• “Education is that whose end-product is
• “Education means development of self- content”.
(The Famous Philosopher)
• “Education is the realization of the self.”
• “Education is the manifestation of divine
perfection, already existing in man.” According to
him, “The aim of all education, of all training,
should be man-making.”
WESTERN CONCEPT OF
“Education is the capacity to feel pleasure and pain at
the right moment. It develops in the body and in the
soul of the pupil all the beauty and all the perfection
which he is capable of”.
“Education is the creation of a sound mind in a sound
body. It develops man’s faculty especially his mind,
so that he may be able to enjoy the contemplation of
supreme truth, goodness and beauty of which perfect
happiness essentially consists”.
REDDEN’S DEFINITION OF
“Education is the deliberate and systematic
influence, exerted by the mature person upon
the immature through instruction, discipline
and harmonious development of physical,
intellectual, aesthetic, social and spiritual
powers of the human being, according to
individual and social needs directed towards
the union of the educate with his creator as
the final end”.
PRINCIPLES OF TEACHING
The first principle is using the experience already
The second important principle of teaching which
should be emphasized is that knowledge and
skills are for use.
The third important principle is to provide for
The fourth important principle is of readiness.
The fifth principle of teaching is that the
objectives of the lesson should be specifically
The teacher should follow the psychological
principles which have been developed by great
THE IMPORTANT PRINCIPLES
Proceed from simple to complex
Proceed from concrete to abstract
Proceed from general to complex
Proceed from known to unknown
Proceed from induction to deduction
or vice versa
Arrange for frequent reinforcement
Learning is the mental activity by means of which
the following things are acquired.
Observation: Noting details of events, situations,
seeing what is going on in the course of
Description: Recalling the event, telling it to some
one, writing it down, i.e., it is the collection of the
data of experience
Analysis: Comparing and noting similarities and
dissimilarities, identifying possible and significant
meanings, abstracting the essence from variety of
LEARNING : PROCESS
Learning is described in terms of its process. It is a
process of internal organization within the
Complex of thought patterns
Attitudes Ascertaining the truth of learning
products – checking the meaning and the
inferences derived by the learner with others to
see if there is agreement
Evaluation: Testing the learning products through
• Every individual should have access to a type
of education that permits maximum
development of his potential and capabilities.
Education is a process, the chief goal of which
is to bring about change in human behaviour
The result of education is an expected
change in the behaviour of the student in the
course of a given period.
• What the students should be able to do at the end
of a learning period that they could not do
•Educational objectives are also called
“learning objectives” as opposed to
•They defined what the student, not the teacher,
should be to do.
The definition of the objectives of a course
is that of the result sought, not the
description or summary of the programme.
TYPES OF EDUCATIONAL
1. General objectives :
correspond to the functions of the type(s) of
health personnel trained in an
Eg: Providing preventive and curative care to
the individual and the community in health
and in sickness.
2. “Intermediate” objective :
Arrived at by breaking down professional
functions into the components (activities)
which together indicate the nature of those
Eg: Planning and carrying out blood sampling
session for a group of adults in the
3.Specific (or instructional)
corresponding to (or derived from)
precise professional tasks whose
results are observable and
measurable against given criteria.
Eg: Using the syringe to take blood
sample(5ml) from the cubital vein of an adult
(criteria; absence of haematoma; amount of
blood taken within 10% of the amount
required; not more than two attempts).
Words often used but open to
to really understand
to fully appreciate
to have faith in
Words open to fewer
Elements of a specific
R F Mager.
•Act and content
The act is the description of the task aimed at,
express by an active verb.
The content specifies the subject, the theme or
substance in relation to which the act is to be
This is the description of the circumstances in
which the act must take place (data, restrictions and
The definition of the acceptable level of
performance expected from the student.
Let us take up a specific educational objective and identify
each of its elements:
“Identify on frontal X-ray films of the thorax the presence or
absence of opacities of the pulmonary parenchyma, of
more than 2 cm diameter in 80% of cases”.
ACT: “Identify the presence”
CONTENT: “Opacities of the pulmonary parenchyma”
CONDITION: “Frontal X-ray film of thorax”.
CRITERION: “In 80% of cases any opacity of over 2 cm
Mager Stated That There Are Three Parts
to Any Objective,namely a verb indicating
the learners observable behaviour, an
indication of the conditions under which
she will demonstrate her achievement,and
a standard of criterion by which her
performance is evaluated.
Eg- The Student administer intramuscular
injection on deltoid using strict aseptic
technique, without causing much pain to
the patient. Here the action verb is
adminster I.M.Injection on deltoid which is
an observable behaviour,strict aseptic
technique is the standard and without
causing much pain are the condition. This
objective has all the three parts
necessary for statement of an objective.
Classification of educational
objectives into “domains”
Taxonomy of educational objectives(Bloom)
Cognitive(Knowing) Domain is concerned
with knowledge and intellectual abilities
Affective (Feeling) Domain concerned with
attitude, values, interests and appreciation
Psychomotor (Conation) Domain concerned
with motor skills and general skills, adaptive
abilities and mental skills.
Sub levels of cognitive domain:
Level 1: Knowledge - Lowest level may be learning specific
facts or terminology. Typical verbs used in formulating
objectives at this level are define, describe and identify.
Level 2: Comprehension – refers to understanding which is
demonstrated by the learner making limited use of the
information such as interpretation, explaining and
paraphrasing. Verbs used are: explain, give examples and
Level 3: Application – The learner is able to apply principles,
rules and concepts to real situations in life. Verbs used
are demonstrate, relate, prepare and discover.
Level 4: Analysis - The learner is able to breakdown
information into its component parts, find out relationship
between parts. Verbs used are: differentiate, discriminate
COGNITIVE DOMAIN Contd…
Level 5: Synthesis - Learner is creative, the parts are put
together as a whole, produces something unique on his
own, planning and designing etc.,
Level 6: Evaluation – Highest level of cognitive domain. The
learner is able to value, to make judgement about the value
of something and use criteria for evaluation. Verbs used are
compare, criticise, judge and appraise etc.,
It deals with the realm of feelings,
attitudes and values, which cannot be
measured or observed accurately. Beliefs,
attitudes and values are regarded as
private and no one can force anyone to
develop certain beliefs or values and
these are developed relatively slowly and
could be appraised only over long periods
of time.It consists five levels:
AFFECTIVE DOMAIN Contd..
Level 1: Receiving(Attending) – The learner become sensitive
or become aware which lead to controlled or selected
attention and the best indicator of this level is verbal
behaviour. Verbs used are asks, chooses, selects, replies
Level 2: Responding – Concerned with active response by the
learner, reaching to a suggestion to experiencing a feeling
of satisfaction in responding. Verbs used are answers,
assists, conforms, helps etc.,
Level 3: Valuing – It indicates internalization of values or
attitudes in question. Verbs used are Alters, combines,
Level 4: Organization – Concerned with
ability to organize values and to arrange
them in proper order. Verbs used are
arranges, combines, modifies etc.,
Level 5: Characterization – The highest level
and learners internalized value system
becomes her philosophy of life and
becomes characteristics of the individual.
Verbs used are: acts, discriminate, listens
Development of behaviours in this
affective domain are very important to
professionals like, nurses and doctors in
III THE PSYCHOMOTOR DOMAIN.
This is concerned with motor skills. Taxonomy
in this domain have been developed by Harrow
and Simpson (1972). Objectives in this domain
are developed so that the learners acquire
certain motor skills in the area of learning they
Eg. Nursing students are to attain skills
in doing certain procedures, in
positioning patient and administering
Intramuscular injections etc.
Levels of Psychomotor domain
Level – 1. Perception
This basic level is concerned with the
perception of sensory cues that guide actions
and range from awareness of stimuli to
translation into action. Typical verbs are
choose, differentiate, distinguish, identify,
Level – 2. Set
This is concerned with cognitive, affective and
psychomotor readiness to act; verbs used are
begins, moves, reacts, shows, starts etc.
Level – 3. Guided response
These objectives refer to the early stages in skills
acquisition where skills are performed following
demonstration by the teacher. Verbs used are carries
out, makes, performs, calculates etc.
Level – 4. Mechanism
At this level, performance become habitual, but not so
complex. Verbs used are demonstrate, perform,
makes, carried out etc
Level – 5. Complex overt response
At this level the learner caries out skilled
performance, saving time and effort and with
smoothness of action,accuracy and efficiency.
Verbs used are perform, carries out etc. The
performance is of a high level.
Level – 6. Adaptation
Here the skills are internalized to such an extent
that the learner can adapt to newer situations or in
special circumstances. Verbs that may be used are
adapts, alters, modifies etc.
Level – 7. Origination
This is the highest level, the learner makes his own
patterns or methods in other circumstances, becomes
creative and originates new movements. Typical verbs
are, composes, creates, designs, originates etc.
While objectives are formulated in the psychomotor
domain, one should be aware that the learner develop
certain attitudes, (negative or positive) interests and
values along with skill as well as knowledge aspects
related to the skill. But the most important outcome of a
particular experience be identified and planned for the
The most basic principle of stating objectives is
to see that it is stated in terms of expected
changes in pupil’s behaviour outcomes clearly
indicating what the pupil is like who has
satisfactorily completed the learning experience
precisely describing the learning product in terms