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ELEVATION, CRYPSIS AND PHYLOGENETIC COMMUNITY 
STRUCTURE OF NEOTROPICAL ARTHROPODS
Canadian Society of Ecology and Evoluti...
Kate Pare
Connor Warne
Dry forest
Rain forest
Cloud forest
Collection Localities
Área de Conservación Guanacaste
In an area ~3.5x the area of the...
R² = 0.9611
17
22
27
32
37
0 500 1000 1500
Average Daily Max: Temp (°C)
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
04‐Dec‐12 04‐Dec‐13 04‐Dec...
Questions: 
• Who lives where?
• How much overlap?
• Is this changing?
• Functional:phylogenetic?
Smith, M. A., Hallwachs, W. and 
Janzen, D. H. (2014), Diversity and 
phylogenetic community structure of 
ants along a Co...
Elevational Range
An example with
Gnamptogenys ants
• Most species found at only 1 site
• Small number of sp. with a range
Elevational Range
An example with
Collembola
• Some species found at only 1 site
• Larger number of sp. with a range
Chord Diagram of elevational beta‐
diversity
NB: the colours only represent the rows in the comparison and are only presen...
• So there is strong genetic 
differentiation at a fine 
spatial scale.  
• Is there corresponding 
functional diversity? ...
Ants in Space?
https://youtu.be/8j0WNUayx3U
Functionally significant morphological 
features
F= 3.81, df=2, p=0.023
F=16.069, df=2, p<0.000
Morphospace along an elevational 
gradient 
• Largest “ant‐space” occurs 
with the greatest diversity 
• Dry & cloud fores...
1. Turnover: extremely small
communities
• Climate change is affecting and will
continue to affect turnover.
• Vulnerable,...
Acknowledgements
• The ACG for protecting it all!
• The ACG parataxonomists for
collecting, rearing and
databasing ACG ins...
Come & work with us!
http://malexsmith.com/
Chris Ho
Smith et al CSEE 2016
Smith et al CSEE 2016
Smith et al CSEE 2016
Smith et al CSEE 2016
Smith et al CSEE 2016
Smith et al CSEE 2016
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Smith et al CSEE 2016

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Talk delivered at the annual meeting of the Canadian Society for Ecology and Evolution in St. John's Newfoundland, July 2016

Website: www.malexsmith.com
Twitter: @Alex_Smith_Ants

Publicada em: Ciências
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Smith et al CSEE 2016

  1. 1. ELEVATION, CRYPSIS AND PHYLOGENETIC COMMUNITY  STRUCTURE OF NEOTROPICAL ARTHROPODS Canadian Society of Ecology and Evolution Friday, July 8, 2016 @Alex_Smith_Ants salex@uoguelph.ca M. Alex Smith1, K. Pare1, C. Warne1, W. Hallwachs2 and D. H. Janzen2 1 Department of Integrative Biology University of Guelph 2 Department of Biology, University of Pennsylvania
  2. 2. Kate Pare Connor Warne
  3. 3. Dry forest Rain forest Cloud forest Collection Localities Área de Conservación Guanacaste In an area ~3.5x the area of the city of St. John’s there are estimated to reside 3% of the world’s biodiversity
  4. 4. R² = 0.9611 17 22 27 32 37 0 500 1000 1500 Average Daily Max: Temp (°C) 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 04‐Dec‐12 04‐Dec‐13 04‐Dec‐14 04‐Dec Daily Max: Temp (°C)
  5. 5. Questions:  • Who lives where? • How much overlap? • Is this changing? • Functional:phylogenetic?
  6. 6. Smith, M. A., Hallwachs, W. and  Janzen, D. H. (2014), Diversity and  phylogenetic community structure of  ants along a Costa Rican elevational gradient. Ecography, 37: 720–731.  doi: 10.1111/j.1600‐ 0587.2013.00631.x
  7. 7. Elevational Range An example with Gnamptogenys ants • Most species found at only 1 site • Small number of sp. with a range
  8. 8. Elevational Range An example with Collembola • Some species found at only 1 site • Larger number of sp. with a range
  9. 9. Chord Diagram of elevational beta‐ diversity NB: the colours only represent the rows in the comparison and are only present to  facilitate the visualisation of the pairwise connections. 
  10. 10. • So there is strong genetic  differentiation at a fine  spatial scale.   • Is there corresponding  functional diversity?  • “Ant space”
  11. 11. Ants in Space? https://youtu.be/8j0WNUayx3U
  12. 12. Functionally significant morphological  features
  13. 13. F= 3.81, df=2, p=0.023
  14. 14. F=16.069, df=2, p<0.000
  15. 15. Morphospace along an elevational  gradient  • Largest “ant‐space” occurs  with the greatest diversity  • Dry & cloud forest occupy a  subset of this “ant‐space” • These subsets represent  smaller body measurements  of features that are  functionally associated with  predation. • This does not bode well for  the future.  • The largest “Collembola‐ space” occurs in the dry  forest. Not more diverse.  Range of ranges. • Rain & cloud forest occupy a  different portion of this  “Collembola‐space” • Traits here are those  associated with life at the  surface. 
  16. 16. 1. Turnover: extremely small communities • Climate change is affecting and will continue to affect turnover. • Vulnerable, vulnerable vulnerable! 2. Degree of coupling between genetic divergence and morphospace is not simple • Related in ants, not so much in Collembola 3. What next? • Community characterisation • Expansion of functional traits (ie. related to abiotic variables of thermal ecology) • Taxonomic expansion Messages
  17. 17. Acknowledgements • The ACG for protecting it all! • The ACG parataxonomists for collecting, rearing and databasing ACG insects. • ALL the graduate and undergraduate students and volunteers in the Smith Lab for their enthusiasm, questions, dedication and love for the little things. • NSERC Discovery Grant to MAS @Alex_Smith_Antssalex@uoguelph.ca
  18. 18. Come & work with us! http://malexsmith.com/ Chris Ho

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