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ROJoson PEP Talk: Food Supplements – Are They Necessary?

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ROJoson PEP Talk: Food Supplements – Are They Necessary?

  1. 1. Empowerment objective - for laypeople to have an understanding of whether FOOD SUPPLEMENTS are necessary to STAYING HEALTHY. Staying Healthy and Contented – Food Supplements – Are They Necessary?
  2. 2. Empowerment objective - for laypeople to have an understanding of whether FOOD SUPPLEMENTS are necessary to STAYING HEALTHY. Staying Healthy and Contented – Food Supplements – Are They Necessary? I have a Patient Empowerment Program in which I like to empower the lay people or patients to take control in the management of their health.
  3. 3. Empowerment objective - for laypeople to have an understanding of whether FOOD SUPPLEMENTS are necessary to STAYING HEALTHY. Staying Healthy and Contented – Food Supplements – Are They Necessary? What I have in mind in my PEP TALK which may run for 3 years is to empower at least 30 persons, with my family members and my patients as a priority. This is my key performance indicator. I hope you will be in my group of 30.
  4. 4. Empowerment objective - for laypeople to have an understanding of whether FOOD SUPPLEMENTS are necessary to STAYING HEALTHY. Staying Healthy and Contented – Food Supplements – Are They Necessary? I launched this PEP TALK on May 15, 2021 with MODULE on COVID19. 2nd Module: PATIENT EMPOWERMENT 3rd Module: PATIENT MANAGEMENT PROCESS 4th Module: RIGHTS IN PATIENT EMPOWERMENT
  5. 5. Empowerment objective - for laypeople to have an understanding of whether FOOD SUPPLEMENTS are necessary to STAYING HEALTHY. Staying Healthy and Contented – Food Supplements – Are They Necessary? 5th Module: STAYING HEALTHY AND CONTENTED 6 Parts • Introduction and Intentional Living Plan • Healthy Lifestyle Plan • Screening and Periodic Health Check • Early Diagnosis and Early Treatment • First Aid and Basic Medical Care • Food Supplements – Are They Necessary?
  6. 6. Empowerment objective - for laypeople to have an understanding of whether FOOD SUPPLEMENTS are necessary to STAYING HEALTHY. Staying Healthy and Contented – Food Supplements – Are They Necessary? My PEP TALK today is entitled: Staying Healthy and Contented – Food Supplements – Are They Necessary?
  7. 7. Staying Healthy and Contented – Food Supplements – Are They Necessary? What are food supplements? Food supplements are products that are added to the regular diet.
  8. 8. Staying Healthy and Contented – Food Supplements – Are They Necessary? There are various terms encountered in the literature: • food supplements • dietary supplements • nutritional supplements • health supplements • pharmaceutical supplements • nutraceutical supplements For our purpose, let’s consider all the terms as one and the same thing and let’s operationally define supplements as products taken orally to supplement one’s regular diet for one reason or another.
  9. 9. Staying Healthy and Contented – Food Supplements – Are They Necessary? The products may be • vitamins • minerals • amino acids • fatty acids • enzymes • botanicals • and other substances delivered in the form of tablets, capsules, liquids, powders, chewables, etc., either singly or combined in a mixture. For our purpose, let’s consider all the terms as one and the same thing and let’s operationally define supplements as products taken orally to supplement one’s regular diet for one reason or another.
  10. 10. Staying Healthy and Contented – Food Supplements – Are They Necessary? The human body needs nutrients, and proper amount at that, in the food to stay alive and to be able to function properly and maintain health. Since the human body does not synthesize nutrients, they must be obtained from the diet, making them “ESSENTIAL.” We will be encountering this term “ESSENTIAL” often in this discussion. It means those that cannot be synthesized by the body and, therefore, must be supplied. Before I go to the discussion proper, let’s start with some introductory concepts.
  11. 11. Staying Healthy and Contented – Food Supplements – Are They Necessary? Nutrients are chemical compounds in the foods. One categorization of nutrients is whether they are organic or inorganic. Those nutrients that contain carbon are called organic while those that do not contain carbon are called inorganic. Examples of organic nutrients are carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, amino acids, fatty acids, enzymes, and botanicals. Examples of inorganic nutrients are the minerals (such as iron, selenium, and zinc) and water.
  12. 12. Staying Healthy and Contented – Food Supplements – Are They Necessary? Another categorization is whether the nutrients are macronutrients or micronutrients. Macronutrients are those nutrients that the body needs in large amounts. Examples are carbohydrates, proteins and fats. Micronutrients are those nutrients that the body needs in smaller amounts. Examples are vitamin and minerals.
  13. 13. Staying Healthy and Contented – Food Supplements – Are They Necessary? When we talk of regular diet, we talk of the general or normal diet which should contain the essential macronutrients and micronutrients for adequate nutrition. We also talk of balanced and varied diet which should contain the essential macronutrients and micronutrients for adequate nutrition so that there is no need for supplements anymore.
  14. 14. Staying Healthy and Contented – Food Supplements – Are They Necessary? Only those who cannot eat adequately or have malabsorption diseases will need supplements as we operationally define supplements as products taken orally to supplement one’s regular diet. These are rightfully the indications for food supplements.
  15. 15. Staying Healthy and Contented – Food Supplements – Are They Necessary? The products may be • vitamins • minerals • amino acids • fatty acids • enzymes • botanicals (herbs) • and other substances delivered in the form of tablets, capsules, liquids, powders, chewables, etc., either singly or combined in a mixture. Let’s go back to the FOOD SUPPLEMENTS. We operationally defined them as products taken orally to supplement one’s regular diet for one reason or another.
  16. 16. Staying Healthy and Contented – Food Supplements – Are They Necessary? The products may be • vitamins • minerals • amino acids • fatty acids • enzymes • botanicals • and other substances delivered in the form of tablets, capsules, liquids, powders, chewables, etc., either singly or combined in a mixture. Let’s go back to the FOOD SUPPLEMENTS. We operationally defined them as products taken orally to supplement one’s regular diet for one reason or another. Synthetic Nutrients Food Supplements
  17. 17. Staying Healthy and Contented – Food Supplements – Are They Necessary? Synthetic Nutrients vs Natural Nutrients Natural nutrients are those obtained from whole food sources in diet. Synthetic nutrients are those made artificially, in an industrial process.
  18. 18. Staying Healthy and Contented – Food Supplements – Are They Necessary? Synthetic Nutrients vs Natural Nutrients Some bottom line Getting natural nutrients from whole foods is always a better option. This is because when you eat real food, you’re not consuming single nutrients, but rather a whole range of vitamins, minerals, co-factors and enzymes that allow for optimal use by the body. Without these additional compounds, synthetic nutrients are unlikely to be used by the body in the same way as their natural counterparts. For example, studies show that natural vitamin E is absorbed twice as efficiently as synthetic vitamin E. It is unclear how well synthetic nutrients are absorbed and used in the body.
  19. 19. Staying Healthy and Contented – Food Supplements – Are They Necessary? Synthetic Nutrients vs Natural Nutrients Some bottom line There is higher risk for side effects with synthetic nutrients because of industrial processing of the products.
  20. 20. Staying Healthy and Contented – Food Supplements – Are They Necessary? Vitamins as a Nutrient Vitamins are a group of substances that are needed for normal cell function, growth, and development of the human body and are required in small quantities in the diet (micronutrients) Natural Nutrients vs Synthetic Nutrients Getting natural vitamins from whole food is better than synthetic vitamins.
  21. 21. Staying Healthy and Contented – Food Supplements – Are They Necessary? Vitamins There are 13 essential vitamins. Essential means the body can't make or can't make in sufficient quantity.  Vitamin A  Vitamin C  Vitamin D  Vitamin E  Vitamin K  Vitamin B1 (thiamine)  Vitamin B2 (riboflavin)  Vitamin B3 (niacin)  Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine)  Vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin)  Pantothenic acid (B5)  Biotin (B7)  Folate (folic acid or B9) Natural Nutrients vs Synthetic Nutrients Getting natural vitamins from whole food is better than synthetic vitamins.
  22. 22. Staying Healthy and Contented – Food Supplements – Are They Necessary? Minerals as Nutrients Minerals, just like vitamins, are a group of substances that are also needed for normal cell function, growth, and development of the human body. Essential minerals are categorized into macrominerals (larger amounts needed) and trace minerals (small amounts needed). Natural Nutrients vs Synthetic Nutrients Getting natural minerals from whole food is better than synthetic minerals.
  23. 23. Staying Healthy and Contented – Food Supplements – Are They Necessary? Minerals There are 16 essential minerals that the body must have appropriate amounts for health. Macrominerals (7) -  Calcium  Chloride  Phosphorus  Potassium  Magnesium  Sodium  Sulfur Natural Nutrients vs Synthetic Nutrients Getting natural minerals from whole food is better than synthetic minerals.
  24. 24. Staying Healthy and Contented – Food Supplements – Are They Necessary? Minerals There are 16 essential minerals that the body must have appropriate amounts for health. Trace Minerals (9) -  Chromium  Copper  Fluoride  Iodine  Iron  Manganese  Molybdenum  Selenium  Zinc Natural Nutrients vs Synthetic Nutrients Getting natural minerals from whole food is better than synthetic minerals.
  25. 25. Staying Healthy and Contented – Food Supplements – Are They Necessary? Amino Acids as Nutrients Amino acids are a group of substances that are also needed for normal cell function, growth, and development of the human body. Natural Nutrients vs Synthetic Nutrients Getting natural amino acids from whole food is better than synthetic amino acids.
  26. 26. Staying Healthy and Contented – Food Supplements – Are They Necessary? Amino Acids There are 9 essential amino acids:  Histidine  Isoleucine  Leucine  Lysine  Methionine  Phenylalanine  Threonine  Tryptophan  Valine Natural Nutrients vs Synthetic Nutrients Getting natural amino acids from whole food is better than synthetic amino acids.
  27. 27. Staying Healthy and Contented – Food Supplements – Are They Necessary? Fatty Acids as Nutrients Fatty acids are a group of substances that are also needed for normal cell function, growth, and development of the human body. There are 2 essential fatty acids:  alpha-linolenic acid (omega-3 fatty acid)  linoleic acid (omega-6 fatty acid) Natural Nutrients vs Synthetic Nutrients Getting natural fatty acids from whole food is better than synthetic fatty acids.
  28. 28. Staying Healthy and Contented – Food Supplements – Are They Necessary? Enzymes as Nutrients Enzymes are proteins that help speed up chemical reactions that are involved in digestion, liver function, blood coagulation, breathing, reproduction, healing, growth and other biological activities. Examples of enzymes:  Carbohydrase breaks down carbohydrates into sugars.  Lipase breaks down fats into fatty acids.  Protease breaks down protein into amino acids. Natural Nutrients vs Synthetic Nutrients Getting natural enzymes from whole food is better than synthetic enzymes.
  29. 29. Staying Healthy and Contented – Food Supplements – Are They Necessary? Botanicals as Nutrients A botanical is a plant or plant part valued for its medicinal or therapeutic properties, flavor, and/or scent. Herbs and spices are a subset of botanicals. Products made from botanicals that are used to maintain or improve health are sometimes called herbal products, botanical products, or phytomedicines. Examples of botanicals: ginseng and guarana Natural Nutrients vs Synthetic Nutrients Getting natural botanicals from whole food is better than synthetic botanicals.
  30. 30. Staying Healthy and Contented – Food Supplements – Are They Necessary? The products may be • vitamins • minerals • amino acids • fatty acids • enzymes • botanicals • and other substances delivered in the form of tablets, capsules, liquids, powders, chewables, etc., either singly or combined in a mixture. Let me repeat: There are natural and synthetic micronutrients. FOOD SUPPLEMENTS are synthetic nutrients. Getting natural nutrients from whole foods is always better than synthetic nutrients. Synthetic Nutrients Food Supplements
  31. 31. Staying Healthy and Contented – Food Supplements – Are They Necessary? Whole foods offer three main benefits over dietary supplements:  Greater nutrition. Whole foods are complex, containing a variety of the micronutrients needed by the body.  Essential fiber. Whole foods, such as whole grains, fruits, vegetables and legumes, provide dietary fiber.  Protective substances. Many whole foods contain chemicals that promote health, such as antioxidants.
  32. 32. Staying Healthy and Contented – Food Supplements – Are They Necessary? The human body needs whole food and its nutrients to stay alive and to be able to function properly and maintain health. [GIVEN]. The whole foods must be ADEQUATE and eaten in MODERATION (meaning not too much and not too little also). Adequate - sufficient amounts of each essential nutrient, as well as fiber and calories.
  33. 33. Staying Healthy and Contented – Food Supplements – Are They Necessary? The human body needs whole food and its nutrients to stay alive and to be able to function properly and maintain health. [GIVEN] The whole foods must be balanced. A balanced diet results when one does not consume one nutrient at the expense of another, but rather get appropriate amounts of all nutrients.
  34. 34. Staying Healthy and Contented – Food Supplements – Are They Necessary? The human body needs whole food and its nutrients to stay alive and to be able to function properly and maintain health. [GIVEN] The whole foods must be varied. This means eating a wide variety of foods in the right proportions. Why vary the foods?
  35. 35. Staying Healthy and Contented – Food Supplements – Are They Necessary? Why vary the foods? In nature, no food or drink contains all the essential nutrients, especially in the right proportions, so no food by itself can completely satisfy our dietary needs. This is why it’s important to vary our food choices and have a proper mix of different foods. This way we reduce the risk of nutritional imbalances and deficiencies and at the same time promote the consumption of the right amount of each nutrient.
  36. 36. Staying Healthy and Contented – Food Supplements – Are They Necessary? Why vary the food? A varied diet not only guarantees greater health benefits but is also the best way to satisfy our tastes and combat the monotony of a diet that is imbalanced and/or characterised by a limited number of foods.
  37. 37. Staying Healthy and Contented – Food Supplements – Are They Necessary? Eating a varied, well-balanced diet means eating a variety of foods from each of the different FOOD GROUPS daily, in the recommended amounts. The nutrients contained in the FOOD GROUPS are the following: carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, minerals, amino acids, fatty acids, enzymes, fiber and water. Food groups are used to SIMPLIFY dietary recommendations instead of specifying nutrients. There are different food group recommendations (5 to 7) depending on the countries and advocates. In the Philippines, food groups are contained in the PH FOOD PYRAMID.
  38. 38. Staying Healthy and Contented – Food Supplements – Are They Necessary? The basic 5 food groups: • Fruit and vegetables • Starchy food • Dairy • Protein • Fat
  39. 39. Staying Healthy and Contented – Food Supplements – Are They Necessary? The 5 food groups (Australia): • Vegetables and legumes • Fruit • Grain (cereal) foods • Lean meats and poultry, fish, eggs, tofu, nuts and seeds, and legumes/ beans • Milk, yoghurt, cheese and/or their alternatives
  40. 40. Staying Healthy and Contented – Food Supplements – Are They Necessary? The 6 food groups: • bread, cereal, rice, and pasta group (grains) • fruit group • vegetable group • meat, poultry, fish, dry beans, eggs, and nuts group (protein) • milk, yogurt, and cheese group (dairy) • fats, oils, and sweets group
  41. 41. Staying Healthy and Contented – Food Supplements – Are They Necessary? Philippine Food Groups and Pyramid • Rice, Corn, Root Crops, Bread and Noodles • Fruits • Vegetables • Milk and Milk Products • Egg, Dried Beans and Nuts • Fish, Shellfish, Meat & Poultry • Sugar / Sweets • Fats and Oils
  42. 42. Staying Healthy and Contented – Food Supplements – Are They Necessary? Foods are grouped together because they provide similar amounts of key nutrients. For example, key nutrients of the milk, yoghurt, cheese and alternatives group include calcium and protein, while the fruit group is a good source of vitamins, especially vitamin C.
  43. 43. Staying Healthy and Contented – Food Supplements – Are They Necessary? To recap at this point, Eating an adequate, balanced and varied diet is sufficient to maintain health. No additional supplements are needed.
  44. 44. Staying Healthy and Contented – Food Supplements – Are They Necessary? Only those who cannot eat adequately or have malabsorption diseases will need supplements. These are rightfully the indications for food supplements.
  45. 45. Staying Healthy and Contented – Food Supplements – Are They Necessary? Additional issues to discuss at this point: • What are the scientific evidences that food supplements are really not necessary? • How come a lot of people are still taking food supplements?
  46. 46. Staying Healthy and Contented – Food Supplements – Are They Necessary? What are the scientific evidences that food supplements are really not necessary? Bottom Line Randomized controlled trials do NOT support benefits of supplements in reducing risks of cardiovascular disease, cancer, or type 2 diabetes in healthy people with no clinical nutritional deficiencies. 2020 Health effects of vitamin and mineral supplements https://www.bmj.co m/content/369/bmj. m2511 NO BENEFIT for supplements
  47. 47. Staying Healthy and Contented – Food Supplements – Are They Necessary? What are the scientific evidences that food supplements are really not necessary? Bottom Line An updated (2018) systematic review of 15 randomized trials published after the 2013 US Preventive Service Task Force (USPSTF) review confirmed the LACK of benefits of supplements on cardiovascular events, mostly among patients with risk factors. 2020 Health effects of vitamin and mineral supplements https://www.bmj.co m/content/369/bmj. m2511 NO BENEFIT for supplements
  48. 48. Staying Healthy and Contented – Food Supplements – Are They Necessary? What are the scientific evidences that food supplements are really not necessary? Bottom Line The Vitamin D and Omega-3 Trial (VITAL), one of the few randomized trials of supplements for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease, found NO effect of vitamin D supplementation (2000 IU/day) on its primary endpoint (myocardial infarction, stroke, or cardiovascular death) in healthy people. 2020 Health effects of vitamin and mineral supplements https://www.bmj.co m/content/369/bmj. m2511 NO BENEFIT for supplements
  49. 49. Staying Healthy and Contented – Food Supplements – Are They Necessary? What are the scientific evidences that food supplements are really not necessary? Bottom Line Current evidence does NOT support a role of vitamin and mineral supplements in reducing cancer risk, with some evidence suggesting potential harm. 2020 Health effects of vitamin and mineral supplements https://www.bmj.co m/content/369/bmj. m2511 NO BENEFIT for supplements
  50. 50. Staying Healthy and Contented – Food Supplements – Are They Necessary? What are the scientific evidences that food supplements are really not necessary? Bottom Line A meta-analysis of trials in community living older adults found that vitamin D or calcium supplementation [apparently targeting osteoporosis] did not reduce the risk of hip fracture or total fracture. 2020 Health effects of vitamin and mineral supplements https://www.bmj.co m/content/369/bmj. m2511 NO BENEFIT for supplements
  51. 51. Staying Healthy and Contented – Food Supplements – Are They Necessary? What are the scientific evidences that food supplements are really not necessary? Bottom Line Use of supplements appreciably reduces the prevalence of inadequate intake for most nutrients but also increases the prevalence of excess intake for some nutrients. 2020 Health effects of vitamin and mineral supplements https://www.bmj.co m/content/369/bmj. m2511 SIDE EFFECTS of supplements
  52. 52. Staying Healthy and Contented – Food Supplements – Are They Necessary? What are the scientific evidences that food supplements are really not necessary? Bottom Line The USPSTF concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of the use of multivitamins for the prevention of cardiovascular disease or cancer. 2021 USPSTF – US Preventive Service Task Force Vitamin Supplementation to Prevent Cancer and CVD: Preventive Medication https://www.uspreventives ervicestaskforce.org/uspstf/ recommendation/vitamin- supplementation-to- prevent-cancer-and-cvd- counseling https://www.medscape.co m/viewarticle/950432 NO BENEFIT for supplements
  53. 53. Staying Healthy and Contented – Food Supplements – Are They Necessary? What are the scientific evidences that food supplements are really not necessary? Bottom Line The USPSTF recommends against the use of ß-carotene or vitamin E supplements for the prevention of cardiovascular disease or cancer. 2021 USPSTF – US Preventive Service Task Force Vitamin Supplementation to Prevent Cancer and CVD: Preventive Medication https://www.uspreventives ervicestaskforce.org/uspstf/ recommendation/vitamin- supplementation-to- prevent-cancer-and-cvd- counseling https://www.medscape.co m/viewarticle/950432 NO BENEFIT with side effects for supplements
  54. 54. Staying Healthy and Contented – Food Supplements – Are They Necessary? What are the scientific evidences that food supplements are really not necessary? Bottom Line The evidence shows there is no benefit to taking vitamin E and that beta carotene can be harmful because it increases the risk of lung cancer in people already at risk, such as those who smoke, and also increases the risk of dying from heart disease or stroke. 2021 USPSTF – US Preventive Service Task Force Vitamin Supplementation to Prevent Cancer and CVD: Preventive Medication https://www.uspreventives ervicestaskforce.org/uspstf/ recommendation/vitamin- supplementation-to- prevent-cancer-and-cvd- counseling https://www.medscape.co m/viewarticle/950432 SIDE EFFECTS of supplements
  55. 55. Staying Healthy and Contented – Food Supplements – Are They Necessary? What are the scientific evidences that food supplements are really not necessary? Bottom Line The Task Force has a recommendation for women who are planning or able to become pregnant and recommends the use of folic acid supplements to prevent neural tube defects (anencephaly and spina bifida). 2021 USPSTF – US Preventive Service Task Force Vitamin Supplementation to Prevent Cancer and CVD: Preventive Medication https://www.uspreventives ervicestaskforce.org/uspstf/ recommendation/vitamin- supplementation-to- prevent-cancer-and-cvd- counseling https://www.medscape.co m/viewarticle/950432 The only recommendation for a supplement!
  56. 56. Staying Healthy and Contented – Food Supplements – Are They Necessary? What are the scientific evidences that food supplements are really not necessary? Bottom Line Dietary supplements don't extend life and might actually shorten it if taken at high levels. While certain nutrients may contribute to a longer life, they need to come from a food source. 2019 Association Among Dietary Supplement Use, Nutrient Intake, and Mortality Among U.S. Adults: A Cohort Study Annals of Internal Medicine 2019 May 7;170(9):604- 613. •. 2019 May 7;170(9):604-613. doi: 10.7326/M18-2478. Epub 2019 Apr 9. •. 2019 May 7;170(9):604-613. doi: 10.7326/M18-2478. Epub 2019 Apr 9. •. 2019 May 7;170(9):604-613. doi: 10.7326/M18-2478. Epub 2019 Apr 9. • • NO BENEFIT & WITH SIDE EFFECTS of supplements
  57. 57. Staying Healthy and Contented – Food Supplements – Are They Necessary? What are the scientific evidences that food supplements are really not necessary? Bottom Line Excess calcium intake was linked to an increased risk of cancer death - which was associated with supplemental doses of calcium exceeding 1,000 mg/day. 2019 Association Among Dietary Supplement Use, Nutrient Intake, and Mortality Among U.S. Adults: A Cohort Study Annals of Internal Medicine 2019 May 7;170(9):604- 613. •. 2019 May 7;170(9):604-613. doi: 10.7326/M18-2478. Epub 2019 Apr 9. •. 2019 May 7;170(9):604-613. doi: 10.7326/M18-2478. Epub 2019 Apr 9. •. 2019 May 7;170(9):604-613. doi: 10.7326/M18-2478. Epub 2019 Apr 9. • • SIDE EFFECTS of supplements
  58. 58. Staying Healthy and Contented – Food Supplements – Are They Necessary? What are the scientific evidences that food supplements are really not necessary? Bottom Line "Most studies suggest that multivitamins won’t make you live longer, slow cognitive decline or lower your chances of disease, such as heart disease, cancer or diabetes." 2020 The Truth About Supplements: 5 Things You Should Know. https://www.pennmedicine .org/.../the-truth-about- supplements •. 2019 May 7;170(9):604-613. doi: 10.7326/M18-2478. Epub 2019 Apr 9. •. 2019 May 7;170(9):604-613. doi: 10.7326/M18-2478. Epub 2019 Apr 9. •. 2019 May 7;170(9):604-613. doi: 10.7326/M18-2478. Epub 2019 Apr 9. • • NO BENEFIT for supplements
  59. 59. Staying Healthy and Contented – Food Supplements – Are They Necessary? What are the scientific evidences that food supplements are really not necessary? Bottom Line Some supplements that may pose risks include:  Vitamin K can reduce the effectiveness of blood thinners  Gingko can increase blood thinning  St. John’s wort can make some drugs, such as antidepressants and birth control, less effective  Herbal supplements comfrey and kava can damage liver  Beta-carotene and vitamin A can increase the risk of lung cancer in smokers 2020 The Truth About Supplements: 5 Things You Should Know. https://www.pennmedicine .org/.../the-truth-about- supplements •. 2019 May 7;170(9):604-613. doi: 10.7326/M18-2478. Epub 2019 Apr 9. •. 2019 May 7;170(9):604-613. doi: 10.7326/M18-2478. Epub 2019 Apr 9. •. 2019 May 7;170(9):604-613. doi: 10.7326/M18-2478. Epub 2019 Apr 9. • • SIDE EFFECTS of supplements
  60. 60. Staying Healthy and Contented – Food Supplements – Are They Necessary? What are the scientific evidences that food supplements are really not necessary? Bottom Line Some supplements that may pose risks include: Supplements may interact with other medications you’re taking or pose risks if you have certain medical conditions, such as liver disease, or are going to have surgery. 2020 The Truth About Supplements: 5 Things You Should Know. https://www.pennmedicine .org/.../the-truth-about- supplements •. 2019 May 7;170(9):604-613. doi: 10.7326/M18-2478. Epub 2019 Apr 9. •. 2019 May 7;170(9):604-613. doi: 10.7326/M18-2478. Epub 2019 Apr 9. •. 2019 May 7;170(9):604-613. doi: 10.7326/M18-2478. Epub 2019 Apr 9. • • SIDE EFFECTS of supplements
  61. 61. Staying Healthy and Contented – Food Supplements – Are They Necessary? What are the scientific evidences that food supplements are really not necessary? Bottom Line Look at the BLUE ZONES Blue Zones are regions (places) in the world where people statistically live the longest. These five locales consist of Sardinia, Italy; the islands of Okinawa, Japan; Nicoya Peninsula in Costa Rica; Ikaria, Greece; and Loma Linda, California. • •
  62. 62. Staying Healthy and Contented – Food Supplements – Are They Necessary? What are the scientific evidences that food supplements are really not necessary? Bottom Line Look at the BLUE ZONES Do they take vitamins and other supplements? NO. Instead of taking vitamins and other supplements, they get everything they need from nutrient-dense, fiber-rich whole foods. [PLANT-BASED DIET] • • NO NEED for supplements
  63. 63. Staying Healthy and Contented – Food Supplements – Are They Necessary? How come a lot of people are still taking food supplements despite the scientific evidences? In a recent survey (2020) conducted by Rakuten Insight on dietary supplements in the Philippines, • 88 percent of the respondents aged 55 years or older stated taking dietary supplements daily. • 39 percent of the respondents aged between 16 and 24 years stated taking dietary supplements. https://www.statista.c om/statistics/1183230 /philippines- frequency-taking- dietary-supplements- by-age/
  64. 64. Staying Healthy and Contented – Food Supplements – Are They Necessary? How come a lot of people are still taking food supplements despite the evidences? LAYPEOPLE The commonly cited motivations for the consumption of food supplements are to • prevent disease • enhance mental and general health • enhance sport performance • compensate for dietary deficiencies
  65. 65. Staying Healthy and Contented – Food Supplements – Are They Necessary? How come a lot of people are still taking food supplements despite the evidences? LAYPEOPLE The commonly cited motivations for the consumption of food supplements are to • prevent disease • enhance mental and general health • enhance sport performance • compensate for dietary deficiencies With the evidences: WRONG PERCEPTION IGNORANCE MYTHS
  66. 66. Staying Healthy and Contented – Food Supplements – Are They Necessary? How come a lot of people are still taking food supplements despite the evidences? PHYSICIANS as a contributory factor • NOT well-informed of scientific evidences • Giving in to marketing of pharmaceuticals • Giving in to wishes of patients • Don’t want to have the burden of educating / advising patients With the evidences: WRONG PERCEPTION IGNORANCE INCOMPETENCE UNPROFESSIONALISM
  67. 67. Staying Healthy and Contented – Food Supplements – Are They Necessary? How come a lot of people are still taking food supplements despite the evidences? COMMERCIALISM Making a business / profit • ignoring scientific evidences • riding on consumer behavior (perception and attitude)
  68. 68. Staying Healthy and Contented – Food Supplements – Are They Necessary? So, what to do as empowered patients in the light of scientific evidences and myths on food supplements? Conclusion Take Away
  69. 69. Staying Healthy and Contented – Food Supplements – Are They Necessary? The human body needs whole food and its nutrients to stay alive and to be able to function properly and maintain health. An adequate, balanced and varied diet can supply all the macronutrients and micronutrients needed by the body. There is no need for synthetic supplements for the micronutrients if an adequate, balanced and varied diet is being taken. Conclusion Take Away
  70. 70. Staying Healthy and Contented – Food Supplements – Are They Necessary? Only those who cannot eat adequately or have malabsorption diseases will need supplements. These are rightfully the indications for food supplements.
  71. 71. Staying Healthy and Contented – Food Supplements – Are They Necessary? Conclusion Take Away
  72. 72. Staying Healthy and Contented – Food Supplements – Are They Necessary? If one can get all the essential nutrients through a balanced, varied and adequate diet, then one does not need food supplements. First, they are not needed because one already has enough supply of nutrients. Excess is unhealthy. Second, one is subjecting oneself to the harmful effects of the supplements as some of them may contain strong biological side effects on the body. Third, one is subjecting oneself to the harm or risk of excessive nutrients. Conclusion Take Away
  73. 73. Staying Healthy and Contented – Food Supplements – Are They Necessary? If one cannot get all the essential nutrients through a balanced, varied and adequate diet because of lack of available food groups or because one cannot eat, then this is an indication for food supplements. First, they are needed for the body to function well, to stay healthy and to recover from the deficiency. Second, the benefits outweigh the side effects of the supplements. Conclusion Take Away
  74. 74. Staying Healthy and Contented – Food Supplements – Are They Necessary? So, there you are – FOOD SUPPLEMENTS in patient empowerment. Maximize your knowledge (KAALAMAN) Maximize your capability (KAKAYANAN) Lastly, maximize your self-determination (KAPANGYARIHAN) in using FOOD SUPPLEMENTS correctly in gaining greater control over decisions and actions affecting your health. Conclusion Take Away
  75. 75. Staying Healthy and Contented – Food Supplements – Are They Necessary? EMPOWER NOT ONLY YOURSELF BUT EMPOWER OTHERS to do what is right on the use of food supplements. Conclusion Take Away
  76. 76. Empowerment objective - for laypeople to have an understanding of whether FOOD SUPPLEMENTS are necessary to STAYING HEALTHY. Staying Healthy and Contented – Food Supplements – Are They Necessary?

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