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Sem. 3rd, Sec.B, B.arch
TO DEVELOP THE KNOWLEDGE REQUIRED FOR
UNDERSTANDING THE INFLUENCE OF CLIMATE ON
Regions having similar characteristic features of climate are
grouped under one climatic zone. According to a recent code of
bureau of Indian standards, the country may be divided into five
major climatic zones.
• Hot and dry (mean monthly temperature >30 and relatively
• Warm and humid (mean monthly temperature >25-30 and
relatively humidity <55-75%).
• Temperate (mean monthly temperature 25-30 and
relatively humidity <75%).
• Cold and dry (mean monthly temperature <25 and
relatively humidity- all values).
• Composite (this applies, when six months or more do not fall
within any of the other categories).
The main points:
The main points:
• Orientation and placement, to minimize sun
exposure in summer.
• Form, compact to reduce surface areas of heat
• Shade, for maximum sun protection in summer.
• Allow adequate heat gain in winter by movable
• Ventilation, for regulation of air movement.
The larger building dimension
should face north and south
is the worst
Main walls and windows should face the wind
direction in order to allow maximum cross-ventilation
of the rooms.
To reduce the effect of hot dusty winds, the leeward
side of the house is better.
1. Bedrooms - on the east side.
2. Living rooms - on the north or south side.
Traditionally constructed with thick walls
and roofs and with very small openings
Sun-dried earth brick is
one of the poorest
conductors of heat
1. Walls of daytime living areas should be made of
2. East and west walls should preferably be shaded.
3. Double walls with insulation in between are a
More windows should be provided in the north facade
of the building as compared to the east, west and south
as it receives lesser radiation throughout the year.
Should be shaded
either by shading
overhangs or by
The size of the windows on the west and east
sides should be minimized in order to reduce
heat gains into the house in the early morning
and late afternoon.
• The flat roof is a good reflector and re-radiates heat
efficiently, especially if it consists of a solid, white painted
• High solid parapet walls along the edge of the roof can on
the one hand provide daytime shade and privacy.
The principle involved is to catch an
unobstructed breeze at a high level and channel
it to areas in the bottom parts of the building.
Cooling can be achieved by the
evaporation of water.
1. The courtyard is provided with water and plants, it acts as a
2. Internal courtyards provides cross ventilation & natural
3. Most openings are to the internal courtyard rather than
Outlets at higher levels serve to vent hot air.
Ventilators are preferred at higher levels as they
help in throwing out the hot air.
- Colors that absorb less heat should be used to paint
the external surface.
- Darker shades should be avoided for surfaces
exposed to direct solar radiation.
- The surface of the roof can be of white broken glazed
- During the day-time openings should be closed and
- Decreasing the surface of the building exposed to the
- Using materials that take a longer time to heat up.
- Providing buffer spaces (lobbies, etc.) between the
living areas and the outside.