Cold War is the term for a period in which there is a conflict, tension and competition
between the United States (and its allies called the West Block) and the Soviet Union (and its
allies called the Eastern Bloc) that occurred between the years 1947 to 1991. Competition
occurs both in various fields, namely: military coalitions; ideology, psychology, and look a
password; military, industrial, and technological development; defense; race and nuclear
weapons, and much more. It is feared that this war will end in a nuclear war, although that
ultimately did not happen. The term "Cold War" itself was introduced in 1947 by Bernard
Baruch and Walter Lippman from the United States to describe the relations between the two
After the U.S. and the Soviet Union allied and managed to destroy Nazi Germany during
World War II, the two sides have different opinions about how the right way to build a post-
war Europe. Over the next few decades, the competition between them to spread beyond
Europe and extended to the rest of the world when the U.S. building a "defense" against
communism by forming alliances with other countries, especially the countries of Western
Europe, the Middle East, and Southeast Asia.
Although the two superpowers never fought directly, but the conflict between them indirectly
has led to a variety of local wars such as the Korean War, the Soviet invasion of Hungary and
Czechoslovakia and the Vietnam War. The results of the Cold War, including (from several
perspectives) dictatorship in Greece and South America. Cuban Missile Crisis is also a result
of the Cold War and the Middle East crisis has also become more complex due to the Cold
War. Another effect is the division of Germany into two parts, namely West Germany and
East Germany were separated by the Berlin Wall. Thus the problem of the cold war have
broad impact for the countries in the world in various fields of life.
B. Formulation PROBLEM
The issues to be discussed in this paper are:
1. What is behind the cold war?
2. What about the ongoing process of the cold war?
3. Is the impact of the cold war to the world and Indonesia?
4. What caused the cold war ended, and what effect it would change the world?
The purpose of this paper, namely:
With this paper we as a history student is expected to know and understand what is meant by
the cold war. Moreover, it can also find out why it happened the cold war, the countries
involved in the war, and what the impact to the world. Thus we can know and understand the
impact of both positive and negative impact of the cold war that still continues to this day.
A. The main factors that led to the Cold War:
1. Spread of Ideology
United States and the Soviet Union as the winner of World War II have understood / ideology
yangberbeda USA-liberal ideology of the Soviet Union kapitalissedangkan komunis.Paham
Liberal-Capitalist ideology (AS) that exalts individual freedom that allows
kapitalismeberkembang with lush contrary to understand the Socialist-Communist ( U.S.)
which berkeyakinanbahwa understand it can further accelerate the welfare of the workers and
people for the countries that control the company will utilize its advantages to the people.
2. Desire to Rule
The U.S. and the U.S. has the desire to become ruler of the world in new ways. ASsebagai
major creditor countries to help countries emerging form of pinjamanmodal for development
in the hope that the people are prosperous life can menjaditempat marketing of industrial and
socialist influences can keep the poor komunis.Masyarakat a fertile ground for communist
socialist. The Soviet Union began kuatekonominya also not to be outdone in the form of
assistance to help national struggle or tenagaahli weapons. This is done to influence these
3. Founding Treaty
In order to overcome the differences that exist and to be able to power the interests of the
countries of Western Europe and the United States established a defense pact known as the
NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) or the Organization of the North Atlantic. While
untukmengimbangi NATO force in 1955 the Soviet Union established a defense pact that
PAKTAWARSAWA. Warsaw Pact members, namely the Soviet Union, Albania, Bulgaria,
Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, and the pact Rumania.Berdirinya second
cause arises mutual distrust, mistrust, both dankesalahpahaman between the two blocks west
block and east block. American accused of imperialist menjalankanpolitik to influence the
world while the Soviet Union is considered a top perluasanhegemoni democracies through
the ideology of communism.
B. Ongoing Cold War
1. Period 1945-1969
End of World War II has changed the world's political development. United States and the
Soviet Union emerged victorious as the country became a giant force. The two countries have
differences in ideology, the United States has a liberal-capitalist ideology, while the Soviet
Union socialist-communist ideology. In a short time it ever happened friendship between
them, but then came the antagonism between them. There are two characters in this period,
First, there is concern that rival ambitions will lead to pessimism. Second, the United States
and the Soviet Union is a military force that is very strong and has the ability to destroy his
enemies with atomic weapons.
Thus, in this period appeared the following matters:
A). The doctrine of containment Month February 1946, Stalin gave a speech that talked about
"not avoiding conflict with the capitalist powers. He urged people not to be deceived by the
Soviet end of the war, which means the state can be relaxed. Conversely need to intensify
efforts to strengthen and defend the homeland. Not long after the advent of writing George F
Kennan, a diplomat at the U.S. Embassy in the Soviet Union, which elaborated on the bigotry
of the Soviet Union, President Harry S Truman declared what was then called the Truman
Doctrine. This underlines the strategy of containment doctrine of U.S. foreign policy as a way
to inhibit the expansionist ambitions of the Soviet Union. The U.S. also recruit allies to
realize that goal. Because according to the domino theory, if one country falls it will
berjatuhanlah other neighboring countries.
b). Environmental Effect and Formation of Block inability superpower maintains a "sphere of
influence" is interpreted as a result of the global program the other superpower. For example,
when the Soviet Union entered the Eastern European, U.S. leaders vote as part of the Soviet
effort to conquer the world. Similarly, when the U.S. established in 1951 ANZUS Pact, the
Soviet leadership vote as part of a U.S. effort to dominate the world.
Scramble two spheres of influence between the superpowers spawned a bipolar pattern. The
U.S. and its allies is the polar, whereas in polar (polar) is another emerging Soviet Union with
its allies. United States and its allies to form the Organization of the North Atlantic (North
Atlantic Treaty Organization / NATO) was established on April 4, 1949 in Washington,
USA. When one NATO member is attacked, the attack considered an attack against NATO.
On the other hand, the Soviet Union formed the Warsaw Pact and its allies (the Warsaw Pact)
on the date of May 14, 1955 in Prague-Cekoslowakia.sebagai defense of the communist bloc.
The tension between the capitalist bloc and the communist bloc in Europe is not only limited,
but also widespread in many areas, as evidence emerged in various regions blocks favoring
one superpower, in South East Asia South East Asia formed Treaty Organization (SEATO)
on 8 September 1954 in Manila, Philippines. SEATO intended to restrain the influence of
communism in Southeast Asia, particularly in Vietnam. As one organization that stands in
Southeast Asia, the major countries in Southeast Asia are not even included in SEATO, the
main members are actually Western Bloc countries led by the U.S.. In the Middle East region
also formed Middle East Defence Organisation (Middle Eastern Treaty Organization /
METO). While the Soviet Union also formed a partnership with the PRC in 1950 to face the
possibility of Japanese aggression as a country under U.S. control. And the establishment of
the Cominform (the Communist Information Bureau) in Belgrade, Yugoslavia in 1947. On
the other hand, espionage also foreshadowed the Cold War. KGB (Komitet Gusudarstvennoy
Bezopasnosti), the Soviet Union's secret service and the CIA (Central Intelligence Agency),
the U.S. secret service is always trying to obtain confidential information on all matters
relating to the countries that were under the influence of both sides as well as sensitive
information on his own.
In addition to vying for ally with other countries, the United States and the Soviet Union also
compete in the field of weaponry. This is evident from the attitude of the Soviet Union who
want to always surpass the United States as well as vice versa. For example, in 1945 in the
United States created and used the atomic bomb against Japan and the Soviet Union was
determined to create his own. Both the Soviet Union and the United States each construct
large arsenal Countinental Inter-Ballistic Missile. Americans make hydrogen bombs as well
as the Soviet Union. Arms race developed into a space race is an opportunity for them to
demonstrate their technological superiority.
2. Period 1969-1979
Relations United States-Soviet Union underwent a drastic change with the election of Richard
Nixon as President of the United States. Accompanied by his security adviser, Henry A.
Kissinger, Richard Nixon taking a new approach to the Soviet Union in 1969. Not
unexpectedly, it was the Soviet Union also are taking a similar approach to the U.S.. This
approach is commonly known as détente (easing tension). As a foreign policy strategy,
détente is an effort to create a "particular interest in cooperation and border, an environment
where competitors can inhibit the difference between them and finally stepped out of the
competition towards cooperation".
As a further step, on May 26, 1972 President Richard Nixon and Leonid Brezhnev sign the
Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty I (SALT I) in Moscow. SALT I contains an agreement to
limit nuclear weapons stockpile strategic / Defensive Antiballistic Missile System. SALT I
also includes an agreement to limit the number of nuclear missiles possessed by both sides, so
that the Soviet Union is only allowed to have a maximum of 1600 missile missiles, and the
United States are only allowed to have 1054 missiles.
3. Period 1979-1985
After a 10 year run, the Soviet Union seems no longer to undergo strong détente. Finally in
1979 the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan was the actual invite Soviet troops in there to
help them. This arbitrary action of inviting a strong reaction from the U.S. side, U.S.
President Jimmy Carter stated, Soviet aggression in Afghanistan to confront the world with
the most serious strategic challenge since the Cold War began. Then finally came the Carter
Doctrine which states that the U.S. wants to use its military power in the Persian Gulf. After
Reagan took over the presidency, he also launched the Reagan Doctrine of supporting anti-
communist insurgency in Afghanistan, Angola, and Nicaragua. The rebels are even given the
euphemism "freedom fighters" (freedom fighters). Even the U.S. also talk about its nuclear
capabilities, including the threat of first strike. But even in this period of mounting tensions
between the U.S. and the Soviet Union, it still could happen treaty SALT II (Strategic Arms
Limitation Treaty II) in mid-1979 in Vienna. At the time Carter and Brezhnev agreed to limit
the possession of nuclear weapons launcher maximum of 2400 units, 1320 units and a
maximum of Multiple Independently Targeted Reentry Vehicle (MIRV). And also Reduction
Treaty Strategic Weapons in 1982 which includes an agreement to abolish nuclear weapons
powerful medium range. Although it has been done covenants restrictions and / or reduction
of nuclear weapons, but based on the data on the Soviet Union in 1983 has turned out to be a
pretty big advantage compared to the U.S..
4. Period 1985-1991
In March 1985, Gorbachev began to lead the Soviet Union. Massive changes began to appear
during this period. Since coming to power, Gorbachev sought:
1. Improve the lives of the country's economy is far below the standard of living of developed
2. Realizing that a bad life greatly affect military life and can weaken its position in the
international political arena.
3. Gorbachev did not want to overthrow socialism, but socialism seeks to strengthen joints
through Glasnot and Perestroika.
4. The Soviet Union must act according to the principles of socialism.
5. Everyone should donate his mind according to his ability and he will receive from the state
on par with what it needs.
6. Relations with the outside world is required to achieve the level of progress and welfare of
7. Proclaimed in 1987 political democracy, reform, and openness known as Political Glasnot
Gorbachev is different from the rulers of the Soviet Union before, in 1987 he traveled to the
U.S. to bring the two into a dialogue forum. Even in 1988, the Geneva Agreement reached on
February 15, 1989 and the entire army of the Soviet Union withdrew from Afghanistan.
Gorbachev's commitment more visible when the Soviet Union was not washed away and take
a more neutral stance in the 1990-1991 Gulf War. Even aid to Cuba that had been given for
30 years was suspended in 1991 by Gorbachev. But the freedom and openness initiated by
Gorbachev caused a strong reaction from communist leaders in the country. The peak
occurred on August 19, 1991 coup was masterminded by Marshal Dimitri Yazow (Secretary
of Defense), General Vladamir Kruchkov (Head of the KGB), and Boris Pugo (Minister of
Interior). But it turns out the coup failed because it gets resistance and rejection of the people
of the Soviet Union under the leadership of Boris Yeltsin and Soviet Military Units. As a
result of the coup; Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Georgia, Maldova broke away from the Soviet
Union. Latvia, and Estonia's own Listhuania managed to gain independence from the Soviet
Union on September 6, 1991. Finally, Gorbachev admitted that the communist system has
failed in the Soviet Union.
At the end of 1991, the Soviet Union that have been aged 74 years and even then collapsed
and fragmented into several states that are now included in the commonwealth Soviet Union
(Commonwealth of Independent State / CIS). The collapse of Soviet communism prompted
many countries became independent parts. Among these countries are Muslim nationalism
movement is Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhistan, Tajikhistan, Chechnya and Uzbekistan. The
dissolution of the Soviet Union marked the end of the Cold War with a victory in the U.S..
C. The Impact of the Cold War
1. The impact of the cold war for the world
In the economic field turns cold war also had a positive impact on the world economy.
Whether it is intentional or unintentional. It is characterized by the emergence of super
powers. With the super power countries, the world economy is controlled by the owners of
capital. They competed with each other to get as much profit by investing their capital into
developing countries are still relatively low wage labor. So that their profits soar too high.
But who would have thought that the above also be good for the country to open a business
that is occupied by the owners of capital. Economic growth in the country will also grow
rapidly. So in an effort to benefit both the economy. At that time the state capital owners are
vying for control of the world economy, indirectly also bring political element in it. So the
owners of large capital gain huge profits, while the country whose capital is limited to a small
profit as well. Hence comes the term economic globalization on society. To overcome this we
perform some action, such as currency unite. Highly visible examples are the countries in the
euro zone that unites their currencies into the euro.
Due to jealousy among rival states, each state began to increase its arsenal. They do this in
order not to lose the great country. With so competitive weapon and growing rapidly. It was
all spur each country to continue to develop the country's defense respectively.
Social and Culture.
The spread of human rights issues began gradually globalized. Directly the existence of
human rights laws began to be recognized, because the people approved the inauguration of
human rights itself. With the human rights, the more people believe in the existence of
democracy and there is no more oppression of the vulnerable.
The cold war was also a great influence on the development keruangangkasaan we have.
Perhaps if there is no cold war, we would not know how to form our solar system. At the time
that the dispute between the two countries vying with each other to show the world that they
are the best country to spread the doctrines they have. Due to increase the prestige of their
country then they are both racing to launch a rocket into space. As a result, we all learned that
we actually exist on what the solar system, and how its shape. Regardless of who first broke
the news, but with the cold war also indirectly impact on the development of science
education keruangangkasaan us.
During the cold war science and technology are connected with military activity under the
spotlight more than the government. The government is willing to expend substantial funds
for the advancement of science and technology in their countries. In this period grew
disciplines that study the impact of science on society.
In developed countries, the technology in the modern era is no longer a matter of individual
or small community. Modern technology has national objectives in the area of ideology,
military, or economic and shape national consciousness to explore the natural resources that
exist. It also aims to realize the production of goods with a large scale.
The Cold War also brought a negative impact as well, as long as the Cold War lasted people
experience fear of nuclear war is more powerful than the second world war. Another effect is
the division of Germany into two parts, namely West Germany and East Germany were
separated by the Berlin Wall.
The negative impact in each area:
With the existence of nuclear weapons developed rapidly by both countries, the people of the
world to experience tremendous fear for the possibility of an actual nuclear war by the two
countries in dispute. At that time it was rumored that the Soviet Union had placed nuclear-
nuclear and directed Cuba to America. Got an American nuclear threat as it did not stay
silent. America then entered into the formation of NATO. It is a defense organization which
roughly agreed on the agreement that if one country is attacked it is considered an attack
against NATO. After knowing this, the government of the Soviet Union withdraw its nuclear
missiles from Cuba.
Impact in the field of politics we can see from the construction of the Berlin Wall in Germany
as the boundary between West Germany and East Germany. In the second world war the
country had been divided into two, namely West Germany which had its capital in Bonn and
East Germany which had its capital in Berlin. The country is experiencing a split because
there are 2 different ideologies that prevail in this country, which adopted the German liberal
western and eastern German Communist adopted.
In the course of his reign, western Germany has developed much more rapidly than Germany
east. Therefore, many East Germans decided to move to West Germany. But because it was a
cold war between the U.S. and the Soviet Union, the Soviet Union was offended by the
presence of the people moved to West Germany. Because of the Soviet Union is funding and
support to build a wall in the city of Berlin which led to the parting of the city. Also on this
wall, the Soviet Union also alerted that the army opened fire on those who still dare to cross.
Then the wall is very well known as a symbol for the cold war.
2. Impact of the Cold War for Indonesia
Indonesian political-economic system has brought on stream communism-socialism in the
Old Order. While the New Order period, growing liberalism-capitalism.
At the end of two leadership at the top, Indonesia took the economic downturn.
D. The end of the cold war
Cold War finally ended, because:
1. As of 1980, 11% of GNP spent on the Soviet Union for military purposes. The Soviet
Union has allocated massive for the state who are under his control so that the country can
not be separated from its control.
2. In 1980, oil prices fell to the Soviet Union's economic situation is not stabilized completely
stopped. Though serbelumnya Soviet Union depends on its oil exports since 1980 while the
oil is not able to finance the Cold War.
3. Appears crisis of credibility / confidence in the system of communism.
The impact of thought arises from the view of western scholars who understand the desire to
encourage the emergence of such citizens in non-communist countries. In poor condition
Mikhail Gorbachev (March 11, 1985) should lead the Soviet Union with his job which is to
improve the Soviet economy is getting worse. Steps to be taken is to undertake reforms of
Perestroika and Glasnost famous.
This policy gives unexpected impact that social contradictions in society emerged. Parties to
the dispute are as follows.
Moderate group, ie the group that approves reform communism enhanced but run.
Conservative groups, ie groups that oppose reform and want to preserve communism.
Radical Group, a group that supports reform but wanted to leave communism.
4. On August 19, 1991, Gennadi Yanayev (conservative group leaders) launched a coup
against Gorbachev but these efforts can be thwarted by Boris Yeltsin (the leader of the
Radical group) that can be saved Gorbachev and Yeltsin's name began to soar in the political
arena of the Soviet Union. Yeltsin was unable to stem the surge of Perestroika and Glasnost
spirit evidenced by the many states of the Soviet Union that break away and become an
independent state so that the Fall of the Soviet Union.
5. The Soviet Union began to reduce the power of such weapons in Eastern Europe in 1989,
the Soviet Union withdrew its troops from Afghanistan. Finally communist rule began to
crumble in the Eastern European countries where the re-united Germany.
6. The Soviet Union was officially dissolved on December 8, 1991 was marked by the
decline of the Soviet Union flag and hoisted the flag of Russia. Russia and countries of the
former Soviet Union else began to emerge as an independent country. The collapse strength
of the Soviet Union in Eastern Europe ended the Cold War. The Soviet Union is an example
of the success of the Marxist-Leninist ideology which were carried into the country.
The end of the cold war gave a devastating impact on the world changes, among other things:
a) The occurrence of a change in Eastern Europe, Russia and Germany in an effort to put an
end to communist rule and Soviet domination in the area.
b) Emerging world political and economic changes that lead to the creation of the relationship
as a whole (global) or area (region), which looks at:
• The rise of Japan.
After Japan's economy crippled by World War II and the allied attack against Japanese cities
began to rise then the people of Japan to rebuild the devastated country tersebut.Dalam
economic development, Japan is able to take advantage of all the support and help of the
United States and even Japan finally able to take over the functions of the global economy
that carried the United States and is able to provide economic assistance to countries in the
Asia Pacific region. Until finally the Japanese were able to dominate position in the Asia-
Pacific region as a market import, provider of foreign aid, and foreign investment sources that
he maintained until now.
Establishment of Group of Seven, (France, West Germany, Japan, UK, USA, Canada and
Italy are joined to solve the problems of the world economy). Establishment of the European
Union (forms of economic cooperation between the countries of Western Europe).
Establishment of the Non-Aligned Movement.
Establishment of ASEAN (regional political stability and economic development of each
Establishment of APEC, and
The establishment of the OIC.
c) Emerging interdependence resulting in the transformation of power in turns.
d) Formed order and the new value in the world that is more peaceful, secure and prosperous.
e) formed cooperative relations between the two blocks is a block north and a block south
f) The end of the Cold War were able to end the spirit of the bipolar system of international
relations (involving two blocks, namely blocks west and east) and transformed into a
From the above discussion papers can be concluded that:
1. The cold war is a war of ideology (without a weapon) that occurred between the United
States (western block) with the Soviet Union (eastern block) as a result of the end of World
War II. Infighting and competition occurs in a variety of fields.
2. The main factors that led to the cold war, among others; presence disagreement / ideology
between the United States (Liberal-capitalist) and the USSR (Communist), the desire for
power, and the establishment of a defense pact that gives rise to suspicion, mistrust, and
misunderstanding between The second block of the block both western and eastern blocks.
3. The cold war lasted for about 46 years ie from 1945 to 1991. During this period the United
States and the Soviet Union competed spreading influence / ideology that they profess to
various countries in Europe and Asia. In the conduct of the war the United States and the
Soviet Union has always been at the back of the warring countries.
4. Cold war impact the world and Indonesia, both positive and negative impacts have
occurred in the various fields.
5. The end of the Cold War marked by the collapse of the Soviet Union on December 8, 1991
which is caused by several things, including the amount of funds needed for military
purposes of the Soviet Union, the Soviet Union's economic situation is not stable, emerging
crisis of credibility / confidence in the system of communism, and the Union Soviet reduce its
armed forces in Eastern Europe that communist rule began to crumble.
6. The end of the cold war brought a broad impact for the world, including: emerging
political and economic changes in the world that lead to the creation of the relationship as a
whole (global) or area (regional), etc..
As we shall know and understand the real issues that occur in the cold war, how the course of
the cold war and the impact arising from the Cold War is universally good for the world and
for Indonesia. Thus we can take the meaning of the events of the war and hoped we could
avoid any kind of conflicts that may occur around us, because although there is always the
aggrieved party in case of dispute.
Adisusilo, taufik. , 2009. Know the European continent. London: Ar-Ruzz media.
Setya, W. 2008. Cold War. Semarang: PT Begawan science.
Thank God we pray to Allah, blessings and grace Because of his constituent to complete the
preparation of this paper. With paper we would expect that we arrange to be useful to the
readers or others who need the information in the paper "COLD WAR"
We realize that we collated paper is far from perfect, for that we are heartened to accept all
criticisms and suggestions from various parties. We also do not forget to express gratitude to
those who have been willing to help us in completing this paper.
Finally, we apologize for the shortcomings and irregularities in both the content and
Raha, March 2014
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Word Pengantar...................................................................................................... i
List Isi....................................................................................................................... ii
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION
A. Background........................................................................................................... 1
B. Formulation masalah............................................................................................. 1
C. Tujuan.................................................................................................................. 2
CHAPTER II DISCUSSION
A. Factors causes of the cold war .......................................... ................................. 3
B. Berlansungnya cold war ............................................. ........................................ 3
C. The impact of war dingin.................................................................................... 7
D. the end of the cold war ............................................. .......................................... 9
CHAPTER III CLOSING
3.1 KESIMPULAN................................................................................................ 11
3.2 SARAN............................................................................................................. 11
Sign up PUSTAKA.................................................................................................. 12