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  3. • “Education is that whose end-product is salvation”. UPANISHADS. • “Education means development of self- content”. KANNADA (The Famous Philosopher) • “Education is the realization of the self.” SHANKARACHARYA • “Education is the manifestation of divine perfection, already existing in man.” According to him, “The aim of all education, of all training, should be man-making.” VIVEKANANDA
  4. WESTERN CONCEPT OF NURSING  “Education is the capacity to feel pleasure and pain at the right moment. It develops in the body and in the soul of the pupil all the beauty and all the perfection which he is capable of”. PLATO.  “Education is the creation of a sound mind in a sound body. It develops man’s faculty especially his mind, so that he may be able to enjoy the contemplation of supreme truth, goodness and beauty of which perfect happiness essentially consists”. ARISTOTLE.
  5. REDDEN’S DEFINITION OF EDUCATION  “Education is the deliberate and systematic influence, exerted by the mature person upon the immature through instruction, discipline and harmonious development of physical, intellectual, aesthetic, social and spiritual powers of the human being, according to individual and social needs directed towards the union of the educate with his creator as the final end”.
  6. DEFINITION OF TEACHING “Teaching is the stimulation, guidance, direction and encouragement of learning”
  7. PRINCIPLES OF TEACHING  The first principle is using the experience already acquired.  The second important principle of teaching which should be emphasized is that knowledge and skills are for use.  The third important principle is to provide for individual differences.  The fourth important principle is of readiness.  The fifth principle of teaching is that the objectives of the lesson should be specifically defined.  The teacher should follow the psychological principles which have been developed by great educators.
  8. THE IMPORTANT PRINCIPLES ARE:  Proceed from simple to complex  Proceed from concrete to abstract  Proceed from general to complex  Proceed from known to unknown  Proceed from induction to deduction or vice versa  Arrange for frequent reinforcement
  9. LEARNING  Learning is the mental activity by means of which the following things are acquired.  Knowledge  Skills  Attitudes  Appreciation  Ideals
  10. Learning Involves  Observation: Noting details of events, situations, seeing what is going on in the course of experiences  Description: Recalling the event, telling it to some one, writing it down, i.e., it is the collection of the data of experience  Analysis: Comparing and noting similarities and dissimilarities, identifying possible and significant meanings, abstracting the essence from variety of details
  11. LEARNING : PROCESS Learning is described in terms of its process. It is a process of internal organization within the learners of  Complex of thought patterns  Perception  Skills  Habits  Attitudes Ascertaining the truth of learning products – checking the meaning and the inferences derived by the learner with others to see if there is agreement  Evaluation: Testing the learning products through usage
  12. EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES  If you are not certain of where you are going you may very well end up somewhere else (and not even know it)  MAGER
  13. • Every individual should have access to a type of education that permits maximum development of his potential and capabilities. Education is a process, the chief goal of which is to bring about change in human behaviour The result of education is an expected change in the behaviour of the student in the course of a given period.
  14. Educational objective: (Derived from Professional Tasks)
  15. • What the students should be able to do at the end of a learning period that they could not do beforehand. •Educational objectives are also called “learning objectives” as opposed to “teaching objectives”. •They defined what the student, not the teacher, should be to do. The definition of the objectives of a course is that of the result sought, not the description or summary of the programme.
  16. TYPES OF EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES 1. General objectives : correspond to the functions of the type(s) of health personnel trained in an establishment. Eg: Providing preventive and curative care to the individual and the community in health and in sickness.
  17. 2. “Intermediate” objective : Arrived at by breaking down professional functions into the components (activities) which together indicate the nature of those functions. Eg: Planning and carrying out blood sampling session for a group of adults in the community.
  18. 3.Specific (or instructional) objectives : corresponding to (or derived from) precise professional tasks whose results are observable and measurable against given criteria. Eg: Using the syringe to take blood sample(5ml) from the cubital vein of an adult (criteria; absence of haematoma; amount of blood taken within 10% of the amount required; not more than two attempts).
  19. Words often used but open to many interpretations  to know  to discuss  to understand  to really understand  to appreciate  to fully appreciate  to believe  to have faith in
  20. Words open to fewer interpretations  to write  to identify  to differentiate  to solve  to construct  to list  to compare  to contrast
  21. Elements of a specific educational objective •The act •The content •The condition •The criteria The task R F Mager.
  22. •Act and content The act is the description of the task aimed at, express by an active verb. The content specifies the subject, the theme or substance in relation to which the act is to be performed. •Condition This is the description of the circumstances in which the act must take place (data, restrictions and limitations). •Criterion The definition of the acceptable level of performance expected from the student.
  23. Eg:  Let us take up a specific educational objective and identify each of its elements: “Identify on frontal X-ray films of the thorax the presence or absence of opacities of the pulmonary parenchyma, of more than 2 cm diameter in 80% of cases”.  ACT: “Identify the presence”  CONTENT: “Opacities of the pulmonary parenchyma”  CONDITION: “Frontal X-ray film of thorax”.  CRITERION: “In 80% of cases any opacity of over 2 cm diameter”.
  24. Mager Stated That There Are Three Parts to Any Objective,namely a verb indicating the learners observable behaviour, an indication of the conditions under which she will demonstrate her achievement,and a standard of criterion by which her performance is evaluated.
  25. Eg- The Student administer intramuscular injection on deltoid using strict aseptic technique, without causing much pain to the patient. Here the action verb is adminster I.M.Injection on deltoid which is an observable behaviour,strict aseptic technique is the standard and without causing much pain are the condition. This objective has all the three parts necessary for statement of an objective.
  26. Classification of educational objectives into “domains” Taxonomy of educational objectives(Bloom)  Cognitive(Knowing) Domain is concerned with knowledge and intellectual abilities  Affective (Feeling) Domain concerned with attitude, values, interests and appreciation  Psychomotor (Conation) Domain concerned with motor skills and general skills, adaptive abilities and mental skills.
  27. COGNITIVE DOMAIN Sub levels of cognitive domain: Level 1: Knowledge - Lowest level may be learning specific facts or terminology. Typical verbs used in formulating objectives at this level are define, describe and identify. Level 2: Comprehension – refers to understanding which is demonstrated by the learner making limited use of the information such as interpretation, explaining and paraphrasing. Verbs used are: explain, give examples and convert. Level 3: Application – The learner is able to apply principles, rules and concepts to real situations in life. Verbs used are demonstrate, relate, prepare and discover. Level 4: Analysis - The learner is able to breakdown information into its component parts, find out relationship between parts. Verbs used are: differentiate, discriminate and distinguish.,
  28. COGNITIVE DOMAIN Contd… Level 5: Synthesis - Learner is creative, the parts are put together as a whole, produces something unique on his own, planning and designing etc., Level 6: Evaluation – Highest level of cognitive domain. The learner is able to value, to make judgement about the value of something and use criteria for evaluation. Verbs used are compare, criticise, judge and appraise etc.,
  29. The Hierarchical Nature of the Cognitive Domain Knowledge = Knowledge Comprehension = Knowledge + Comprehension Application = Knowledge + Comprehension + Application Analysis = Knowledge + Comprehension + Application + Analysis Synthesis = Knowledge + Comprehension + Application + Analysis + Synthesis Evaluation = Knowledge + Comprehension + Application + Analysis + Synthesis + Evaluation
  30. AFFECTIVE DOMAIN It deals with the realm of feelings, attitudes and values, which cannot be measured or observed accurately. Beliefs, attitudes and values are regarded as private and no one can force anyone to develop certain beliefs or values and these are developed relatively slowly and could be appraised only over long periods of time.It consists five levels:
  31. AFFECTIVE DOMAIN Contd.. Level 1: Receiving(Attending) – The learner become sensitive or become aware which lead to controlled or selected attention and the best indicator of this level is verbal behaviour. Verbs used are asks, chooses, selects, replies etc., Level 2: Responding – Concerned with active response by the learner, reaching to a suggestion to experiencing a feeling of satisfaction in responding. Verbs used are answers, assists, conforms, helps etc., Level 3: Valuing – It indicates internalization of values or attitudes in question. Verbs used are Alters, combines, modifies etc.,
  32. Level 4: Organization – Concerned with ability to organize values and to arrange them in proper order. Verbs used are arranges, combines, modifies etc., Level 5: Characterization – The highest level and learners internalized value system becomes her philosophy of life and becomes characteristics of the individual. Verbs used are: acts, discriminate, listens etc., Development of behaviours in this affective domain are very important to professionals like, nurses and doctors in their career.
  33. III THE PSYCHOMOTOR DOMAIN.  This is concerned with motor skills. Taxonomy in this domain have been developed by Harrow and Simpson (1972). Objectives in this domain are developed so that the learners acquire certain motor skills in the area of learning they choose.
  34.  Eg. Nursing students are to attain skills in doing certain procedures, in positioning patient and administering Intramuscular injections etc.
  35. Levels of Psychomotor domain  Level – 1. Perception This basic level is concerned with the perception of sensory cues that guide actions and range from awareness of stimuli to translation into action. Typical verbs are choose, differentiate, distinguish, identify, detect etc.  Level – 2. Set This is concerned with cognitive, affective and psychomotor readiness to act; verbs used are begins, moves, reacts, shows, starts etc.
  36. Level – 3. Guided response These objectives refer to the early stages in skills acquisition where skills are performed following demonstration by the teacher. Verbs used are carries out, makes, performs, calculates etc. Level – 4. Mechanism At this level, performance become habitual, but not so complex. Verbs used are demonstrate, perform, makes, carried out etc
  37. Level – 5. Complex overt response At this level the learner caries out skilled performance, saving time and effort and with smoothness of action,accuracy and efficiency. Verbs used are perform, carries out etc. The performance is of a high level. Level – 6. Adaptation Here the skills are internalized to such an extent that the learner can adapt to newer situations or in special circumstances. Verbs that may be used are adapts, alters, modifies etc.
  38. Level – 7. Origination This is the highest level, the learner makes his own patterns or methods in other circumstances, becomes creative and originates new movements. Typical verbs are, composes, creates, designs, originates etc. While objectives are formulated in the psychomotor domain, one should be aware that the learner develop certain attitudes, (negative or positive) interests and values along with skill as well as knowledge aspects related to the skill. But the most important outcome of a particular experience be identified and planned for the learners.
  39. CONCLUSION:  The most basic principle of stating objectives is to see that it is stated in terms of expected changes in pupil’s behaviour outcomes clearly indicating what the pupil is like who has satisfactorily completed the learning experience precisely describing the learning product in terms of behaviour.