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Development of Individual

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Development of Individual

  1. 1. DEVELOPMENTINDIVIDUALOF
  2. 2. GROWTH• An increase in physical size of whole or any of its part and can be measured in inches, centimeters and in pounds or kilograms. (Marlow)• Growth of full size or maturity, as in the progress of an egg to the adult stage. (Taber)
  3. 3. DEVELOPMENT• Progressive increase in skill and capacity. (Marlow)• Development, maturation or expansion of physical structures or cognitive & psychological abilities. The process may be normal, as in the development of a fetus or a child, or pathological, as in a cyst or a malignant tumor. (Taber)
  4. 4. FACTORS AFFECTING THEDEVELOPMENT OF INDIVIDUAL BIOLOGICAL factors
  5. 5. principles ofHEREDITY
  6. 6. HEREDITY • The passing of traits to offspring (from its parent or ancestors). This is the process by which an offspring cell or organism acquires or becomes predisposed to the characteristics of its parent cell or organism. Through heredity, variations exhibited by individuals can accumulate and cause some species to evolve. The study of heredity in biology is called genetics.
  7. 7. HEREDITY • Modern genetics had its beginnings in an abbey garden, where a monk named Gregor Mendel documented a particulate mechanism of inheritance. He discovered the basic principles of heredity by breeding garden peas in carefully planned experiments.
  8. 8. 1. Reproduction principles of HEREDITY2. Variation3. Chance4. Dominance and Recessiveness5. Sex-linked characteristics
  9. 9. principle ofREPRODUCTION • Heredity produces similarities among those who come from the same family, same race, and same species.
  10. 10. Filipinos Thais
  11. 11. 1. Reproduction principles of HEREDITY2. Variation3. Chance4. Dominance and Recessiveness5. Sex-linked characteristics
  12. 12. principle ofVARIATION • Heredity produces not only similarities; it also produces differences among those who come from different families, different races and different species.
  13. 13. 1. Reproduction principles of HEREDITY2. Variation3. Chance4. Dominance and Recessiveness5. Sex-linked characteristics
  14. 14. principle ofCHANCE • The combination of genes that go into the single cell which results from fertilization is a matter of chance.
  15. 15. 1. Reproduction principles of HEREDITY2. Variation3. Chance4. Dominance and Recessiveness5. Sex-linked characteristics
  16. 16. principle ofDOMINANCE & RECESSIVENESS • Dominant traits are assured of appearing in the offspring whenever they are present. • Recessive traits do not appear in the offspring whenever the opposite is present; they manifest themselves only in the absence of the opposite dominant trait that is when they are carried by both parents.
  17. 17. 1. Reproduction principles of HEREDITY2. Variation3. Chance4. Dominance and Recessiveness5. Sex-linked characteristics
  18. 18. principle ofSEX-LINKED CHARACTERISTICS • These are the traits that are carried by the chromosomes which determine sex of the individual. Therefore are found only in one sex.
  19. 19. PRINCIPLES OFGROWTHAND DEVELOPMENT
  20. 20. DEVELOPMENT FOLLOWS A PATTERN The process of development is not haphazard but gradual and regular. We will find a particular pattern or sequence of development. In the cephalo-caudal sequence i.e. development proceeds from head to toe and proximo-distal sequence in this pattern direction of development proceeds from centre to periphen.
  21. 21. GROWTH IS CONTINUOUS AND GRADUAL Growth always brings about certain change in the organism. But these changes do not take place suddenly. It is a continuous process. All the parts of body continue to grow gradually until they reach their maximum through infancy early childhood, late childhood.
  22. 22. GROWTH PROCEEDS MORE RAPIDLY DURINGEARLY YEARS The rate of growth is not uniform. The child grows more rapidly during early years and slowly during the later years. Growth during early years is so rapid that it is easily noticeable and growth becomes slow at the later stages.
  23. 23. DEVELOPMENT PROCEEDS FROMGENERAL TO SPECIFIC The child first shows general responses as a whole. Then gradually he gives specific response to specific stimuli. The child moves his whole hand to indicate certain thing instead of one finger. In the emotional aspect he responds through only general response like crying and smile to denote, hunger, pain and joy and the baby produces general babbling sounds, before he can speak words.
  24. 24. DEVELOPMENT IS A PRODUCT OF HEREDITYAND ENVIRONMENT Heredity and environment have considerable impact on the growth and development of the child. The child is born with some genetically endowments and develops by interacting with his environment. Nutrition, home climate and school environment regulate social, emotional and intellectual development while child inherits physical stature and different traits from his parents.
  25. 25. MOST OF THE TRAITS ARE CORRELATED The physical and the mental development of the child are mostly correlated to each other. A child who has a good physical health is also above average in intelligence. A child whose intelligence is above average is also so in health size, sociability, attitudes and aptitudes. But this may not be always true.
  26. 26. GROWTH IS NOT UNIFORM Different parts of body grow at different rates. All parts of body can never grow at the same rate. At birth, head is one fourth of the body in length. Later other parts of body grow very fast till it reaches maturation.
  27. 27. DEVELOPMENT IS PREDICTABLE In many cases it is possible to predict the type of probable development a child will follow, because the rate of development follows a Pattern. As it is possible to predict intelligence of a person with the help of an intelligence test given in earlier years. X-rays of the bones of different parts of the body will tell approximately what will be the ultimate size.
  28. 28. ENVIRONMENTAL factors
  29. 29. ENVIRONMENTincludes all the conditions inside and outside an organism that in any way affect orinfluence its behavior, growth, development, or life processes except the genes.
  30. 30. EXTERNALENVIRONMENT
  31. 31. EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENTCULTURE• The effects of a particular culture on a child begin before birth .• The behavior expected of the child at each stage of growth & development is culturally defined.• Methods of child bearing and infant feeding in the community are determined by cultural habits• Some religious taboos also affect the growth and development.
  32. 32. EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENTSOCIO ECONOMIC STATUS• The environment of the lower socio economic groups may be less favorable than that of the middle and upper groups.• Parents in unfortunate financial circumstances.• However public health & health education programs are gradually assisting such parents to provide better care for their children
  33. 33. EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENTNUTRITION• Nutrition is related to both the quantitative and qualitative supply of food elements such as proteins, fats, carbohydrates, minerals and vitamins.• During periods of rapid growth such as prenatal period, infancy, puberty & adolescence need high amount of proteins & calories are needed• An inadequate nutrition intake both qualitatively & quantitatively. It can be physical hyper activity or lack of adequate rest.
  34. 34. EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENTNUTRITION• A physical illness that causes an increase in nutritional needs but at the same time results in poor appetite and poor absorption.• An emotional illness that causes decreased food intake or inadequate absorption because of vomiting or diarrhea.• Growth of children from Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM), anemia and vitamin deficiency status is retarded.• Overeating and obesity accelerates somatic growth.
  35. 35. EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENTCLIMATE AND SEASON• Climatic variations influence the infant’s health.• It is important that parents are able to provide adequate refrigeration and extermination of flies are other insects.• The season of the year influences growth rates in height & weight, especially in older children.• Weight gains are lowest in summer & autumn. The greatest gains in height among children occur in spring. The differences are mainly due to seasonal variations.• Infections and infestations are common in hot humid climates.
  36. 36. EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENTACTIVITIES • Exercise, increases the circulation, promotes physiologic activity and stimulates muscular development. • Fresh air and moderate sun shine favor health and growth. • Prolonged exposure to sunlight may cause tissue damage of the skin and even more consequences if the child is unprotected from the rays of the sun
  37. 37. EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENTFAMILY ORDINAL POSITION• The first born child in the family is receives all the parental attention until the second child is born.• The parents of the first born child are unusually inexperienced and may not know the successive stages of growth and development.• Only child develop rapidly and intellectually than other children with siblings.• The youngest child gets less achievement oriented, less intellectually inclined but develops good nature, friendly, warm personality and high self-esteem.
  38. 38. EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENTFAMILY ORDINAL POSITION• The first born child in the family is receives all the parental attention until the second child is born.• The parents of the first born child are unusually inexperienced and may not know the successive stages of growth and development.• Only child develop rapidly and intellectually than other children with siblings.• The youngest child gets less achievement oriented, less intellectually inclined but develops good nature, friendly, warm personality and high self-esteem.
  39. 39. INTERNALENVIRONMENT
  40. 40. INTERNAL ENVIRONMENTINTELLIGENCE The child of high intelligence is likely to be taller and better developed than is the less gifted child. Also, intelligence influences mental and social development.
  41. 41. INTERNAL ENVIRONMENTHORMONAL INFLUENCEThere is evidence that all the hormones in thebody effect growth in some manner. Althoughthree hormones are very important others alsoinfluence growth to an extent.
  42. 42. INTERNAL ENVIRONMENTHORMONAL INFLUENCESomatotropic hormone (STH) or growthhormone • Its major effect is on linear growth in height because it is essential in the proliferation of cartilage cells at the epiphyseal plates. The growth hormone stimulates skeletal and protein anabolism through the production of somatomedins or intermediary hormones. • An excess of growth hormone causes gigantism and lack results in dwarfism.
  43. 43. INTERNAL ENVIRONMENTHORMONAL INFLUENCEThyroid hormone • Produced by adenohypophysis stimulates the thyroid gland to release Thyroxin (T4), Tri Iodothyronine (T3) and Thyrotrophic hormone (TH). These thyroid hormones stimulate the general metabolism & therefore are necessary for advanced linear growth. • Whereas a deficiency produces cretinism with stunted physical growth & mental retardation.
  44. 44. INTERNAL ENVIRONMENTHORMONAL INFLUENCEAdenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) • ACTH is produced by the adenohypophysis, stimulate the hypothalamus, which in turn causes the adenohypophyses to secrete gonadotrophic hormones. The gonadotrophic hormone stimulate the interstitial cells of the testes to produce testosterone & the interstitial cells of the ovaries produce estrogen.
  45. 45. INTERNAL ENVIRONMENTHORMONAL INFLUENCEAdenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) • Testosterone stimulates the development secondary sexual characteristics and the production of spermatozoa in young man. Estrogen stimulates the development of secondary sexual characteristics and the results in precocious puberty, whereas the deficiency results in delay in development. • Other hormones that less directly influence the process of growth and development include insulin, parathormone, cortisol, & calcitonin.
  46. 46. INTERNAL ENVIRONMENTEMOTIONS• Relationships with significant other persons, mother, father, sibling, peers and teachers play a vital role in the emotional, social, and intellectual development of the child.• If the child is given the necessary care & love that promotes healthy development, otherwise growth & development retardation may occur.
  47. 47. INTERNAL ENVIRONMENTEMOTIONS• Emotionally deprived children may receive adequate nutrition but do not gain weight as expected and are pale and unresponsive. If emotional deprivation continues and loving care is not given over a period of time, the children may have repeated illness, become emotionally ill, or die at an early age.
  48. 48. interaction ofBIOLOGICAL andENVIRONMENTALfactors
  49. 49. People are not and cannot be equal in development, because they are biologically unequal to begin with, and the resulting interplay with environmental forces makes for still greater differentiation (Hildreth, 1972).
  50. 50. • Each person is a result of the interaction of our biological and our social environment• The significant difference between the low-class and middle-class mothers was in the diet considered ordinary and normal in their respective neighborhoods.• Even after a person is born, different diets can result in great bodily differences
  51. 51. CORRE- CORRE- LATION OF ENVIRON- HEREDITY RELATIONSHIP LATION OF INTELLI- MENT HEIGHT GENCE Same Identical twins .88 .93) Fraternal twins ) Very (same sex) .63 .64) similar Similar Siblings .51-.53 .54-.60) (Parents and ) Similar children) ) Grandparents .49 .51 ) and grandchild Somewhat Uncles (aunts) .34 .32) similar and nephews ) Slightly (nieces) ) Slightly similar Cousins .35 .29) similar .29 .24)Table Correlation of Intelligence Scores (IQs) and Heights for Pairs of Individuals with Different Degree of Relationship
  52. 52. DEVELOPMENTINDIVIDUALOF
  53. 53. TIME FOR QUESTIONS!

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