perspective with
knowledge previously gained and articles previously published in the respective
field (both positive and negative comparison)
• Comments reg. the hypotheses stated at the beginning of the article
• Avoid speculations which are not based on results.
• If applicable, practical application of the results obtained should be named.
13. Structure of a Research Article
• Describe why and how your article represents an advance in the given
• Inform about the usability of the knowledge acquired
• Suggest future experiments
• Avoid repeating information included in the abstract
It is recommendable to avoid:
• Statements that go beyond what the results can support
• Unspecific expressions such as “higher temperature” or “at a lower rate”, etc.
• Sudden introductions of new terms
•Speculations on possible interpretations are allowed. But these should be
rooted in facts.
Revision of names, affiliations, quality of illustrations and the structure of
the article is essential.
14. Structure of a Research Article
•Mention those persons who have helped to prepare the manuscript (who
provided material free of charge, measuring devices, etc.).
• Funding resources may be mentioned (grant, provider).
•Facts not resulting from an experiment or are not generally known should
refer to the relevant source in the literature.
• The manner how citations are listed may differ (see the Guide for Authors).
• Inclusion of citations is important in order to see the quality of the publication
15. Before Sending the Manuscript to the Editor
• Read and correct the English text of your manuscript.
• Check the quality of graphs, tables and figures (according to the requirements of
• Check whether the facts included are up-to-date.
•Write a cover letter to the editor – thus, you can address the editor directly,
emphasize the importance of your manuscript and give reasons for its publishing
in the respective journal.
Reasons for an early rejection of your manuscript without a review
•The topic of the manuscript has not the required importance from a broader
point of view.
•Absence of new knowledge – the manuscript describes a routine analysis using
• The manuscript describes for-profit activities, the level of topic description is
• The manuscript fails to meet the requirements of the journal.
• The manuscript fails to refer to the relevant sources in the literature.
• Poor English
16. Evaluation Process, Acceptance for
1.5. Manuscript submission 3. Reviewers are assigned depending on key words
2, 4. Early rejection, rejection
4. Revision (minor, major)
6. Acceptance for publication
7. Communication with authors, proofreading
8. Publication, indexing in databases
17. More Information
Impact factor (IF)
• One of the most frequently used indicators of quality of academic publications
•Ratio between the number of citations to current articles and the number of
Calculation for 2012:
• Number of citations to articles published between 2011 and 2010 = 505
•Number of published articles in the relevant journal between 2011 and 2010 = 100
IF= 505/100= 5.05
• Is used to measure the performance of an individual researcher as a citation
rate of his publications.
•Is based on the number of publications and on the number of citations.
h-index = 10, if 10 out of publications by the relevant author have been cited at
least 10 times.
18. Ethical Rules
“Publish AND Perish – if you break ethical rules.”
Please avoid the following:
• Falsification of results and data
• Plagiarism incl. incorrect citations, unauthorized use of figures, etc.
• Simultaneous submission of the manuscript to two or more editors
• Submission of manuscripts without informing all co-authors
• Financial support awarded in an inappropriate/incorrect manner
• Failure to disclose any potential conflict of interests
• Submission of previously published work
• Incorrect data on co-authorship of individuals or a denied co-authorship
Authors may be requested to submit the original data.