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Paris – The international City
Presentation at Thakur School of Architecture and Planning
Matthieu Tixeront
28th August 20...
Agenda
P. 2
1. Few Facts – Mumbai and Paris
2. Concentric evolution of Paris over ages
3. Monumental architecture driven b...
Along a river versus an archipelago
Source: Spot Satellite Pictures
Paris – river
banks
Mumbai - Archipelago
1.0
Paris and Mumbai
Both are very dense areas and are major economic centers
Size
ParisMumbai
 603 sqkm (core)
 4355 sqkm (...
Agenda
P. 5
1. Few Facts – Mumbai and Paris
2. Concentric evolution of Paris over ages
3. Monumental architecture driven b...
Paris developed through concentric circles-
Across the Seine river – closed by octroi and protective walls
2.0
1233 – Charles Auguste Walls 2.0
The wall of Philippe Auguste,
created at the beginning of the
13th century enclosed 253
h...
Paris around 1600 (wall of Charles V) 2.0
The wall of Charles V, built
from 1356 to 1383 is one of
the city walls of Paris...
Paris around 1700 – wall of Louis XIII 2.0
In the 1640s, the western part of the wall of Charles V was
demolished and repl...
Paris last walls in 1913:
The Thiers walls – destroyed in 30’s
2.0
Agenda
P. 11
1. Few Facts – Mumbai and Paris
2. Concentric evolution of Paris over ages
3. Monumental architecture driven ...
Paris the International City
The architecture of Paris created during the Belle Époque, between
1871 and the beginning of ...
Most of Paris key landmarks,
were personally designed by France rulers
Notre-Dame
(XII century) –
Maurice de Sully
Notre-D...
1610 – Henri IV –
Pont-Neuf (“new bridge”) & Place Royale
3.0
The Pont Neuf, (New Bridge) is the oldest standing bridge ac...
An example of “hotel particulier” –
The house of Cardinal Richelieu (17th century)
3.0
In French contexts, an ‘hôtel parti...
Palais Royal nowadays 3.0
Originally called the ‘Palais-Cardinal’, the
palace was the personal residence of
Cardinal Riche...
Louis XIV (17th century) –
Place Vendome 3.0
Place Vendôme was laid out in 1702 as
a monument to the glory of the armies o...
Louirs XIV –
Hotel des Invalides
3.0
Louis XIV initiated the project by an order dated 24 November 1670, as a home and
hos...
Napoleon –
The triumph Arc and “Star” place
3.0
The Arc is located on the right bank of the Seine at the center of a dodec...
The Paris Beaux Arts school
(18th- 19th century)
3.0
An École des Beaux-Arts, (School of Fine Arts) is one of a number of
...
1889 Universal exhibition
Saw construction of Eiffel Tower
3.0
While the 1900 one,
The petit and grand palais and first metro line
3.0
20th century museums
Driven by presidents - Orsay
3.0
Pompidou – contemporary art 3.0
Designed by the
collaboration of
Richard Rogers
and Renzo Piano.
Pompidou – contemporary art 3.0
Designed by the collaboration of Richard Rogers and Renzo Piano.
Mitterand –
The louvre pyramid (new museum entrance)
Commissioned by the President of France François Mitterrand in 1984, ...
Chirac – Quai Branly
The Musée du
quai Branly in
Paris, France,
features the
indigenous art
and cultures of
Africa, Asia,
...
Agenda
P. 28
1. Few Facts – Mumbai and Paris
2. Concentric evolution of Paris over ages
3. Monumental architecture driven ...
In mid-19th century,
Paris had major urbanisation issues and required major change
Social reformer Victor
Considerant in 1...
Dense habitat with very poor quality of construction 4.0
Very narrow lanes:
limiting transportation, air and sun flows
4.0
No decent waste/sewage system,
leading to massive epidemics such as cholera outbreaks
4.0
Napoleon III
Selects Haussman to “aerate, unify and embellish Paris”
 Emperor Napoleon III selects Haussmann in 1853 as
p...
The rue de Rivoli,
was the first one in the program
1. Unity
2. Homogeneity
3. Wide roads (22-24 meters)
4. Tree lining
5....
Major elements from Haussman style were defined 4.0
To make all the new roads,
“strong” methods were employed!
 In 1851, new land bill to make expropriation easier
 Haussma...
A major program
To open large “boulevards” and parks was set up with
Haussman as head – 29 000kms of new roads
4.0
Even the heart of Paris, was “cut” through…
with new roads and public place
Paris the International City
4.0
An example : avenue de l Opera 4.0
Core elements of Haussman Façade Style:
“cream grey” Paris stone, building ornementation, functional floor usage 4.0
This style defines nowadays most Paris roads:
Aligned street-fronts, aligned top-floor balconies,
and tree-lined boulevard...
Haussman roads:
Linked new major train stations
Paris the International City
4.0
Haussman roads:
While massively improving infrastructure systems
Paris the International City
w
a
s
t
e
4.0
Plan also multiplied the park space:
To “aerate” the city
Paris the International City
4.0
To build such new roads:
Massive expropriation took place
Paris the International City
4.0
To build such new roads:
Massive expropriation took place
Paris the International City
4.0
Paris turned into a giant construction site –
example to build Opera new avenue
Paris the International City
4.0
Public acceptance went down:
Haussmann was fired in 1870
 Expropriate owners growing protest and escalating
 Climbing co...
Paris modernisation Legacy
Paris the International City
 Haussman rigidity was questioned in 1970’s by
functional archite...
Questions?
Paris the International City
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Paris - the international city -Architecture and Planning

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Few Facts – Mumbai and Paris
Concentric evolution of Paris over ages
Monumental architecture driven by rulers
Civil Architecture & City Planning - The Haussmann revolution and legacy.
Paris developed through concentric circles- Across the Seine river – closed by octroi and protective walls.

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Paris - the international city -Architecture and Planning

  1. 1. Paris – The international City Presentation at Thakur School of Architecture and Planning Matthieu Tixeront 28th August 2015
  2. 2. Agenda P. 2 1. Few Facts – Mumbai and Paris 2. Concentric evolution of Paris over ages 3. Monumental architecture driven by rulers 4. Civil Architecture & City Planning - The Haussmann revolution and legacy 1.0
  3. 3. Along a river versus an archipelago Source: Spot Satellite Pictures Paris – river banks Mumbai - Archipelago 1.0
  4. 4. Paris and Mumbai Both are very dense areas and are major economic centers Size ParisMumbai  603 sqkm (core)  4355 sqkm (Metro)  105 sqkm (core)  2844 sqkm (Metro) Population  1.25 Cr (core)  1.84 Cr (metro)  0.23 Cr (core)  1.05 Cr (Metro) Density  21 000 / sqkm  21 000 / sqkm Economy  Service Focus  7% of India GDP  Service Focus  5% of Europe GDP Source: India and French Statistics Agencies 1.0
  5. 5. Agenda P. 5 1. Few Facts – Mumbai and Paris 2. Concentric evolution of Paris over ages 3. Monumental architecture driven by rulers 4. Civil Architecture & City Planning - The Haussmann revolution and legacy 2.0
  6. 6. Paris developed through concentric circles- Across the Seine river – closed by octroi and protective walls 2.0
  7. 7. 1233 – Charles Auguste Walls 2.0 The wall of Philippe Auguste, created at the beginning of the 13th century enclosed 253 hectares with houses, but also fields planted with vegetables and vines allowing people to resist a possible military siege.
  8. 8. Paris around 1600 (wall of Charles V) 2.0 The wall of Charles V, built from 1356 to 1383 is one of the city walls of Paris. It was built on the right bank of the river Seine, outside the wall of Philippe Auguste and replaced it.
  9. 9. Paris around 1700 – wall of Louis XIII 2.0 In the 1640s, the western part of the wall of Charles V was demolished and replaced by the larger Louis XIII wall
  10. 10. Paris last walls in 1913: The Thiers walls – destroyed in 30’s 2.0
  11. 11. Agenda P. 11 1. Few Facts – Mumbai and Paris 2. Concentric evolution of Paris over ages 3. Monumental architecture driven by rulers 4. Civil Architecture & City Planning - The Haussmann revolution and legacy 3.0
  12. 12. Paris the International City The architecture of Paris created during the Belle Époque, between 1871 and the beginning of the First World War in 1914, was notable for its variety of different styles, from neo-Byzantine and neo- Gothic to classicism, Art Nouveau, and art deco. It was also known for its lavish decoration and its imaginative use of both new and traditional materials, including iron, plate glass, colored tile and reinforced concrete. Notable buildings and structures of the period include the Eiffel Tower, the Grand Palais, the Théâtre des Champs-Élysées, the Gare de Lyon, the Bon Marché department store, and the entries of the stations of the Paris Metro designed by Hector Guimard.
  13. 13. Most of Paris key landmarks, were personally designed by France rulers Notre-Dame (XII century) – Maurice de Sully Notre-Dame de Paris French for ("Our Lady of Paris"), also known as Notre- Dame Cathedral or simply Notre-Dame, is a historic Catholic cathedral. The cathedral is widely considered to be one of the finest examples of French Gothic architecture 3.0
  14. 14. 1610 – Henri IV – Pont-Neuf (“new bridge”) & Place Royale 3.0 The Pont Neuf, (New Bridge) is the oldest standing bridge across the river Seine in Paris, France. Its name, which was given to distinguish it from older bridges that were lined on both sides . Originally known as the Place Royale, the Place des Vosges was built by Henri IV from 1605 to 1612. A true square (140 m × 140 m), it embodied the first European program of royal city planning.
  15. 15. An example of “hotel particulier” – The house of Cardinal Richelieu (17th century) 3.0 In French contexts, an ‘hôtel particulier’ is a townhouse of a grand sort. Built by Prime Minister Cardinal Richelieu in 1631 for Minister of Finance during the reign of King Louis XIII.
  16. 16. Palais Royal nowadays 3.0 Originally called the ‘Palais-Cardinal’, the palace was the personal residence of Cardinal Richelieu. The architect Jacques Lemercier began his design in 1629; construction commenced in 1633 and was completed in 1639.
  17. 17. Louis XIV (17th century) – Place Vendome 3.0 Place Vendôme was laid out in 1702 as a monument to the glory of the armies of Louis XIV, the Grand Monarque and called Place des Conquêtes, to be renamed Place Louis le Grand, when the conquests proved temporary.
  18. 18. Louirs XIV – Hotel des Invalides 3.0 Louis XIV initiated the project by an order dated 24 November 1670, as a home and hospital for aged and unwell soldiers.
  19. 19. Napoleon – The triumph Arc and “Star” place 3.0 The Arc is located on the right bank of the Seine at the center of a dodecagonal configuration of twelve radiating avenues. It was commissioned in 1806 after the victory at Austerlitz by Emperor Napoleon at the peak of his fortunes.
  20. 20. The Paris Beaux Arts school (18th- 19th century) 3.0 An École des Beaux-Arts, (School of Fine Arts) is one of a number of influential art schools in France. The school has a history spanning more than 350 years, training many of the great artists in Europe.
  21. 21. 1889 Universal exhibition Saw construction of Eiffel Tower 3.0
  22. 22. While the 1900 one, The petit and grand palais and first metro line 3.0
  23. 23. 20th century museums Driven by presidents - Orsay 3.0
  24. 24. Pompidou – contemporary art 3.0 Designed by the collaboration of Richard Rogers and Renzo Piano.
  25. 25. Pompidou – contemporary art 3.0 Designed by the collaboration of Richard Rogers and Renzo Piano.
  26. 26. Mitterand – The louvre pyramid (new museum entrance) Commissioned by the President of France François Mitterrand in 1984, it was designed by the architect I. M. Pei, who is responsible for the design of the Miho Museum in Japan, the MasterCard Corporate Office Building in Purchase, New York. The pyramid and the underground lobby beneath it were created because of a series of problems with the Louvre's original main entrance, which could no longer handle the enormous number of visitors on an everyday basis. 3.0
  27. 27. Chirac – Quai Branly The Musée du quai Branly in Paris, France, features the indigenous art and cultures of Africa, Asia, Oceania, and the Americas. The museum collection has 450,000 objects, of which 3,500 are on display at any given time, in both permanent and temporary thematic exhibits. 3.0
  28. 28. Agenda P. 28 1. Few Facts – Mumbai and Paris 2. Concentric evolution of Paris over ages 3. Monumental architecture driven by rulers 4. Civil Architecture & City Planning - The Haussmann revolution and legacy 4.0
  29. 29. In mid-19th century, Paris had major urbanisation issues and required major change Social reformer Victor Considerant in 1845” “Paris is an immense workshop of putrefaction, where misery, pestilence and sickness work in concert, where sunlight and air rarely penetrate. Paris is a terrible place where plants shrivel and perish, and where, of seven small infants, four die during the course of the year” 4.0
  30. 30. Dense habitat with very poor quality of construction 4.0
  31. 31. Very narrow lanes: limiting transportation, air and sun flows 4.0
  32. 32. No decent waste/sewage system, leading to massive epidemics such as cholera outbreaks 4.0
  33. 33. Napoleon III Selects Haussman to “aerate, unify and embellish Paris”  Emperor Napoleon III selects Haussmann in 1853 as prefect of Paris, impressed by his energy, audacity and ability to overcome or get around problems  Mandate given : aérer, unifier, et embellir Paris:  To give it air and open space, to connect and unify the different parts of the city into one whole, and to make it more beautiful. 4.0
  34. 34. The rue de Rivoli, was the first one in the program 1. Unity 2. Homogeneity 3. Wide roads (22-24 meters) 4. Tree lining 5. No exception to rules! 4.0
  35. 35. Major elements from Haussman style were defined 4.0
  36. 36. To make all the new roads, “strong” methods were employed!  In 1851, new land bill to make expropriation easier  Haussman reporting only to emperor, not parliament  Bankers roped in to finance constructions in exchange of real estate rights  First road built with 3000 labourers with work 24 hours a day for 4 years to make the rue de rivoli 4.0
  37. 37. A major program To open large “boulevards” and parks was set up with Haussman as head – 29 000kms of new roads 4.0
  38. 38. Even the heart of Paris, was “cut” through… with new roads and public place Paris the International City 4.0
  39. 39. An example : avenue de l Opera 4.0
  40. 40. Core elements of Haussman Façade Style: “cream grey” Paris stone, building ornementation, functional floor usage 4.0
  41. 41. This style defines nowadays most Paris roads: Aligned street-fronts, aligned top-floor balconies, and tree-lined boulevards 4.0
  42. 42. Haussman roads: Linked new major train stations Paris the International City 4.0
  43. 43. Haussman roads: While massively improving infrastructure systems Paris the International City w a s t e 4.0
  44. 44. Plan also multiplied the park space: To “aerate” the city Paris the International City 4.0
  45. 45. To build such new roads: Massive expropriation took place Paris the International City 4.0
  46. 46. To build such new roads: Massive expropriation took place Paris the International City 4.0
  47. 47. Paris turned into a giant construction site – example to build Opera new avenue Paris the International City 4.0
  48. 48. Public acceptance went down: Haussmann was fired in 1870  Expropriate owners growing protest and escalating  Climbing costs whereas France was close to war  Tiredness of Parisians to see Paris as a major “construction site”  "In the eyes of the Parisians, who like routine in things but are changeable when it comes to people, I committed two great wrongs: Over the course of seventeen years, I disturbed their daily habits by turning Paris upside down, and they had to look at the same face of the Prefect in the Hotel de Ville. These were two unforgivable complaints."[Haussman in his Memoirs] 4.0
  49. 49. Paris modernisation Legacy Paris the International City  Haussman rigidity was questioned in 1970’s by functional architects (typically le Corbusier) who wanted more variety / new functionalities, but that quickly faded out  Important place dedicated to transportation (then horses, now cars) is challenged: Paris is now restricting more and more car usage  Overall Parisians nowadays do not challenge any more the Haussmann heritage 4.0
  50. 50. Questions? Paris the International City

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