2- Kashmir Conflict. How did it start?
3- Wars of Kashmir
4- Human Rights Violations of Kashmiris
5- International Organizations Role
6- Conclusion 4
Kashmir is a Himalayan region that refers to the
former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir
before 1947 and the Partition of the Indian
It is renowned for its exceptional beauty natural
resources, food, music, art, and architecture.
While the region is majority Muslim, it is also
home to Hindus, Buddhists, and Sikhs, as well as
diverse linguistic and ethnic communities. 5
◈ Bordered by Afghanistan, Pakistan,
◈ Contains about 85000 square miles of
◈ Currently, Kashmir is divided into
◈ It is surrounded by Pakistan in the west
and China embraces it in the east and
India in the south.
◈ Initial religion of Kashmir was
Hinduism and Buddhism.
◈ later on in fourteen century a
mass proportion of people
converted in to Islam.
◈ In a census of 1947 Kashmir
registered a Muslim majority
population of 77%.
◈ Old name
◈ That land came to be known as
Kashyapa & Kashyapamar
◈ And later on Kashmir.
RULERS BEFORE PARTITION
◈ Kashmir was controlled by
a string of Hindu rulers
◈ The Muslim era lasted for
over five centuries.
◈ Kashmir was captured by
the Sikh state of the Punjab
◈ Subsequently, it was under
the control Dogra kingdom
of Jammu in 1846
◈ Jammu and Kashmir was a
princely state during the
(1846 to 1947) before
partition under British East
India Company Rule
HOW DID IT START?
◈ One of the most
◈ Started in 1947.
◈ Hari Singh (A Hindu),
the ruler of Jammu &
◈ Remain neutral while
choosing between India
◈ Became a territorial
government of India and
◈ Each country lays claim
to Kashmir due to
nationalism and the
controversial politics of
the region. 10
CONFLICT CAUSING DECISION
◈ The maharaja's fateful decision to align Kashmir with
India ushered in decades of conflict in the contested
◈ Princely states were governed by Maharaja Hari Singh a
Hindu seeks India help to align with them
◈ India responded that, in order to gain military assistance,
Kashmir would have to accede to India, thus becoming
part of the new country.
PAKISTAN’S STRUGGLE TO GET KASHMIR
◈ In July 1947 Jinnah wrote a letter to Maharaja to persuade
him and in return giving every sort of favour.
◈ One plan called for organising an armed insurgency in the
western districts of the state
◈ And the other for organising a Pashtun tribal invasion.
Both were set in motion.
◈ India controls the South
East portion of Kashmir,
which has the most fertile
◈ Indian territory is governed
as a state, called Jammu
◈ It controls 55% of Kashmir.
◈ Pakistan controls the North
West, with a harsher
climate and sparser
◈ Pakistan’s territory is
divided into two regions:
Azad Kashmir or free
◈ It controls 30% of Kashmir. 15
WARS OF KASHMIR
◈ The Indo-Pakistani War of 1947–1948, or the
First Kashmir War, was a war fought between India and Pakistan
over the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir
◈ The second Indo-Pak war began on 5th August 1965. Initiated by
Pakistan when Pakistani troops dressed as locals crossed over to
the Indian side of the Line of Control (LOC). The war ended on
23 September 1965.
◈ The Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 was a military confrontation
between India and Pakistan that occurred during the Bangladesh
Liberation War 17
◈ The Kargil War, also known as the Kargil conflict, was
an armed conflict between India and Pakistan that took place
between May and July 1999 in the Kargil district of Kashmir
◈ Indian military learned that Pakistani fighters had infiltrated
Indian-administered territory. The intrusion triggered intense
fighting between the two sides.
◈ Two months into the conflict, Indian troops had slowly retaken
75–80% of the intruded area and nearly all the high ground were
back under Indian control.
SIACHIEN GLACIER CONFLICT
The Siachen Glacier is a glacier located where the Line of
Control between India and Pakistan ends.
◈ The entire Siachen Glacier, with all major passes, has been
under the administration of India.
◈ Pakistan maintains a territorial claim over the Siachen Glacier
◈ Due to siachen conflict a cease fire went effect in 2003.
◈ The conflict has resulted in thousands of deaths, mostly due to
HUMAN RIGHTS VOILATIONS OF KASHMIRIS
◈ Indian administered Kashmir
◈ Human rights abuses in Jammu and Kashmir range from mass
killings, enforced disappearances, torture
◈ Many human rights organizations such as Amnesty International
and Human Rights Watch (HRW) have condemned human rights
abuses in Kashmir by Indians
◈ Human rights abuses have been committed by Indian forces in
Kashmir. Militants have also committed crimes.
EFFORTS TO END DISPUTES
◈ But if a solution to the problem will be a graduated process,
consisting of incremental measures
◈ It is interesting to note that when the Kashmir dispute
erupted in 1947-48
◈ World powers stated that the future status of Kashmir must
be determined by the will of the people of the territory
◈ And that their wishes must be ascertained under the
supervision and control of the U.N.
INDIAN VIEW POINT
◈ India has officially stated that it believes Kashmir to be an
integral part of India
◈ India does not accept the two-nation theory that forms the basis
of Pakistan's claims and considers that Kashmir, despite being a
Muslim-majority region, is in many ways an "integral part"
of secular India.
◈ All differences between India and Pakistan, including Kashmir,
need to be settled through bilateral negotiations.
PAKISTAN VIEW POINT
◈ Pakistan maintains that Kashmir is the jugular vein of Pakistan
and a currently disputed territory whose final status must be
determined by the people of Kashmir
◈ According to the two-nation theory, one of the principles that is
cited for the partition that created India and Pakistan, Kashmir
should have been with Pakistan, because it has a Muslim
◈ The popular Kashmiri insurgency demonstrates that the
Kashmiri people no longer wish to remain within India.
INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS ABOUT KASHMIR
◈ United Nations Security Council Resolution 39, adopted on
January 20, 1948 offered to assist in the peaceful resolution of the
Kashmir Conflict by setting up a commission of 3 members;
◈ One to be chosen by India,
◈ One to be chosen by Pakistan and
◈ The third to be chosen by the other two members of the
commission. The United Nations has played an advisory role in
maintaining peace, when a dispute erupted between the two States
on the question of Jammu and Kashmir soon after in 1947. 27
OIC AND SAARC ROLE 1988
◈ SAARC also plays an
important role on Kashmir
conflict. A number of
summits in different time
and occasion occurred. A
few were signed about
◈ Since 5th August 2019,
OIC and IPHRC have also
issued several press
◈ Kashmir has been a source of conflict between India and Pakistan for
more than 70 years. Both countries are not ready on giving up Kashmir.
In all this conflict of India and Pakistan the one who is suffering is
◈ Kashmir issue should be resolve according to wish of Kashmiris. It is
high time for realization of the importance of resolution of this conflict.
It is widely recognized that the peace and prosperity of South Asia is
mostly depending on the future of this conflict.