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Adjective clauses

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Importance of clause
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Adjective clauses

  1. 1. CLAUSES ADJECTIVE CLAUSE
  2. 2. WHAT IS AN ADJECTIVE CLAUSE? An adjective clause modifies a noun. Examples: I saw the man who robbed the bank. I saw the man= main clause who robbed the bank= adjective clause; modifies the noun ‘man.’ An adjective clause closely follows the noun it modifies. Examples: The bag that is on the table is mine.√ The bag is mine that is on the table. X 2
  3. 3. USING PRONOUNS IN ADJ. CLAUSES(AS SUBJECTS) who, which, that is used as a subject in an adjective clause. who = used for people which = used for things that = used for both people and things Examples: They helped the woman. She got hurt. They helped the woman who got hurt. The books are on the table. They are mine. The books which/that are on the table are mine. 3
  4. 4. TRY IT OUT! Join the two sentences. Use the second sentence as an adjective clause. The student is from Tibet. She sits next to me. ………………………………………………………………………………………………. I saw the man. He locked the door. ……………………………………………………………………………………………… I am using a bag. It is made of paper. ………………………………………………………………………………………………. They were on the plane. It got hijacked. ……………………………………………………………………………………………… I saw the boy. He jumped from the boat. 4 ……………………………………………………………………………………………
  5. 5. USING PRONOUNS IN ADJ. CLAUSES (AS OBJECTS) who, whom, which, that is used as an object of the verb in an adjective clause. who(m)= used for people which = used for things that = used for both people and things Examples: The girl whom/who/that I saw in the park was Alicia. The movie which/that we saw last night was very boring. 5
  6. 6. POINTS TO NOTE: • In spoken English, who is more commonly used instead of whom. • Whom is generally used only in very formal English. • An object pronoun is often omitted from an adjective clause. Example: The man I saw yesterday was my father’s colleague. (the man who/that=the man) The movie we saw last night was very boring. (the movie that/which=the movie) • A subject pronoun cannot be omitted. Example: I saw the man who robbed the store. (can’t omit who) 6
  7. 7. TRY IT OUT! Combine the two sentences using the second sentence as an adjective clause. Try all possible patterns. 1. I like the woman. I met her at the party last night. 2. I like the bag. You bought it at the Christmas sale. 3. She liked the article. You wrote it in the travel magazine. 4. We wanted to rent that house. It’s no longer available. 7
  8. 8. PRONOUNS IN ADJ. CLAUSES USED AS AN OBJECT OF PREPOSITION Examples: 1. The music was good. We listened to it last night. The music to which we listened last night was good. 2. She is the girl. I told you about her. 8 She is the girl about whom I told you.
  9. 9. POINTS TO NOTE: • In very formal English, the preposition comes at the beginning of the adjective clause, as see in the examples just provided. Usually, however, in everyday usage, the preposition comes after the subject and verb of the adjective clauses. So, the same sentence can also be structured in the following ways: The music to which we listened last night was good. a) The music which we listened to last night was good. √ b) The music that we listened to last night was good. √ c) The music we listened to last night was good. √ 9
  10. 10. TRY IT OUT! Combine the two sentences using the second one as an adjective clause. Try all possible patterns. 1. The meeting was interesting. Mrs Sen attended it. 2. I must thank my colleagues. I got a gift from them. 3. There is the man. I was telling you about him. Underline the adjective clause in each sentence. 1. I read about a man who kept snakes in his house. 2. The doctor whom I consulted gave me some very good advice. 3. Yesterday I met a friend I haven’t met for ten years. 4. I enjoyed the book you told me to read. 10
  11. 11. USING ‘WHOSE’ IN ADJECTIVE CLAUSES • Whose indicates possession and is used like other possessive pronouns used as adjectives, like his, her, its and their. • Whose is always connected to a noun and is placed at the beginning of an adjective clause. • Whose cannot be omitted. Examples: I know the man whose house got broken into. The police questioned the man whose son was kidnapped. 11
  12. 12. POINTS TO NOTE: 1. Don’t confuse whose with who’s [contracted form of who is or who has]. They have the same pronunciation but are not the same things. Examples: • I know the boy whose father got killed in the Kargil war. • That’s the boy from our swimming club who’s [who is] preparing for the National Championship. • That’s the girl who’s been [who has been] looking after Mrs Sen after her husband was killed in the riot. 2. When has is a helping verb in the present perfect, as in the third example above, it is usually contracted with who in speaking and informal writing. But if has is a main verb, it is NOT contracted with WHO. Example: I know a man who eats only nuts and raisins. 12
  13. 13. USING ‘WHERE’ IN ADJECTIVE CLAUSES Where is used in an adjective clause to modify a place. Example: The building where he lives is very old. NOTE: If you use where, do not use a preposition. But if you DO NOT use where, you must use a preposition of place. Examples: The building where he lives is very old. (no preposition) The building in which he lives is very old. (preposition: in) The building which he lives in is very old. (preposition: in) The building that he lives in is very old. (preposition: in) 13 The building he lives in is very old. (preposition: in)
  14. 14. UAING ‘WHEN’ IN ADJECTIVE CLAUSES When is used in an adjective clause to modify a noun of time (year, day, time, century etc.) Example: I’ll never forget the day when I met you. NOTE: Only if which is used to modify a noun of time, you can use a preposition of time. Otherwise, do not use any preposition. Examples: I’ll never forget the day on which I met you. (preposition: on) I’ll never forget the day that I met you. 14 I’ll never forget the day I met you.
  15. 15. TRY IT OUT! Combine the sentences using ‘when’ or ‘where’ to introduce an adjective clause. That’s the place. The accident occurred there. ……………………………………………………………………………………………. The house was destroyed in the Tsunami. My grandparents lived there. …………………………………………………………………………………………….. I clearly remember that day. I first performed in front of the camera on that day. ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 15
  16. 16. PUNCTUATING ADJ. CLAUSES Rule 1: DO NOT USE COMMAS if the adjective clause is necessary to identify the noun it modifies (restrictive clauses). USE COMMAS if the adjective clause simply gives additional information and is not necessary to identify the noun it modifies (nonrestrictive clauses). Examples: • The man who teaches music in our school is an excellent guitarist. (No comma is used because we need the adjective clause to identify the person we are talking about.) • Mr D’souza, who teaches music in our school, is an excellent guitarist. (A comma is used because the adjective clause just gives extra 16 information; we already know the person we are talking about: Mr D’souza.)
  17. 17. PUNCTUATING ADJ. CLAUSES Rule 2: A comma is generally used if an adjective clause modifies a proper noun. Examples: • India, which is home to diverse cultures, upholds the tenet of ‘live and let live’ as its fundamental tenet. • Mrs Smith, who is now in her 90s, lives in an old age home. Rule 3: If no commas are used, any possible pronouns may be used in the adjective clause. But when commas are used, the pronoun that cannot be used. Examples: The lady you saw last night at the party is the CEO of our company. Ms Sharma, whom you saw last night at the party, is the CEO of our 17 company.
  18. 18. TRY IT OUT! Decide if the information in red italics necessary or additional. If it is additional, add commas. 1. I live in a town which is situated on the banks of the Ganga. 2. The dessert that we had for dinner last night was very good. 3. Rajesh Khanna who died of cancer recently was known as the first superstar of Indian cinema. 4. Rice which is grown in many parts of India is a staple food for many Indians. 5. My brother who lives in Texas is coming for a visit next month. 6. Toys which contain lead paint are unsafe for children. 18
  19. 19. TRY IT OUT! Read the sentences and choose the correct meaning (a or b) for each. The teacher thanked the students who had given her some flowers. a. The flowers were from only some of the students. b. The flowers were from all of the students. The teacher thanked the students who had given her some flowers. a. The flowers were from only some of the students. b. The flowers were from all the students. Natasha reached down and picked up the tattered book that was lying upside down on the floor. a. There was only one tattered book near Natasha. b. There were more than one tattered books near Natasha. 19
  20. 20. REDUCING ADJ. CLAUSES TO ADJ. PHRASES Rule 1: An adjective phrase still modifies a noun, just as an adjective clause would, but does not contain a subject and verb. Example: The girl who is standing at the door is Gloria. The girl at the door is Gloria. Rule 2: If the adjective clause contains the be form of a verb, omit the subject pronoun and the be form. Example: The man who is talking to John is from Korea. 20 The man talking to John is from Korea.
  21. 21. REDUCING ADJ.CLAUSES TO PHRASES (cont.) Rule 3: If there is no be form of a verb in the adjective clause, it is sometimes possible to omit the subject pronoun and change the verb to its –ing form. Example: • The interior designing programme, which consists of eight courses, can be taken either part-time or full-time. • The interior designing programme, consisting of eight courses, can be done either part-time or full-time. Rule 4: If the adjective clause requires commas, the adjective phrase requires commas as well. 21

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