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Introduction To Community Medicine

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Brief introduction and history of Community Medicine

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Introduction To Community Medicine

  1. 1. Introduction and History of Community Medicine Dr.Shahzad A.Daula MID (UOL) M.Phil. Public Health (Pb)
  2. 2. Defnition Branch of medicine which deals with the preventive, promotive, and curative health services through organized community efforts.
  3. 3. Community A group of people who have common characters. • Can be defined by location, race, ethnicity, age, occupation, interest in particular problemgrs or outcomes or common bonds.
  4. 4. Community Medicine or Public Health? Term use interchangeably UK----Community Medicine US----Public Health
  5. 5. What is Public Health? Public Health is the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life, and promoting health through organized efforts of society (WHO 1988) 
  6. 6. Public Health Approach Public Health Model Medical Model
  7. 7. Growth of Community Medicine Chronologically – over time frompre-historic Primitive AncientCivilizations DarkAges Muslim/Arab Industrial/ Modern
  8. 8. 4 1:PRIMITIVE MEDICINE • The concept of disease in which ancient man believed =>Supernatural theory of disease • Primitive man attributed disease and in fact all human sufferings to: - wrath of gods - invasion of body by ‘evil spirits’ and - malevolent influence of stars & planets
  9. 9. Evolution of Public Health … 2: Ancient 2-A: Indian / IndusValleycivilisation • Archeological evidence from Mohenjo-daro and Harappa– the chief cities of Indian civilizationof about 2500 to 1500 BC– suggest an elaborate system of public sanitation; earlydentistry • Lawsof Manu – code of personalhygiene • Early Indians set fractures, performed amputations, excised tumor, repaired hernias and excelled in cataractextraction 6
  10. 10. Evolution of Public Health … 2-B:Egyptiancivilisation (3300BC onward) • Egyptians postulated that diseasewasdue to absorption from the intestine of harmful substanceswhich gaverise to putrefactionof blood and formation of pus diseaseswere treated with cathartics, enema,blood-letting and awide range of drugs 7
  11. 11. Evolution of Public Health … 2-C:Greekcivilisation (c 460- 136BC – golden period) • Early leader in Greek medicine was Aesculapius(c 1200 BC) – a demigod • Aesculapius bore two daughters: – Hygiea - worshipped as goddess of health (preventive medicine) – Panacea- worshipped as goddess of medicine (curative medicine) - the goddess of Universal remedy 8 Rodof Ascelpius
  12. 12. Greek contribution to health • Hippocrates (460-370 BC)– the ‘Fatherof medicine • Rejected supernatural theory of disease– introduced scientific method (why &how) • Initiated application ofclinical methods in medicine • Described that diseaseshad anatural cause: Airs, Waters and Places– first known systematic attempt to present causal relationship between environmental factors and disease– humoral system 9
  13. 13. Evolution of Public Health … 2-D: Romancivilisation (100BC – 300AD) • Romans borrowed their medicine mainly from Greeks • By the 1st century the centre of civilization shifted to Rome • They had a keen sense of sanitation – 11
  14. 14. Maintenance of health by control of diet and hygiene Galen (130-205AD) - Disease is due to predisposing, exciting and environmental factors (Epidemiological triad) – his teachings remained unquestioned for 1400years 12 Roman contribution to health …
  15. 15. 13 3: Middle Ages(500-1500AD) • With the fall of the Roman empire, the medical schools established in Roman times also disappeared • The practice of medicine reverted back to primitive medicine dominated by superstition and dogma • It was regarded as immoral to see one's body; consequently, people seldom bathed • Dissection of the human body was prohibited – consequently there was no progress of medicine • This period is therefore called the "Dark Ages of Medicine“
  16. 16. 4: Arab/Muslim contribution 1. Early 7th century – collecting and translating the medical knowledge of the Greeks, Persians, andIndians 2. Saljuqs(Tughril,Alip Arsalan) established hospitals. Thestaff comprised physician, surgeons and attendants served and nursedsick 3. Many physicians,Arabs aswell asnon-Arabs, contributed to themedicine: – Physicians like Al-Razi, or Razes(841 – 926 AD), and Ibn-Sina, known as Avicenna (980 – 1037 AD) were pioneers in the medicalfields 15
  17. 17. Muslim contribution to health … • TheMuslim physicians, following Galen’s tradition’ highlighted six ‘non-naturals’ composing hygiene 1. Air (or environment) 2. Food& drink 3. Sleeping and waking 4. Movement & rest 5. Retention & evacuation 6. Mental emotions – “passions of thesoul”
  18. 18. Healthy People in Healthy Community