Transgender people are individuals whose gender identities do not
pertain to their biological sex, and thus they differ from the stereotype
of how men and women normally are.
‘Transgender’ does not include sexual orientation or physical sex
characteristics, but is in fact a less clinical term which pertains to
gender identity and gender expression.
Thus transgender people encompass those people whose identity and
behaviour do not adhere to the stereotypical gender norms.
They may be gay, transsexual, transvestite, or gender queer.
Transgender people have a gender identity or gender expression
that differs from their assigned sex.
Transgender people are sometimes called transsexual
if they desire medical assistance to transition
from one sex to another.
Transgender is also defined very broadly to include
cross-dressers, regardless of their gender identity.
4. Transgender an umbrella term
people who are not exclusively
masculine or feminine
people who belong to a third gender, or conceptualize
transgender people as a third gender
5. Transgenders in India
• According to Census 2011, there are around
4.9 lakh transgender in the country.
• In India, transgender people include hijras/
kinnars (eunuchs), shiv-shaktis, jogappas,
Sakhi, jogtas, Aradhis etc.
6. The problems faced by the transgender
people in India
• These people are shunned by family and society alike.
• They have restricted access to education, health services and public
• Till recently, they were excluded from effectively participating in
social and cultural life.
• Politics and decision-making processes have been out of their
• Transgender people have difficulty in exercising their basic civil
• Reports of harassment, violence, denial of services, and unfair
treatment against transgender persons have come to light.
• Sexual activity between two persons of the same sex is criminalised,
and is punishable by incarceration.
• Patriarchy is a social system in which the
father or eldest male is head of the
household, having authority over women and
• Patriarchy also refers to a system of
government by males, and to the dominance
of men in social or cultural systems.
• It may also include title being traced through
the male line.
political movements, ideologies, and social
movements that share a common
goal to define, establish, and achieve
political economic, personal, and
Social rights for women
for women in
25. Waves of feminism
First-wave feminism – (1910s to 1950s) women's suffrage,
property rights and political candidacy
Second-wave feminism – 1960s to 1980s, reducing
inequalities in sexuality, family, the workplace, reproductive
Third-wave feminism – 1990s to 2008, embracing
individualism and diversity
Fourth-wave of feminism – 2008 to present-day, combatting
sexual harassment, assault and misogyny
26. Feminism in India
Aimed at defining, establishing, and
equal political, economic, social rights
equal opportunities for Indian women.
27. Feminism in India
pursuit of women's rights
right to work for equal wages
right to equal access to
28. Feminism in India
Indian feminists have fought against culture-specific
issues within India's patriarchal society
practice of widow
immolation - sati
29. Feminism in India