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the professional practice of placement

The Professional Practice of Placement
Placement has been identified consistently as one of the fundamental ...
the labor force. Many wounded veterans survived, returning with significant
disabilities that limited their employment opt...
After the Act, face-to-face counseling assumed a more important role than other
activities until services directly related...
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the professional practice of placement

  1. 1. The Professional Practice of Placement Introduction: Placement has been identified consistently as one of the fundamental functions of rehabilitation counselors in public (Berven, 1979; Muthard & Salomone, 1969; Parker & Szymanski, 1992; Rubin, Matkin, Ashley, Beardsley, May, Ontott, & Puckett, 1984; Sink & Porter, 1978) and private for-profit (Collignon, Barker, & Vencill, 1992; Gilbride, 1993; Lynch & Martin, 1982) organizations. Because of its central role in the practice of rehabilitation counseling, placement is an important knowledge base for professional development. The practice of placement generally includes the following activities: contacting and developing ongoing relationships with employers; educating consumers regarding job seeking, resume writing, interviewing, and job selecting; collaborating with consumers and employers to make workplace accommodations; and following consumers to ensure satisfaction with placements. This chapter will discuss the history of placement, its role in the rehabilitation process, current issues relevant to the profession, and future directions requiring study. The Impact of Legislation on Placement: The initial delivery of placement services to people with disabilities can be traced to two pieces of legislation: the Smith-Hughes Act of 1917 (P.L. 64-347) and Soldier Rehabilitation Act of 1918 (P.L. 65-178). These Acts, which supported vocational education and rehabilitation, provided the legislative foundation for today's State- Federal partnership. Early legislation mandated vocational education, vocational guidance, occupational adjustment, and placement services. The goal of services was employment: All services had to clearly relate to a feasible vocational goal and an employment outcome. There were clear social needs responsible for this vocational focus. Dislocated workers were traveling from rural areas to cities without the necessary skills to enter 1
  2. 2. the labor force. Many wounded veterans survived, returning with significant disabilities that limited their employment options. The legislation was not intended to correct some societal wrong or please a vocal interest group. It was intended to use the available human resources efficiently and move the nation into the mainstream of the industrial revolution. Vocational rehabilitation service providers formed a professional association, the National Civilian Rehabilitation Conference (now the National Rehabilitation Association), in 1924. Shortly after that, an interest group called the National Vocational Guidance Association was formed within the American Personnel and Guidance Association (now the American Couneling Association). It was not until 1954, with passage of the Vocational Rehabilitation Act Amendments (P.L. 83- 565), that these employees were recognized as professional rehabilitation counselors. This Act provided money for training rehabilitation professionals, including counselors. It also supported research and demonstration projects to develop and extend new knowledge. Despite years of developing a professional association and additional years working as rehabilitation providers, it took the 1954 Act to provide the foundation for the profession of vocational rehabilitation counseling. Shortly after passage of the 1954 Act, debate over the professional role of rehabilitation counselors entered the professional literature. Patterson (1957; 1966; 1967) argued that professional rehabilitation counselors should provide psychological counseling while less-professional rehabilitation coordinators should provide, among other things, placement services. This distinction had little effect on the actual practice of vocational rehabilitation counseling in the public sector. Studies of how VR counselors spent their time suggested they were generalists rather than specialists (Muthard & Salomone, 1969) and performed all the functions Patterson recommended for counselors and coordinators. But, as well as professionalizing counselors, the Act professionalized the activity of counseling. 2
  3. 3. After the Act, face-to-face counseling assumed a more important role than other activities until services directly related to placement consume only a fraction of counselors' time (Vandergoot, 1987; Zadney & James, 1977). Placement is recognized by practitioners as one of the most important areas of competency, but counseling is considered the most important skill (Wright, Leahy, & Shapson, 1987). This leaves rehabilitation counseling and placement, as presently practiced, separate skill domains. The Act of 1954 also promoted the expansion of non-profit rehabilitation facilities as community-based centers for work adjustment training. During the 1950s and 1960s, these facilities provided services to people with severe disabilities, especially people with developmental and psychiatric disabilities. Facilities were more apt than public agencies to employ specialists for specific tasks. Starr (1982) suggested that is because they followed a hospital-type organizational structure for service delivery and employed people in more diverse positions. While public vocational rehabilitation counselors worked as generalists providing all things to all people, facility personnel worked within more tightly defined job descriptions providing only specialized services. In terms of overall personnel, vocational rehabilitation in both the public and private non-profit sectors grew tremendously through the 1950s and 1960s. Funding increased, the types of disabilities approved for services increased, and the number of rehabilitation professionals subsequently increased. A growing economy provided more jobs than there were applicants, so the idea of equal employment was widely accepted. People with disabilities came for services, counseling and training were provided, and people found jobs. The one place this was not the case was facilities where the majority of consumers had severe disabilities. For these people, placement was more difficult. This may be why the movement for placement specialization originated among facility personnel. 3
  4. 4. On October 9, 1963, Robert Eddy, the manager of handicapped placement services for Goodwill Industries of Chicago brought together several people who worked as job placement specialists to form a professional association. Participants in this meeting agreed that placement specialists and the services they provided would be better served by creating a professional division within the National Rehabilitation Association. This meeting resulted in the formation of the Job Placement Division (JPD) of NRA and recognition of job placement as a specialized profession (Tooman, 1986). This group elected an ad hoc committee that worked to make the division official within NRA. The division held its first organizational meeting on November 10, 1964, at the NRA Annual Conference in Philadelphia. The first president of JPD was Louis Ortale, who worked for the state Vocational Rehabilitation agency in Des Moines, Iowa. JPD sought to enhance it professionalism through several means. Members were recruited and the role of the division was clarified. JPD established conferences and training programs, including the Louis Ortale Memorial Lecture at the annual NRA conference (he died in 1967 when he was immediate past-president). The forerunner of the Journal of Job Placement began as an intra-divisional communication device. Finally, the division sought to establish standards and competencies for placement professionals. The initial professional competencies and standards were proposed by William Usdane, who was employed by the Rehabilitation Services Administration, during his presentation at the fourth Louis Ortale Memorial Lecture in 1973. The lecture included a statement of scope of practice that said placement professionals should be given responsibility for: job development, job solicitation, economic job forecasting, labor market information, job engineering, job placement, and post-job adjustment. From this description of the role of placement professionals, the National Rehabilitation Job Placement/Job Development Institute at Drake University was developed to design the competencies for a masters degree based on 4
  5. 5. Usdane's lecture. Howard Traxler, who was Director of that program, gave the Ortale Lecture in 1978, laying out competencies and a training agenda for graduate degree programs in placement and rehabilitation counseling. These competencies remained central to the role of job placement specialists in public and non-profit rehabilitation agencies through the 1970s and 1980s. Rehabilitation counselor education programs, still driven by Federal funding to prepare people for public sector jobs, included these competencies in their program requirements, but did not emphasize them. Placement was important, there just were not many people doing it. The people who were supposed to do it put a higher value on providing counseling (Emener & Rubin, 1980; Neely, 1974). In 1992, consumers sent a new message in the form of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 as Amended (P.L. 102-569). The consumer involvement mandated by the 1973 Act was important, but employment outcomes needed to be re-emphasized. With the 1992 Reauthorization, the initial focus of vocational rehabilitation-- employment--had returned to the central position it held at the beginning of the century. Employment remained the fundamental purpose of disability services, but consumers' expectations had changed over 70 years. Consumers expected to be actively involved in a rehabilitation process that assisted them to achieve their own personal and career goals. They also expected a high standard of quality in the services and outcomes they received from vocational rehabilitation. Private Rehabilitation Placement as a cluster of professional activities evolved in a sector of the workforce that, until recently, was separate from public and non-profit vocational rehabilitation. This other sector is the private for-profit sector that serves industrially injured workers. The increasing cost of medical care and workers compensation insurance, gave rise to private (insurance) rehabilitation in the mid 1970s. Growick (1993) stated that rehabilitation and workers' compensation were "made for each 5
  6. 6. other" because both viewed return to work for people with disabilities (albeit for different reasons) as their primary goal. Because private for-profit rehabilitation needed to meet the needs of both employers and people with disabilities, it traditionally focused more on employment and return to work than did public rehabilitation (Collignon, Barker, & Vencill, 1992; Gilbride, 1993; Gilbride, Connolly & Stensrud, 1990; Matkin, 1983; Matkin, 1987). During the late 1970s and early 1980s, there was a movement toward state-legislated rehabilitation as states viewed private rehabilitation as a cost-effective way to help injured workers return to work. In recent years, however, there has been a major reduction in mandatory rehabilitation services for people with work related injuries (Lui, 1993). Spiraling costs of workers' compensation insurance provided impetus for many state legislatures to repeal the mandatory rehabilitation provisions of their workers' compensation systems (e.g. Colorado, Kansas, Minnesota ) or to dramatically constrain the provision of rehabilitation services (e.g. California). At least part of this backlash was due to private rehabilitation providers' inadequate documentation of their effectiveness in returning injured workers to employment (California Workers' Compensation Institute, 1991; Washburn, 1992). However, the continued use of rehabilitation in non-mandatory states and the limited extant empirical data suggest that appropriate rehabilitation services often are successful at putting injured workers back on the job while saving employers money (Collignon, Barker, & Vencill, 1992; Growick 1993). Private for-profit rehabilitation, like private non-profit rehabilitation, held placement as a central component of the service delivery system. Structurally, for-profit rehabilitation was more like public rehabilitation in that a single counselor managed a single case (but much smaller total case load) from beginning to end. In the case of for-profit rehabilitation, however, payment mechanisms made employment 6
  7. 7. outcomes more critical than in public rehabilitation and careful documenting of activities less important (Growick, 1993). Public rehabilitation agencies provided involvement-oriented counseling to people with disabilities but offered few placement services. Private non-profit rehabilitation agencies provided a specific focus on placement services primarily to people with severe disabilities but low compensation limited the professionalization of the industry. Private for-profit rehabilitation companies focused on placement but the intense outcome orientation resulted in limited documentation of effectiveness. Each sector evolved somewhat separately and with its own strengths and weaknesses. The question became: How do we attain the focus of private non-profit rehabilitation, the documentation capabilities of public rehabilitation, and the outcome orientation of private for-profit rehabilitation? No one asked this question because there were no incentives to do so until recently Current Trends In the mid 1990s, Federal budget deficits, concern over the size and influence of the Federal government, and questions about the effectiveness of the State-Federal Vocational Rehabilitation program (GAO, 1993), led to a general re-thinking regarding the manner in which public Vocational Rehabilitation services were delivered. While the Rehabilitation Act amendments of 1992 (P.L. 102-569) again underscored the centrality of employment outcomes and RSA directives discussed "quality placements," many consumer groups and policy makers remained skeptical. Their input to state plans and Federal legislation focused on having these concerns addressed by rehabilitation providers. In response, new service delivery models such as "block grants" and "one stop shopping" for employment services were explored. The current policy debate over block grants and one stop shopping reflects three current policy themes: states' rights (devolution), market forces (vouchers), and workforce development areas (service integration). From the beginning of civilian 7
  8. 8. rehabilitation tension existed between states and the Federal government regarding roles and responsibilities for assisting people with disabilities. Over the past 75 years the Federal government has increasingly assumed a greater percentage of the cost for rehabilitation services while concurrently exerting more control over how those services were delivered. The current trend toward block grants and one stop shopping clearly reflects an attempt to rebalance the state/Federal relationship. The second issue, vouchers, represents a profound break with the entire history of public rehabilitation. Vouchers promise to offer maximal consumer choice because people would be allowed to go to any qualified provider and purchase services. Proponents of vouchers assert that market forces will improve services and enhance outcomes. The envisioned outcomes are to "render the individuals employable and achieve an employment outcome." (Sec 104, i, Proposed Careers Act ). If passed, this law will again solidify placement as the raison d'être for the vocational rehabilitation profession but, for the first time, services will be provided within a competitive, market driven environment. Public rehabilitation counselors would be required to compete with other providers for vouchers. The third factor, integrated workforce development areas, offers rehabilitation professionals the opportunity to reclaim the original mandate of the profession. It does so by addressing many of the same needs identified in 1918, and by weaving together all the government agencies that address the same concerns. The mandate: understanding, collaborating with, and integrating people with disabilities into the workforce, has remained much the same for 80 years, but the way each era shaped service delivery system has varied. Rehabilitation counseling in its present form developed because the new industrialized labor market was complex and not readily negotiated by a person with a disability without extensive assistance. Despite this, the accepted knowledge base of the rehabilitation profession developed asymmetrically. While knowledge about people with disabilities and the services they require has improved, little growth or evolution has occurred in the profession's 8
  9. 9. understanding of labor market trends and the needs of employers. This has resulted in rehabilitation plans often being unresponsive to labor market data and employer needs (Gilbride & Burr, 1993). Further, rehabilitation professionals have been unable to document that they actually improve the financial status of even their successful clients (General Accounting Office, 1993). Beyond this, employers tend to view rehabilitation agencies as not "cost effective" (Gilbride & Stensrud, 1993). The current situation necessitates some form of change within the rehabilitation profession, especially as it pertains to placement. The profession, however, has neglected placement and there are no clear standards of performance or empirically-derived guides to effective practice. In a time when the profession's existence is challenged because it does not deliver adequate employment outcomes, little is know about how to improve this situation. What is known is that various models of placement have been developed and applied by practitioners. The utility of these models is untested. Current events may make many of them obsolete before they are allowed to demonstrate their effectiveness 9
  10. 10. Recruitment and placement Meaning: - Recruitment is a process of getting potential employees willing to apply for job/jobs into an organization. Its aim is to develop and maintain adequate manpower resources upon which an organization can depend when it needs additional employees. SOURCES OF MANPOWER; - Before an organization actively begins recruiting applicants, it should consider the most likely sources of the type of` employees it needs. Some companies try to develop new sources, while most only try to tackle the existing sources they have. These sources, accordingly, may be termed as external and internal. Internal Sources: Internal sources are the most obvious sources. These include personnel Already on the pay roll of an organization, i.e. its present working force. Whenever any vacancy occurs, some body from within the organization is upgraded, promoted or sometimes demoted. This source also includes personnel who were once on the pay roll of the company but who plan to return or whom the company would like to re-hire, such as those on leave of absence, those who quit voluntarily, or those in production lay-offs. Merits: The use of internal sources has some merits: I) It improves the morale of employees, for they are assured of the fact that they would be preferred over outsiders when vacancies occur. II) The employer is in a better position to evaluate those presently employed than outside candidates. This is because the company maintains a record of the progress, experience and service of its employees. 10
  11. 11. III) It promotes loyalty among the employees, for it gives them a sense of job security and opportunities for advancement. IV) As the persons in the employment of the company are fully aware of, and well acquainted with, its policies and know its operating procedures, they require little training, and the chances are that they would stay longer in the employment of the organization than a new outsider would. Demerits: However, this system suffers from certain defects as well. I) It often leads to inbreeding, and discourages new blood from entering an organization. II) There are possibilities that internal sources may “dry up”, and it may be difficult to find the requisite personnel from within an organization. III) Since the learner does not know more than the lecturer, no invocations worth the name can be made. Therefore, on jobs, which require original thinking (such as advertising, style, designing and basic research), this practice is not followed. IV) As promotion is based on seniority, the danger is that really capable hands may not be chosen. The likes and dislikes of the management may also play an important role in the selection of personnel. This source is used by many organizations; but a surprisingly large number ignore this source, especially for middle management jobs. In other words, this source is the lode that is rarely mined. It is not only reasonable but wise to use this source, if the vacancies to be filled are within the capacity of the present employees; if adequate employee records have been maintained; an if opportunities are provided in advanced for them to prepare themselves for promotions from “blue-collar” to “white-collar” jobs. 11
  12. 12. EXTERNAL SOURCES: These sources lie outside the organization. They usually include; 1. New entrants to the labour force, i.e. young, mostly inexperienced potential employees --- the college students; 2. The unemployed—with a wide range of skills and abilities; 3. Retired experienced persons such as mechanics machinists, welders, accountants; 4. Others not in the labour force, such as married women and person form minority groups. Merits: External sources provide the requisite type of personnel for an organization, having skill, training an education up to the required standard. Since persons are recruited from a large market, the best selection can be made without any distinctions of caste, sex or colour. In the long run, this source proves economical because potential employees do not need extra training for their jobs. Demerits: However, this system suffers from what is called “brain drain,” especially when experienced person are raided or hunted by sister concern 12
  13. 13. METHODS OF RECRUITMENT An author summarizes the possible recruiting methods into three categories: direct, indirect and third party. Direct Methods; These include sending recruiters to educational and professional institutions, employees’ contacts with the public, and manned exhibits. One of the most widely used direct methods is that of sending recruiters to college and technical schools. Most college recruiting is done in cooperation with the placement office of a college. The placement office usually provides help in attracting students, arranging interviews, furnishing space, and providing student resumes. For managerial, professional and sales personnel’s, campus recruiting is an extensive operation. Persons reading for M.B.A. or other technical diplomas are picked up in this manner. For this purpose, carefully prepared brochures, describing the organization and the jobs it offers, are distributed amongst students, before the interviewer arrives. The DCM, TATAs, and other enlightened firms maintain continuing contacts with institutions’ placement officials with a view of recruiting staffs regularly for different responsible position. Sometimes, firms directly solicit information from the concerned professors about students with an outstanding record. Many companies have found employees’ contacts with the public a very effective method. Other direct methods include sending recruiters to conventions and seminars, setting up exhibits at fairs, and using mobile offices to go to the desired centers. Indirect Methods: Indirect methods generally involve advertising in newspapers, on the radio, in trade and professional journals, technical magazines and brochures. Advertising in newspapers andor trade journal and magazines is most frequently used methods, when qualified or experience personnel are not available from other sources. Senior post are largely filled by such methods when they cannot be filled by promotions from within. The classified advertisement section on daily newspapers or the Sunday weekly editions of the Hindustan Times, Times of India, The Tribune, The National Herald, Free Press Journal, The Pioneer, Amrit Bazar 13
  14. 14. Patrika, Economic Times, The Hindu, The Indian Expressed. Carry advertisement for all types of positions. Such advertisement enable prospective candidates to screen themselves in order to find out whether they are fit for the jobs for which the advertisement has been issued. In order to be successful, an advertisement should be carefully written. If it is not properly written, it may not draw the write type of applicants or it may attract to many applicants who are not qualified for the job. It should be so framed as to attract attention---- for example, by the use of different sizes and types of print. The first line should limit the audience somewhat and the next few lines should further screen out the readers who do not posses the necessary qualifications. It should provide specific information on job requirement and opportunities for advancement, the benefits to be enjoyed by working in the company; and to its professional aspects. “Frilly advertisements, containing exaggerated claims and gimmicky appeals, are to be avoided.” Advertising can be very effective if its media are properly chosen. According to Advertisement Tactics and Strategy in Personnel Recruitment, there points need to be borne in mind before an advertisement is inserted. First, to visualize the type of applicant one is trying to recruit. Second, to write out a list of the advantages a company offers; in other words, why the reader should work for the company. Third, to decide where to run the advertisement, not only in which area but in which newspaper, having local, state or nation-wide circulation. Other methods include advertising in publications, such as trade and professional journals, and radio or televisions announcements, as is done by many Indian manufacturers. Professional journals are read by people with specialized backgrounds and interests. Therefore, advertisements in these are generally selective. For example advertisement for the services of engineers are generally inserted in publications meant for engineers. Third Party Method: These include the use of commercial or private employment agencies, state agencies, placement offices of schools, colleges and professional 14
  15. 15. associations, recruiting firms, management consulting firms, indoctrination seminars for college professors, and friends and relatives. Private Employment Agencies are widely used. They charge a small fee from an applicant. They specialize in specific occupation; general office help, salesman, technical workers, accountants, computer staff, engineers and executives. These private agencies are brokers who bring employers and employees together. The specialization of these agencies enhances their capacity to interpret the need of their clients, to seek out particular types of persons and to develop proficiency in recognizing the talent of specialized personnel. State or public employment agencies, also known as Employment or Labour Exchanges, are the main agencies of public employment. They provide a clearinghouse for jobs and job information. Employers inform them of their personnel requirements, while jobs-seekers get information from them about the types of jobs that are referred to them by employers. These agencies provide a wide range of services-canceling, assistance in getting jobs information about the labour market, labour and wage rates. Schools, colleges and professional associations, also provide a useful service to employers. They maintain registers giving the bio-data and other particular about their students. The companies that need employees maintain contact with the guidance counselors of Employment Bureaus and teachers of business and vocational subjects. Work-study programmes provide an opportunity for students to work part time while they finish their school. After they finish their education, they may be absorbed by the companies concerned. Recruiting firms or executive recruiters maintain complete information records about employed executives. These firms are looked upon as headhunters, raiders and pirates by organizations, which lose personnel through their efforts. 15
  16. 16. However, these same organizations may employ “executive search firms” to help them find executive talent. These consulting firms recommend persons of high caliber for managerial, marketing, and production engineers’ posts. Indoctrination seminars for college professors are arranged to discuss the problems of companies and employees. Professors are invited to take part in these seminars. Visits to plants and banquets are arranged so that the participant’s professors may be favorably impressed. They may later speak well of a company and help it in getting the required personnel. Friends and relative – of present employees are also a good source from which employees may be drawn. When the labour market is very tight, large employees frequent offer their employees’ bonuses or price for any referrals that are hired with the company for a specific length of time. Some companies maintain a register of former employees whose record was good to contact them when there are new job opening for which they are qualified. This method of recruitment, how ever suffer from a defect in that it encouraged nepotisms, i.e. person of one community or casts are employed, who may or may not be fit for the job. Trade data banks- when a company desires a particular type of employee, job speciation and requirement are fed into a computer; here they are matches against the resume data stored therein. The output is a set resume for individual who meet the requirement. This method is very useful for identifying candidates for hard-to- fill position, which call for a usual combination for skill. Casual labour source: Most industrial unit relies to some extent on the casual labour which presents its self-daily at the factory gate or employment office. However this source is uncertain and the candidates cover a wide range of abilities. Ever than many of our industry make use do this source to fill up the casual vacancies. 16
  17. 17. Which particularly source is to be taped will depend on the policy of the firm, the position of labour supply, government regulation and agreement with the labour organization. However, the personnel manager must be in a close touch with these different sources and use them in accordance with this need. The management policy regarding recruitments is to look first within the organization. If that source fails external recruitments must be tackled. Sr.no Degree of tightness in the labour Market Sources used for Recruitment Area covered for recruitment 1. Most loose Direct hiring Immediate vicinity 2. Intermediate Unions, friends and relatives, private and public agencies Part of an urban industrial area 3. Tight Advertising, nearby special sources (colleges, private agencies) The whole urban industrial area. 4. Most tight Labour scouting Regional and national 17
  18. 18. PREQUISITE OF A GOOD RECRUITMENT POLICY; The recruitment policy of an organization must satisfy the following conditions; 1. It should be in conformity with its general personnel policies; 2. It should be flexible enough to meet the changing needs of an organization; 3. It should be so designed as to ensure employment opportunities for its employees on a long term basis so that the goals of the organization should be achievable; and it should develop the potentialities of employees; 4. It should match the qualities of employees with the requirements of the work for which they are employed; and 5. It should highlight the necessity of establishing job analysis The nature and extent of the recruitment programmed depends on a number of factors, including the skills required, the state of the labour market, general economic conditions, and the image of the employer. Accompany which has a reputation for paying fair wages, providing good employee benefits and taking interest in employee welfare activities would attract a larger number of applicants than it needs without making any extra recruiting efforts. Small companies which hire only a few persons each year may not need to do more than spread the word around the plant or office that a vacancy exists. However, as a result of regulations and pressures from society and the government, the recruitment programmed now requires the employers to go out and actively seek job applicants from groups of those who may not otherwise apply for employment. Employment office organization: There is no general procedure for hiring new personnel which are applicable to all business enterprises. Each enterprise has its “tailor-made” procedure which brings it the desired quantity and quality of manpower at the minimum possible cost. The most commonly adopted practice is to centralize the recruitment and selection function in a single office .All employment activity should be centralized if the policies of the top management 18
  19. 19. are to be implemented consistently and efficiently. Only when personnel requisitions go through one central source and all employment records are kept – up to- date is there a possibility of maximum efficiency and success in hiring. The advantages of centralization recruitment and selection are: 1.It reduces the administrative cost associated with selection by consolidating all activity in a single office; 2. It relieves line officers of the details involved in hiring workers, which is common under a decentralized plan; 3. It tends to make the selection of workers scientific; 4. It makes possible the development of a centralized manpower pool in a company; 5. It provides a wider opportunity for placing an applicant in several departments of the company; 6. It tends to reduce favoritism as a basis for selection. This centralized department is generally known as the Employee office, or the Recruitment Section. The personnel staff is attached to it. This enables specialists to concentrate on the recruitment function; and soon they become very efficient in the use of various recruitment techniques. This office should be properly equipped with furniture. Its waiting room should be roomy, clean and well ventilated. Recruitment forms the stage in the process which continues with selection and ceases with the placement of the candidate. It is the next step in the procurement function, the first being the manpower planning. Recruiting makes it possible to acquire the number and types of people necessary to ensure the continued operation of the organization. Recruiting is the discovering of potential applicants for actual or anticipated organizational vacancies. In other words, it is a linking activity bringing together those with jobs and those seeking jobs. 19
  20. 20. As Yoder and other point out “Recruitment is a process to discover the sources of manpower to meet the requirements of the staffing schedule and to employ effective measures for attracting that manpower in adequate numbers to facilitate effective selection of an efficient working force.” Accordingly, the purpose of recruitment is to locate sources of manpower to meet job requirements and job specification Recruitment has been regarded as the most important function of personnel administration, because unless the right types of people are hired, even the best plans, organization charts and control systems would not do much good. Flippo views recruitment both as “positive” and “negative” activity. He says, “It is a process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating and encouraging them to apply for jobs to increase the ‘hiring ratio’, i.e., the number of applicants for a job. Selection, on the other hand tends to be negative because it rejects a good member of those who apply, leaving only the best to be hired.” FACTORS AFFECTING RECURITMENT All organizations, whether large or small, do engage in recruiting activity, though not to the same extent. This differs with: (i) The size of the organization; (ii) The employment conditions in the community where the organization is located; (iii) The effects of the past recruiting efforts which show the organization’s ability to locate and keep good performing people; (iv) Working conditions and salary and benefit packages offered by the organization---which may influence turnover and necessitate future recruiting; (v) The rate of growth of organization; 20
  21. 21. (vi) The level of seasonality of operations and future expansion and production programmers; and (vii) Culture, economic and legal factors, etc. Factors governing recruitment may broadly be divided as internal and external factors. The internal factors are: (i) Recruiting policy of the origination; (ii) Human resource planning strategy of the company; (iii) Size of the origination and the number of employees employed; (iv) Cost involved in recruiting employees, and finally; (v) Growth and expansion plans of the origination. The external factors are: (i) Supply and demand of specific skills in the labor market; (ii) Political and legal consideration such as reservation of jobs for Sacs, Sets, and so on. (iii) Company’s image-perception of the job seekers about the company. 21
  22. 22. THEORIES REGARDING RECRUITING Recruiting is a two-way street: it takes a recruiter and a recruitee. Just as the recruiter has a choice whom to recruit and whom not, so also the prospective employee has to make the decision if he should apply for that origination’s job. The individual makes this decision usually on three different bases, the objective factor, critical contact, and subjective factor.4 “The objective factor theory views the process of organitional choice as being one of weighing and evaluating a set of measurable characteristics of employment offers, such as pay, benefits, location, opportunity for advancement, the nature of the work to be performed, and educational opportunities.” “The critical contact theory suggests that the typical candidate is unable to make a meaningful differentiation of organization’s offer in terms of objective or subjective factors, because of his limited or very short contact with the organization. Choices can be made only when the applicant can readily perceive the factors such as the behavior of the recruiter, the nature of the physical facilities, and the efficiency in processing paper work associated with the application.” “The subjective factor theory emphasizes the congruence between personality pattern and the ‘image’ of the organization, i.e., choices is made on a highly personal and emotional basis.” CONSTRAINT LIMIT THE FREEDOM OF MANAGER TO RECRUIT No employer could ever freely choose the “best” candidate because various forces impinge upon such selection. Such constraints are: 1. The Image of the Organization: The prospective candidate may not be interested in getting job in the particular organization either because its reputation or goodwill is not good in the community, or because the condition of work are unsafe or it is indifferent to the personnel available 22
  23. 23. 2. The Unattractive Job: If the job is regarded as boring, hazardous, anxiety creating or lacking in promotion potential, people would not be attracted to such an organization 3. Internal Organizational Policies: If the policy aims at providing promotion to its employee from within, people would be attracted to it, because such a policy enjoys several advantages such as that of creating good public relations, building high moral, encouraging good people who are ambitious and improving the probability of a good selection. 4. Union Requirements can also Restrict Recruiting Sources: Some unions emphasize on recruitment to member of the unions only. Where such situation occurs, management has to recruit from a restricted supply. 5. Government Influence: An employer cannot distinguish any individual, on the basis of physical appearance, sex or religious background, for purpose of recruitment STEPS ON RECRUITMENT PROCESS As was mentioned earlier, recruitment refers to the process of identifying and attracting job seekers so as to build a pool of qualified applicants. The process comprises five-inter-related stages, viz., 1. Planning 2. Strategy development, 3. Searching, 4. Screening and 5. Evaluation and control. 23
  24. 24. Place of Recruiting in selection system According to Famulor, personnel recruitment process involves five elements, viz., a recruitment policy, a recruitment organization, a forecast of manpower, the development of sources of recruitment, and different techniques used for utilizing these sources, and a method of assessing the recruitment programme. Figure 9.1 shows the place of recruitment in the entire selection process. 24 Personnel Human Resources Planning Recruiting Needed Personnel Selecting Qualified Personnel Placing New Employees on Job Developing sources of Potential Employees Search for Potential Employees Evaluating Recruiting Effectiveness Internal Sources External sources Personnel Research Job Positing Employee Referrals Upgrading in same position Transferring to new job Promoting to Higher responsibilities Evaluating for selection Advertising Scouting
  25. 25. RECRUITMENT POLICY Such a policy asserts the objective of the recruitment and provides a framework of implementation of their recruitment programme in the form of procedures. As Yoder and other observe: “Such a policy may involve a commitment to broad principles such a filling vacancies with best qualified individuals. It may embrace several issues such as extent of promotion from within, attitudes of enterprising in recruiting its old employees, handicaps, minority groups, women employees, part-time employees, friends and relatives of present employees. It may also involve the organization system to be developed for implementing recruitment programme and procedures to the employed.” Therefore, a well considered and pre-planned recruitment policy, based on corporate goals, study of environment and the corporate needs, may avoid hasty or ill-considered decision and may go a long way to man the organization with the right type of personnel. A good recruitment policy must contain these elements: (a). Organization’s objectives –both in the short-term and long-term-must be taken into consider as a basic parameter for recruitment decision and needs of the personnel-area-wise, job-family-wise. (b). Identification of the recruitment needs to take decision regarding the balance of the qualities dimensions of the would be recruits, i.e., the recruits should prepare profiles for each category of workers and accordingly work out the main specifications, decide the sections, departments or braches where they should be placed and identify the particular responsibilities which may be immediately assigned to them. (c). Preferred sources of recruitment, which would be tapped by the organization, e.g., for skilled or semi-skilled manual workers, internal sources and employment exchanges may be preferred; for highly specialized categories and managerial personnel, other sources besides the former, may be utilized. 25
  26. 26. (d). Criteria of selection and preference: These should be based on conscious thought and serious deliberations. In some cases trade may be consulted in working out the recruitment policy. In others, management may take the unilateral decision. (e). the cost of recruitment and financial implications of the same. A “recruitment policy,” in its broadest sense, “involves a commitment by the employer to such general principles as: (i) To find and employ the best qualified persons for each job: (ii) To retain the best and most promising of those hired; (iii) To offer promising opportunities for life-time working careers; and (iv) To provide programmes and facilities for personal growth on the job.” According to Yoder, “the recruitment policy is concerned with quantity and qualification (viz, and Q1 and Q2) it established broad guidelines for the staffing process. Generally, the following factors are involved in a recruitment policy: Recruitment and Selection Process (i) To carefully observe the letter and spirit of the relevant public policy (ii) To provide individual employees with the maximum of employment security, avoiding, frequent lay- off or lost time; (iii) To provide each employee with an open road and encouragement in the continuing development of his talents and skills; (iv) To assure each employees of fairness in all employment relationships, including promotion and transfers; (v) To assure each employee of the organisation interest in his personal goals and employment objectives; 26
  27. 27. (vi) To avoid cliques which may develop when several members of the same household or community are employed in the organisation; (vii) To provide employment in jobs which are engineered to meet the qualifications of handicapped workers and minority sections; and (viii) To encourage one or more strong, effective, responsible trade unions among the employees. 27
  28. 28. SOURCES OF RECRUITMENT Before an organization activity begins recruiting applicants, it should consider the most likely source of the type of employee it needs. Some companies try to develop new sources, while most only they to tackle the existing sources they have. These sources, accordingly, may be termed as internal and external. INTERNAL SOURCES Internal sources are the most obvious sources. These include personnel already on the pay roll of an organization, i.e., its present working force. Whenever any vacancy occurs, somebody from within the organisation is upgraded, transferred, promoted or sometimes demote. This source also includes personnel who were once on the pay roll of the company but who plan to return or whom the company would like to rehire, such as those on leave of absence, those who quit voluntarily, or those on production lay offs. Merits: The use of an internal source has some merits: (i) It improves the morale of employees, for they are assured of the fact that they would be preferred over outsiders when vacancies occur, (ii) The employer is in a better position to evaluate those presently employed than outside candidates. This is because the company maintains a record of the progress, experience and service of its employees. (iii) It promoted loyalty among the employees, for it gives them a sense of job security and opportunities for advancement. (iv) As the persons in the employment of the company are fully aware of, and well acquainted with, its policies and know its operating procedures, they require little training, and the chances are they 28
  29. 29. would stay longer in the employment of the organisation than a new outsider would. (v) They are tried people and can, therefore, be relied upon. (vi) It is less costly than going outside to recruit. Demerits: However, this system suffers from certain defects as well. (i) It often leads to inbreeding, and discourages new blood from entering an organisation. (ii) There are possibilities that internal sources may “dry up”, and it may be difficult to find the requisite personnel from within an organisation. (iii) Since the learner does not know more than the lecturer, no innovations worth the name can be made. Therefore, on jobs, which require original thinking (such as advertising, style, designing and basic research), this practice is not followed. (iv) As promotion is based on seniority, the danger is that really capable hands may not be chosen. The likes and dislikes of the management may also play an important role in the selection of personnel. This source is used by many organizations; but a surprisingly large number ignore this source, especially for middle management jobs. In other words, this source is the lode that is rarely mined. It is not only reasonable but also wise to use this source, if the vacancies to be filled are within the capacity of the present employees; if adequate employee records have been maintained, and if opportunities are provided in advance for them to prepare themselves for promotion from “blue- collar” to “white-collar” jobs. 29
  30. 30. EXTERNAL SOURCES These sources lie outside the organisation. They usually include: (i) New entrants to the labour force, i.e., young, mostly inexperienced potential employees---the college students; (ii) The unemployed---with a wide range of skills abilities; (iii) Retired experienced persons such as mechanics, machinists, welders, accountants; (iv) Others not in the labour force, such as married women and persons from minority groups. Merits: (i) External sources provide the requisite type of personnel for an organization, having skill, training and education up to the required standard. (ii) Since persons are recruited from a large market, the best selection can be made without any distinctions of caste, sex or colour. (iii) In the long run, this source proves economical because potential employees do not need extra training for their jobs. Demerits: However, this system suffers from what is called “brain drain”, especially when experienced persons are raided or hunted by sister concerns. 30
  31. 31. RECRUITMENT PRACTICES IN INDIA The different sources for recruitment in India have been classified thus: i) Within the organisation; ii) Badli or temporary workers; iii) Employment agencies; iv) Casual callers; v) Applicants introduces by friends and relatives in the organisation; vi) Advertisement; and vii) Labour contractors. According to a survey of public and private sector employers by prof. Basavaraj, the following methods were used to recruit employees: A) In the public sector (steel units), the major sources of recruitment in order of preferences are: i) Casual callers or employment seekers; ii) Newspaper advertisements; iii) Scheduled tribes and scheduled castes; iv) Employment exchanges; v) Other public undertakings; vi) Internal advertisement; vii) Displaced persons; viii) Relative and friends; ix) Employee recommendations; and x) Institutions. In the public sector (heavy engineering), the sources for non-supervisory staff are: i) Employment exchanges; ii) External advertisement: iii) Internal advertisement; iv) Central training institute; 31
  32. 32. v) Introduction by the liaison officer of a corporation; vi) Deputation personnel; and vii) Transfers from other public undertakings. B) In the private sector, the survey disclosed that the procedures, though formulated, were not institutionalized in character. In some organisations, preference was given to sons and relatives of employees and to local people. In order of preference, the major sources are: i) Advertisements; ii) Employment exchanges; iii) Relatives and friends; iv) Casual callers; and v) Employee recommendations. THE PROBLEMS OF THE “SONS OF THE SOIL” A controversy has arisen in recent years over giving preference in recruitment to “Sons of the Soil”. In this connection the National Commission on Labour has observed: “The solution has to be sought in terms of the primacy of common citizenship, geographical mobility and economic feasibility of locating industrial units, on the one hand, and local aspiration on the other”. It has suggested that: a) Young persons from families whose lands are acquired for industrial use should be provided training opportunities for employment in jobs, which are likely to be created in new units set up on these lands; b) To remove unjustified apprehensions among local candidates, the following steps should be taken to supervise the implementation of the directives of the Government of India on recruitment for public sector projects; i) While recruiting unskilled employees, first preference should be given to persons displaced from the areas required for the projects. The next to be preferred should be those who have been living in the same vicinity. 32
  33. 33. ii) The selection of persons to posts in lower scales should not be left entirely to the head of the unit. It should be made through a recruitment committee, with a nominee of the government of the state in which the unit is located. iii) In the case of middle level technicians whose recruitment has to be on an all- India basis, a member of the State Public service Commission should be associated in making selections in addition to the State Government official on the Board of Directors. iv) Apart from the report sent to the concerned Ministry at the Center, the undertaking should send a statement to the statement to the State Government at regular intervals, preferably every quarter, about the latest employment and recruitment position. Although the Commission has suggested these steps for employment in the public sector, it is of the opinion that they should apply equally to recruitment in the private sector, though the mechanism to regulate this recruitment would necessarily differ from that in the public sector. In India, for recruitment of industrial labour, traditional methods (casual or badli workers on lists maintained by the factory; the use of jobbers, sarders, mukadams, etc., employees’ relatives and dependents and undertaking’s own labour force, etc., and contract labour) are still used for getting labour in textile industry, for building and construction industry, digging of canals, building of roads and dams, etc. Besides these, large industrial complexes have developed a more ‘committed’ labour force. For supplying skilled operators there are a number Crafts Training Schools (Industrial training Institutes; Advanced Vocational Training Institutes at Mumbai, Calcutta, Hyderabad, Kanpur, Ludhiana and Chennai; Seven Craft Instructors Training Schools; And an Institute for training of Foreman at Bangalore). 33
  34. 34. RECRUITMENT PRACTICES IN INDIA AND ELSEWHERE All public sector enterprises are required to consider candidates sponsored by the Employment Exchanges (over 535) and, in most cases, confine the selection to these candidates. However, the private sector is not under any such formal obligation. Under the Apprentices Act, 1961, young craftsmen having received pre- employment training in Industrial Institutes have to be employed by ‘specialized’ industries during their training period as a percentage of the total number of regular employees. Reservation of 25% of vacancies fro Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes candidates and preferential treatment of displaced persons is a part of statutory requirement of Government and public sector employment in India. The recruitment of supervisory personnel in all orgainsed industries is generally by promotion from within the organisation. Some industries first recruit a number of young persons as management trainees and after 2 or 3 years absorb them completely. Executives too are mostly promoted from within. Sometimes good persons are also recruited from Indian Institutes of Technology, All-India Institutes of Management at Calcutta, Institutes of Technology, All-India Institutes of Management at Calcutta, Ahmedabad and Banglore; from universities offering MBA courses, etc. Retired military and police personnel also provide an important source of recruitment particularly for security jobs, and for personnel jobs. In the U.S.A.four sources of applicants are most used in obtaining hourly workers---direct applications at the company office, public employment sources, recommendations by employees, and newspaper advertising. In the case of blue- collar workers, the sources most successfully used are newspaper advertising, direct application, public employment offices, employee’s recommendations, and private employment agencies. In the case of scientific, professional and technical employees, the most productive sources are advertising, on-campus recruiting and employment agencies. 34
  35. 35. Thus, it may be observed that there is virtually no definite work that develops employers’ reasons for selecting various methods of recruitment. No single method is predominant and that recruitment practices are adopted to fill vacancies, employment rates, and other circumstances faced by the employer. 35
  36. 36. ASSESSMENT OF THE RECRUITMENT PROGRAMME Sources for recruiting should be periodically evaluated. For this purpose, the criteria may be the cost per applicant, the applicanthiring ratio, tenure, and performance appraisals, etc. The Organisation should first identify how an applicant was attracted to the firm. A simple way of securing this information is to include in the application blank a question: “How did you learn of the job vacancy for which you have applied?” The next step is to determine whether any one method consistently attracts better applicants. The last step is to use this information to improve the recruiting process. Recruiting should take into consideration ethical practices, such as use of “truth in hiring,” i.e., telling an applicant all about the firm and its position, both good and bad, to enable him to decide whether or not to join the firm, if selected. A successful and effective recruitment programme necessitates a well- defined recruitment policy, a proper organizational structure, and procedure for locating sources of manpower resources, suitable methods and techniques for utilizing these and a constant assessment and consequent improvement. 36
  37. 37. SELECTION SELECTION PROCEDURE The selection procedure is concerned with securing relevant information about an applicant. This information is secure in a number of steps or stages. The objective of selection process is to predetermine whether an applicant meets the qualifications for a specific job and to choose the applicant who is most likely to perform well in that job. Selection is a long process, commencing from the preliminary interview of the applicants and ending with the contract of employment. The hiring procedure is not a single act but it is essentially a series of methods or steps or stages by which additional information is secured about the applicant. At each stage, facts may come to light, which may lead to the rejection to the applicant. A procedure may be compared to a series of successive hurdles or barriers which an applicant must cross. These are intended as screens, and they are designed to eliminate an unqualified applicant at any point in the process. This technique is known as the successive hurdles technique. Not all selection processes include all these hurdles. The complexity of a process usually increases with the level and responsibility of the position to be filled. According to Yoder, “the hiring process is of one or many a ‘go, no-go’ gauge. Candidates are screened by the application of these tools. Qualifies applicants go on to the next hurdle, while the unqualified are eliminated”. Thus, an effective selection programme is a non-random process because those selected have been chosen on the basis of the assumption that they are more likely to be “better” employees than those who have been rejected. 37
  38. 38. Hiring requirement Sr.no Types of Qualifications or specifications Sr.no Types of Gauges 1. Arbitrary i. Application blank Security ii. Security check Sex iii. Police records Age iv. Personal records 2. Physical health and adequacy Physical examination 3. Skills (including specialized knowledge) i Application blank ii Education, training, apprenticeship iii Grades iv Employment records v Biography vi Trade tests 4. Experience i Application blank ii Biography iii Employment records iv Reference v Interviews 5. Aptitude (including intelligence) i Employment records ii Personnel appraisals iii References iv Tests 6. Interests i Application blank ii Reference iii Biography iv Test in 7 Emotional maturity, moods, motivations i Biography ii Employment records iii Tests 8. Attitudes i Interviews ii References iii Personnel appraisals iv Attitude-morale scales. Selection processes or activity or activities typically follow a standard pattern, beginning with an initial screening interview and concluding with the final 38
  39. 39. employment decision. The traditional selection process includes: preliminary screening interview; completion of application form; employment tests; comprehensive interview; background investigations, physical examination and final employment decision to hire. SELECTION POLICY While formulating a selection policy, due consideration should be given to organizational requirement as well as technical and professional dimensions of selection procedures. Yoder and others have suggested goals, technological issues, cost factors, extent of formality, etc. in other words, an effective policy must assert the “why” and “what” aspects of the organizational objectives. ESSENTIALS OF SELECTION PROCEDURE 39
  40. 40. The selection procedure adopted by an organisation is mostly tailor made to meet its particular needs. The thoroughness of the procedure depends upon three factors: First, the nature of selection, whether faulty or safe, because faulty selection affects not only the training period that may be needed, but also results in heavy expenditure on the new employee and the loss that may be incurred by the organisation in case the job-occupant fails on his job. Second, the policy of the company and the attitude of the management. As a practice some companies usually hire more than the actual number needed with a view to removing the unfit persons from the jobs. Third, the length of the probationary or the trial period. The longer the period, the greater the uncertainty in the minds of the selected candidate about his future. The hiring process can be successful, if the following preliminary requirements are satisfied: i) Some one should have the authority to hire. This authority comes from the employment requisition, as developed by an analysis of the workload and work force. ii) There must be some standard or personnel, with which a prospective employee may be compared, i.e., there should be available, beforehand, a comprehensive job description and job specifications as developed by a job analysis. iii) There must be a sufficient number of applicants from whom the required number of employees may be selected. STEPS IN SELECTION PROCEDURE There is no shortcut to an accurate evaluation of a candidate. The hiring procedures are, therefore, generally long and complicated. Many employers make 40
  41. 41. use of such techniques and pseudo-sciences as phrenology, physiognomy, astrology, graphology etc., while coming to hiring decisions. However, in modern times, these are considered to be unreliable measures. The following is a popular procedure though it may be modified to suit individual situation: i) Reception or preliminary interview or screening ii) Application blank—a fact-finder which helps one in learning about an applicant’s background and life history; iii) A well conducted interview to explore the facts and get at the attitudes of the applicant and his family to the jobs; iv) A physical examination—health and stamina are vital factors in success; v) Physiological testing to explore the surface area and get an objective look at a candidate’s suitability for a job; vi) A reference check; Vii) Final selection approval by manager; and communication of the decision to the candidate. RECEPTION, INITIAL OR PRELIMINARY INTERVIEW OR SCREENING A special interviewer or a high caliber receptionist in the employment office usually conducts the initial screening. When a large number of applicants are available, the preliminary interview is desirable both from the company’s point of view and that of the applicant seeking employment. This interview is essentially a sorting process in which perspective applicants are given the necessary information about the nature of the jobs in the organisation. The necessary information, then, is elicited from the candidates relating to their education, experience, skill, salary demanded, the reasons for leaving their present jobs, their job interests and whether they are available for the jobs, their physical appearance, age, “drive” and facility in speech. If a candidate meets with the requirements of the organisation, he may be selected for further action. If he does 41
  42. 42. not fit into the organizational structure (because of lack of requisite qualifications, physical disability, weak sight, or poor physique), he is eliminated at the preliminary stage. Such interviews are usually short and may be conducted at a desk, across a counter or railing and they are known as stand-up interviews. The main objective of such interviews is to screen out undesirableunqualified candidates at the very outset. Such interviews should be conducted by someone who inspires confidence, who is genuinely interested in people, and who judgment in the “sizing up” of applicants is fairly reliable. Care is taken to ensure that the “weeding out” process does not lead to the elimination of desirable workers. Sometimes, applicants are eliminates because of some feature in the organisation which cannot be adjusted satisfactorily at this stage. Six biographical items have been suggested as knock-out factors in the preliminary screening programme for salesmen. They include instability of residence, failure in business within two years, divorce or separation within two years, excessive personal indebt ness, too high a standard of living and unexplained gaps in the employment record. The organization may fit a job to the person who available, as when a girl is appointed as stenographer, telephone operator, secretary or saleswomen. Or jobs may be provided for the blind, the firms or other handicapped persons. Working hours may be so adjusted as to make an intelligent match possible between them. Since the preliminary interview brings about one of the first personal contacts of an individual with a company and since it is the stage at which some candidates must be rejected, it is desirable that the interviewer should be courteous, kind receptive and informal. Despite the pressure under which he frequently works, he should avoid appearing brusque or impatient. Further, privacy must be maintained in holding interviews. 42
  43. 43. Model Procedure for Effective Personnel Selection 43 1st stage Establishing Selection policies 2nd stage Identifying & choosing selection Criteria 3rd stage Gathering information about potential employees 5th stage Making decision to select or reject 4th stage Evaluating information & assessing applicant. 6th stage Communic ating decision 1 Purpose of selection? 2 Who makes selection decision? 3 Screening out for selecting in? 4 Fitting people to jobs or designing people 5 Selection procedure? 1 Identifying criteria of successful performanc e 2 Identifying predictors of success 3 Determinin g selection criteria 1 Authorized to hire 2. Initial contact with potential employee 3. Preliminary Interview 4. Biographic al data 5. Testing 6. In depth interview 7. Verifying background 8. Medical examinatio n 1 Evaluating biographica l inventory 2. Evaluating test results 3. Assessing applicant interview - 1 Electronic assistance 2. Personal value judgment 1. Rejection 2. Making job offer 3. Acceptance or rejection of offer
  44. 44. Selection process flow chart : 44 Reception of Application Preliminary interview Application blank Psychological tests Interview Background investigation (Reference check)
  45. 45. Resume Management system (RMS) The user of RMS is broadly classified into two main categories. 1) Employer ( within the organization) 2) Candidates (outside the organization) i) Post Vacancies i) View vacancies 45 Final selection by interviewers Placement Physical examination Negative decision Waiting List of desirable applicants Employer Candidates Internet
  46. 46. ii) View Vacancies. ii) Apply online & offline iii) Vacancy Ordering iv) View Resume v) Quick Search vi) Text Based Search The employer is again divided into three main categories. The category is said to be the actors. There are three actors and the role played by them is as follows: Actors Role Played Admin (1) Creating, Updating, Deleting Job Opening. (2) Deleting & updating records of candidates. (3) Creating, Updating, Deleting login information. (4) Creating, Updating, Deleting Category. (5) Creating, Updating, Deleting Evaluation Form. Team Leaders (1) (1) Search the candidates against the job opening. (2) Short listing of Candidates. (3) Send mail to Admin (HR Manager). (4) View the Job Opening. Data Entry Operators(5) (1) Creating candidate entry. Whenever there are certain requirements for the candidates in the organization the manager of that particular department informs the Admin (HR Manager) about the vacancies plus the total number of vacant position available. After getting the information the Admin notes down the Job Requirements and then posted the data on the net. Since company is also maintaining one data bank that is used within the organization (for Intranet), the same copy of the Job Opening must also available on their data bank so that search can be done in the later. Once the data about Job Opening becomes available online on the company website then the next role is played by the Candidates. The candidate visits the web site and clicks on the career link. After clicking the link the system will take the user to the Job Opening Page i.e the brief listing of all the job opens. This page wouldn’t display a full description of all the jobs. If the user doesn’t want to see the full detail of a particular job then he can directly click on the Application Form button or if he wants to see the detail then clicking on the button (View Job) attached to each job will show him the individual detail. 46
  47. 47. Once he moves to Application Form page, he has to enter the necessary details and uploads the Resume. After uploading the resume and clicking on the Submit button submits the record in the database. After submission the system sends an e-mail known as acknowledgement stating the successful submission of the record in the database, it also sends a password so that user can modify his/her profile later. Now since the company is also maintaining data bank the record must be added to their database as well. Once the submission is done the system notifies the Team Leaders about the arrival of candidate and detail of the job opening with which his profile matches. Now go back one step back when the admin has posted the data then he informs the TL (Team Leaders) that there is a job opening and these are the requirements. After getting the job requirements the next job of TL is to search the suitable candidates for the job in the database and then shortlist those candidates who are going through the selection process. This means from the search result not all candidates are going through the selection process. Only few are going through the process and that decision is taken by the TL. Once the candidates are short listed TL informs the Admin through the mail and sends a list of short listed candidates so that they can be communicating for the selection process or to inform them. The short listed candidates are informed through either the mail or through the phone and give them the date and timing of interview. Now the next comes the Selection Process. In the Selection Process there are minimum two stages and maximum three stages. Stage 1 – First Interview (Taken by the admin only) In this interview session the candidate is interviewed by the admin and then admin makes the decision about whether the candidate is selected or rejected. It might possible that no decision is taken at all and decision is still pending but the candidate is put forward to the next stage which is the stage 2. The admin may put certain comments about the candidate which is required while making any decisions. Stage 2 – Second Interview (taken by the Team Leaders) 47
  48. 48. In this interview session the candidate is interviewed by the Team Leader. This interview is a kind of review of marks that is scored by the candidate during the first stage. The TL also put certain comments. Stage 3- Final Decision Here in this stage the decision about the candidate is taken by the admin depending on the previous score secured by the candidate and the comments given by admin as well as TL. Remarks- It may possible that candidate doesn’t have to go through all the stages described above, since the admin can take the decision early about the selection of the candidate. This implies that the candidate may skip certain stages also. The decision taken by the admin is final. There are three decisions that are to be considered. (1) Considered – This means that the candidate is selected for the particular job. (2) Rejected – this means that the candidate is rejected. (3) Pending – the decision is still not taken. (4) None- doesn’t go through any of the stages. Once the candidate has gone through all the stages, he is informed through the e- mail or by post about the result. The very first page contains the Login Page. This Login Page determines the type of the user and accordingly sends the user to that area. Here in this case we have three types of user. (a) Admin (b) Team Leader (c) Data Entry Operator 48
  49. 49. QUESTIONAIRE 1. Name of the company 2. Person interviewed 3. Company’s deal 4. How do you’ll advertise 5. What are the terms and conditions of payment to the company 6. Do you take the interview, select and send them or you just train and send them. 49
  50. 50. 7. BPO' are booming today and there are so many placement agencies, how do you cope with the competition? 8. What do you think why are placement agencies needed today 9. What is role of each person in hierarchy 10. How do you’ll conduct training and do you’ll charge for training ANALYSATION OF INTERVIEW (POWERTALK) The name of the company is “Power Talk Human Resource”. I interviewed Mr. Jude (The Vice President)-handles operations. They deal with JP Morgan’s Chase, Intelenet, Sutherland, ICICI one source, 3G. Their different form of advertising includes newspapers and pamphlets not only this, they give cold calls as well as taking the data of the existing employees of one of company and shifting them to another by offering them better packages as well as other favorable working conditions and better incentives. The payments are done on commission basis. The percentage was not disclosed as it was confidential. The agency trains the candidate for their interviews to the company the candidate wish to join. They personally approach the companies for the contract, where they give presentations and the most effective ones’ are selected. The company’s time and efforts are saved since the 50
  51. 51. appointment of candidates is handled by different placement agencies which in a way are effective and economical. The telecallers have to call the candidates for interviews. The team leader above him guides and directs him and then there is an operation manager who gives the plans and sets the target for team leader and above him is the Vice President who just monitors the work and approves everything. Training is absolutely free and it’s done on individual basis as well as in groups. ANALYSATION OF (K10) K-10 is the leading HR Solutions, Training, Marketing & Technology Consulting Company, to offer complete Business Solutions. K-10 penetrates the world of consulting in the areas of Convergence Technology, Contact Centers, Business Process Outsourcing [BPO] and Web Technologies. They are able to achieve this by being a Total Service Provider of e- Business solutions and Contact Center system integration services 51
  52. 52. MISSION: To revolutionize the way people interact at the interface of customer servicing. VISION: Train with Kaizer and work with global giants in the Customer Service Industry. ADMINISTRATIVE STRUCTURE 52
  54. 54. Placement agencies from an organizational and rupee standpoint is a significant investment in training and infrastructure. The infrastructure needed to support the placement agency’s environment varies. The evidences strongly suggest that for large companies the benefits out weighs the cost Placement agencies itself is anew concept that has been introduced to reduce time, efforts of the companies in hiring the employees Placement agencies have been regarded as the most important agencies because unless the right types of people are hired, even the best plans, organization charts and control system would not do much good. The recruitment is viewed both as positive and negative activity. It is process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating and encouraging them to apply for jobs to increase the hiring ratio. Selection on other hand tends to be negative because it rejects good under of those who apply, leaving only the best to be hired. It reduces the administrative cost associated with selection by consolidating all activity in a single office it relives line offices of the detail involved in hiring people which is common under a decentralize plan. It tends to make the selection of workers scientific ANNEXURES 54
  55. 55. Name: Job Opening Form Description: Job Opening Form is used to enter detailed information on any Job Opening in principal India Actor/s: Recruiting Staff Precondition: None Main Scenario: 1. System displays the following set of fields: Under the General Information section a. Job Title b. Code c. Category d. Department e. Objectives Under the Job Condition section f. Location g. Trial Period h. Job Type i. Working Day j. Work Schedule k. Minimum Salary l. Maximum Salary m. Over a Time Under the Job Duties section n. Job Duties o. Name p. Position q. Phone r. Fax s. E-mail Under the Job Requirements Section, five rows of t. Trait Type u. Trait Name 55
  56. 56. Under the Requisition section v. Requisition Number w. Requisition Date x. Needed By y. Status z. Important aa. Confidentially bb. Opened cc. Filled dd. Available ee. Hiring Manger Under the Information of HR Department section ff. Responsible Expert gg. Start Recruitment Date hh. Finish Recruitment Date ii. Duration of Recruitment 2. Recruiting Staff fills up the necessary fields. 3. Staff clicks on the Submit button. 4. System validates if mandatory fields are specified. 5. System displays a message stating that record has been added successfu 6. System stores the record in the database 56
  57. 57. Candidate Application Form Name: Candidate Application Form Description: The Application Form is for inputting detailed information on an applicant. Actor/s: Recruiting staff Preconditions: None Main Scenario: 1. 1. System displays the following set of fields Under the General Information Section a. First Name b. Last Name c. Middle Name d. Category Under the Contact Information Section e. Address f. City g. State h. ZIP Code i. Country j. Home Phone k. Work Phone l. E-mail Under the Source of Applicant Section m. Source Type n. Date of Application Under the Job Expectation Section o. Job Title p. Minimum Salary q. Job Type r. Period (appears only when temporary is selected in Job Type) s. Working Day Under the Education Section, five rows of t. Year u. Qualification v. Institute w. Distinction, If any Under the Work Experience Section, five rows of x. Period y. Organization z. Designation aa. Responsibilities 57
  58. 58. Applicant Source Form Name: Applicant Source Form Description: The Applicant Source Form is for inputting and editing the main information on an applicant source. Actor/s: Recruiting Staff Preconditions: None Main Scenario: 1. System displays the following set of fields: a. Name b. Type c. Address d. ZIP Code e. Phone f. Fax g. WWW h. E-mail i. Comments j. Active 2. Staff fills up the fields (a) to (j) 3. Staff clicks on the ‘Submit’ 4. System validates if the mandatory fields are specified 5. System stores the record in the database 58
  59. 59. Interview Model Selection Round Form Name: Selection Round Form Description: The Selection Round Form is for showing the ways applicants are evaluated during each selection round. Precondition: None Actor/s: Recruiting Staff Main Scenario: 1. System displays the following set of fields: a. Round Name b. Round Type c. Weight d. Number e. Expert Under Evaluated Traits, five rows of f. Characteristic g. Weight 59
  60. 60. Evaluation Form Name: Evaluation Form Description: Each selection round has an Evaluation Form corresponding to it. It includes the selection round requisites and the results of it being conducted. Main Scenario: 1. System displays the following set of fields: a. Applicant (First Name, Last Name, Middle Name) b. Job Opening c. Hiring Manager d. Expert e. Advanced Date f. Approved Date g. Round Date h. Time Under Evaluated Traits Section, five rows of i. Traits j. Scores After Evaluated Traits Section k. Comments l. Decision Applicant Rejection Form Use Case Name: Applicant Rejection Form Description: The Applicant Rejection Form includes general information on an applicant’s rejection. Main Scenario: System Displays the following set of fields: a. First Name b. Last name c. Middle Name d. Job Title e. Round f. Expert g. Date h. Reason 60
  61. 61. Applicant Hiring Form Name: Applicant Hiring Form Description: The Applicant Hiring Form includes general information on the conditions of hiring the applicant Main Scenario: System displays the following set of fields: a. Hired Date b. Date of Starting work c. Trial Period Until d. First Name e. Last Name f. Middle Name g. Job Title h. Hiring Manager i. Expert Bibliography => http://www.yahoo.com => http://www.powertalk .com 61
  62. 62. =>http://www.k10.com =>http://www.google.com References  Personnel Management—C.B.Mamoria  Personnel management—C.B.Mamoria /S.V.Gankar. INDEX Sr.no Particular Pg.no 62
  63. 63. 1. Professional practice of placement 1-9 2. Introduction *meaning *sources *merits and demerits 10-12 3. Methods of Recruitment *direct method *indirect method 13-17 4. Perquisite of a good recruitment Policy *advantages of centralization recruitment *factors affecting recruitment 18-21 5 Theories regarding recruitment 22-24 6 Recruitment policy 25-27 7 Sources of Recruitment *internal sources *external sources 28-30 8 Recruitment practice in India 31-33 9 Recruitment practice in India and Elsewhere 34-35 10 Assessment of the recruitment programme 36 11 Selection procedure *hiring requirement 37-39 12 Selection policy *essentials of selection procedure *steps in selection procedure *reception, initial or preliminary interview 40-43 13 Model procedure for effective personnel selection 44-45 14 Resume management system 46-49 15 Questionnaire *analysation of powertalk *analysation of k10 *conclusion. 50-54 16 Annexure 55-61 17 Bibliography 62 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 63
  64. 64. I am deeply indebted towards people who have guided me in preparing this project. I would firstly like to express my gratitude towards my guide prof.Dipti Soni for having shown so much flexibility, guidance as well as supporting me in all possible ways whenever I needed help. She has motivated me through out and helped me to understand the topic in a very effective manner. I would also like to thank our BMS coordinator Prof.Bhanu Krishnan for an indirect support throughout. I am sincerely thankful to Mr. Jade the mangers of PowerTalk for his valuable time and those out looks through which I would understand various things and concepts related to this topic I acknowledge my indebtedness and express my great appreciation to all behind this work. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 64
  65. 65. This project introduces the basics of recruitment methodology, including the frame work, approaches that have been used by the placement agencies to increase employer and employee satisfaction This project on management of placement agencies is a precise methodology to measure and improve a company’s operational performance by identifying and eliminating ‘defects’ in the working and service related process. The Management of Placement agencies are most often associated with the management concepts. The techniques are also being applied extensively to transactional and administrative process. Like most change initiative the placement agencies require unwavering and consistent ownership and leadership by top management. The goal of most of the companies is to increase customer satisfaction through reduction of product defects. Placement agencies have now evolved as a way to do business for employee satisfaction and to increase productivity in the work. These agencies have come up to reduce time, money, manual work, solve many technical problems and employ most efficient work force. Human Resource managers can also use Six Sigma for hiring employees which can reduce the cycle time. Many companies have adopted hiring placement agencies and have benefited to a great extent. MANAGEMENT OF PLACEMENT OF PLACEMENT AGENCIES 65
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