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Educational laws, practices, trends and issues

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Educational laws, practices, trends and issues

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Educational laws, practices, trends and issues

  1. 1. Educational Laws, Practices, Tends and Issues: e-Education Approach
  2. 2. Table of Contents Chapter I: Historical Evolution of Educational Goals and Objectives ................ 3 Aims of Education during the Pre-Spanish Period ............................................ 3 Goals of Education during the Spanish Regime................................................ 4 Purposes of Education during the Revolutionary Period ................................. 4 Objectives of Education during American Regime............................................ 5 Aims of Education during the Commonwealth Government............................ 6 Aims of Education during the Japanese Occupation ........................................ 6 Objectives of Education under the Republic of the Philippines....................... 7 Objectives of Education based on Sinco Committee Report........................... 8 Mandate and Objectives of Education under the New Administration........... 9 Chapter II: Laws Relating to Organization and Control...................................... 12 The Philippine Constitution ................................................................................. 12 Education Act of 1982.......................................................................................... 14 Philippine Commission Act 1974 ....................................................................... 14 Executive Orders 716 .......................................................................................... 15 Republic Acts Relating to Organization and Control....................................... 15 Chapter III: Laws Relating to Teaching Personnel ............................................. 18 Republic Acts Relating to Teaching Personnel ............................................... 18 Executive Orders Relating to Teaching Personnel ......................................... 19 Chapter IV: Laws Relating to School Curriculum ................................................ 20 Republic Acts Relating to School Curriculum .................................................. 20 1
  3. 3. Philippine Educational System ........................................................................... 20 Chapter V: Laws Relating to Pupils or Students ................................................. 24 Republic Acts Relating to Pupils or Students................................................... 24 Other Legal Bases Related to Pupils and Students........................................ 25 Chapter VI: Laws Affecting School Administration and Supervision................ 26 Republic Acts Affecting School Administration and Supervision .................. 26 Department Orders Affecting School Administration and Supervision ........ 27 Chapter VII: Laws Relating to Finance and Support Services .......................... 28 Republic Acts Relating to Finance and Support Services ............................. 28 Additional Compensation to Teachers .............................................................. 28 Fund for Assistance to Private Education......................................................... 29 Bibliography............................................................................................................... 31 2
  4. 4. Chapter I: Historical Evolution of Educational Goals and Objectives From the Pre-Spanish to present, the educational system of the Philippines has undergone several stages of development. Aims of Education during the Pre-Spanish Period During the Pre-Spanish era, the education of Filipinos was fit for the needs of their times. There was no formal schooling. Parents trained their children informally. Fathers taught their male chi ldren in hunting, carpentry, agriculture, shipbuilding and mining. Mothers taught their female children in housekeeping, weaving, basket-making and other agriculture-related activities. Skills taught would vary on their industries and locations, i.e., whether highland, lowlands or 3 along seashores. Education was oral, practical and hand-on. The aims of education are: for survival and conformity and for enculturation. It was more on domestic chores and practical honing and on theoretical and moral awakening. Teaching methods were “tell me and show me”, observation and imitation, and indoctrination. During this period, education was still decentralized. Children were provided more vocational training but lesser academics, which were headed by their parents or by their tribal teachers. They used a unique system of writing known as the “baybayin”, which means “to spell”.
  5. 5. Goals of Education during the Spanish Regime The pre-Spanish system of education underwent major changes during the Spanish colonization. The tribal teachers were replaced by the Spanish missionaries. Education was religion-centered and was compulsory for elite Spanish. Boys and girls were separated. Religion was the core of the curriculum. During this regime, the Friars established parochial schools and linked with churches to teach catechism to the natives. Education was managed, 4 supervised and controlled. The Royal Decree of 1555 mandated these goals of Spanish education in the country. These were indoctrination of Christianity, imposition of Spanish culture, and promotion of Spanish language. Education Decree of 1863 gave Filipinos a complete system of education from elementary to collegiate level (Zulueta & Maglaya, 2012). The education of Filipino was focused mainly on the learning of Christian Doctrine. It was simple catechism, the doctrina, not the same as Christian education in Europe. The methods of teaching used during this era were: dictation, memorization, and other techniques such as cenaculo, moro-moro and other theatrical performances. Purposes of Education during the Revolutionary Period After the Spanish colonial government was overthrown, the schools established during the Spanish era were closed down for a time by Emilio
  6. 6. Aguinaldo’s government. The Malolos Constitution made elementary education compulsory and provided free schooling. The curricula of schools were not much different from those under Spanish domination. Tagalog was established as the national language by the Constitution of Biak-na-Bato, reading, writing and literary studies in Spanish were still given emphasis. Objectives of Education during American Regime Education became a very important issue for the American colonial government since it allowed it to spread their cultural values, particularly the English language, to the Filipino people. The aim of education was to promote democratic ideals and way of life. Training was done through schools (private and secular) by Thomasites. Education was influenced by the philosophy of John 5 Dewey. They also implemented the Educational Act of 1901 that laid the foundation of the Philippine school system- first level (seven-year elementary school), second level (four-year school) and third level (two-year junior college and a four-year program). The Monroe Commission on Philippine Education was created in 1925 with the aim of reporting on the effectiveness of the education in the Phi lippines during the period of U.S. annexation. The 1927 American Director of the Bureau of Education stated the aims of education. These were training for self-government and provision of English as common language.
  7. 7. Aims of Education during the Commonwealth Government The aims of education during the Commonwealth government were to develop moral character, personal discipline, civic conscience and vocational efficiency and to teach the duties of citizenship. Executive Order No. 17 in 1939 also known as Quezon Code of Citizenship and Ethics, This legal mandate prescribed certain civic and ethical principles to be taught in all schools in the Phi lippines which served as the foundation of emerging philosophy of Philippine education. Executive Order No. 134 in 1940 ordered Tagalog as the basis of national language while Executive Order No. 263 in 1940 required teaching of the Filipino national language. Aims of Education during the Japanese Occupation During the Japanese era, the aims of education were to make people understand the position of the Philippine as a member of the East Asia Co- Prosperity Sphere, to remove the old idea of reliance upon western stares particularly the United States and Great Britain, to evaluate the morals of the people by giving-up over emphasis on materialism, to diffuse elementary 6
  8. 8. education and promote vocational education, and to include Nihonggo in 7 elementary level. Training was dome formally through schools. The government established agricultural schools and colleges. The content of curricula was centered on values rooted on love of labor emphasizing on vocational education. Proclamation No. 1 informed the people that authority of the US over the Philippines was over and that the Martial Law was to rule and also made the country a member of the East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere. Objectives of Education under the Republic of the Philippines Under the Republic of the Philippines, the aim of education focused on democracy and society. Content of curricula entailed on training for occupation, promotion of democratic nation building and of community development. Board of Textbooks was created according to RA 139 enacted on June 14, 1947. Civil Service Eligibility of teachers was made permanent pursuant to RA1079. Board of National Education (BNE) was established to formulate educational policies to give direction to Philippine education. Flag ceremony was made compulsory in all schools including the singing of national anthem, the “Lupang Hinirang.” Elementary education was nationalized.
  9. 9. Objectives of Education based on Sinco Committee Report The Sinco plan would divide the secondary school course into two periods. The first period, of three years, would complete the basic education which every citizen should have; it would be a terminal course for all those who would not continue their studies. The subsequent period, two years in length, would be either a “vocational secondary course” for the traini ng of skilled workers and craftsmen or the “collegiate secondary course” which would prepare the 8 student in college. According to the Sinco Report, the objective of the elementary school was "functional literacy". It underscored that the school should therefore emphasize the acquisition of skills in the three R's and included within the scope of this objective were the development of health habits, an understanding of science, awareness of duties, rights and privileges, the foundation of an incorruptible character and adult morality, learning the rudiments of the fine arts and acquaintance with the practical arts. On the other hand, the basic secondary school the objective was "intelligent citizenship". The courses designed to accomplish this objective were much the same as in existing high-school curricula with the addition, however, of a heavy schedule of practical and fine arts. More time would be spent in the study of English (Meany, 1962).
  10. 10. Mandate and Objectives of Education under the New Administration The objectives of education under the new administration are provision for a broad education, manpower training in middle-level skills, and development of 9 the high-level professions and evaluation. On January 17, 1973, President Marcos ratified the 1973 Constitution by Proclamation 1102. The 1973 Constitution set out the three fundamental aims of education in the Philippines:  To foster love of country;  To teach the duties of citizenship; and  To develop moral character, self-discipline, and scientific, technological and vocational efficiency. Bilingual Education Policy required the use of English and Filipino as media of instruction in specific learning areas. Some educational programs initiated were Project Impact (Instructional Management by Parents, Community, and Teachers), In School-Off School Approach (ISOSA), Continuous Progression Scheme (CPS), Program for a Decentralized Educational Development (PRODED). Department of Education, Culture, and Sports (DECS) required Grade VI pupils to take the National Elementary Achievement Test (NEAT) and Fourth year students to take the National Secondary Achievement Test (NSAT). Tertiary honor students are granted civil service eligibility pursuant to Department Order No. 25 s. 1974. Professional Board Examination for Teachers (PBET) provides teachers license to teach. Presidential Decree No. 232 entitled
  11. 11. “An Act Providing for the Establishment and Mai ntenance of an Integrated System of Education” aims to provide for mai ntenance of quality education in the 10 country. During the previous administrations, education aimed to promote national development and values education. Some of educational system and curricular reforms were:  Implementation of New Elementary School Curriculum (NSEC) which featured fewer learning areas and emphasis on mastery learning, focused on the development of 3R’s, and emphasis on the development of intellectual skills and the development of Humanism and Filipinism in all learning areas.  Implementation of Secondary Education of Development Program (SEDP) which featured subjects generally oriented to the development of values, concept-based subject areas, development of specific competencies, and uni-disciplinary treatment of curriculum content. In 2011, Department of Education (DepEd) started to implement the new K-12 educational system, which includes the new curricula for all schools. In this system, education is now compulsory. The K-12 program aims to overhaul the deficiencies of the 10-year basic education cycle in which learners had less time to comprehend their lessons and had put them at a disadvantage in terms of basic education in other countries. It aims to provide sufficient time for mastery of concepts and skills, to develop lifelong learners, and to prepare graduates for
  12. 12. college education, middle-level skills development, employment, and 11 entrepreneurship.
  13. 13. Chapter II: Laws Relating to Organization and Control The Philippine Constitution 12 Philippine Constitution 1973 Article XV (General Provisions) contained the envisioned system of Philippine education, which was "a complete, adequate, and integrated system of education relevant to the goals of national development." The Phi lippine Constitution of 1973 (Article XV, Sections 8-11), mandated the State to regulate all educational institutions; granted academic freedom to all institutions of higher learning; required the study of the Constitution in all schools; mandated the State to maintain a system of free public elementary education, provide citizenship and vocational training to adult citizens and out-of-school youth, and establish and maintain a system of scholarship to poor and deserving students; mandated the State to promote scientific research and invention and to give priority to science and technology; made it essential to preserve and develop the Filipino culture for national identity; designated the State as patron of the arts and letters; ensured the protection of the rights of investors, authors and artists to their inventions writings and artistic creations; mandated the State to provide scholarships, grants-in-aid or other forms of incentive to specially gifted children; and mandated the State to take into account the customs, traditions, beliefs and interests of cultural communities in the formulation and implementation of state policies.
  14. 14. 13 Philippine Constitution 1982 Article II, Section 17 mandates the state to give priority to education, science and technology, arts, culture and sports with the following priority goals: 1. To foster patriotism- patriotism is love of devotion to one’s country. Nationalism is an attitude or belief characterized by a deep sense of national consciousness of common culture, race and interests of people who considered themselves one and distinct from others. Both emphasize love to one’s country and the promotion of its interest. 2. To accelerate social progress- the fulfillment by the state of constitutional mandate will hasten the attainment of social progress, national growth and development. In essence, social progress implies improvement in the quality of life of every citizen- economic, social, political and cultural. 3. To promote total human liberation and development- the ultimate goal is to promote the common good for all. The individual should need assistance and support so that he may develop harmoniously his physical, moral and intellectual faculties and in, effect, liberate himself from the shackles of poverty, ignorance, illiteracy, fear, anxiety and other adverse circumstances. 4. The constitutional provisions explicitly stress that it is the responsibility of the State to provide quality education to all citizens, regardless of their socio-economic status. This is premised on the concept of universal education (Zulueta & Maglaya, 2012).
  15. 15. Education Act of 1982 Republic Act No. 232 otherwise known as the Education Act of 1982 provides for an integrated system of education covering both formal and non-formal education at all levels. Section 29 of the act seeks to upgrade education institutions' standards to achieve "quality education", through voluntary accreditation for schools, colleges, and universities. Section 16 and Section 17 upgrade the obligations and quali fications required for teachers and administrators. Section 41 provides for government financial assistance to private schools. This act also created the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports. Philippine Commission Act 1974 Act No. 74 of 1901 enacted into law by the Philippine Commission. The Act created the Department of Public Instruction, laid the foundations of the public school system in the Philippines, provided for the establishment of the Philippine Normal School in Mani la and made English as the medium of 14 instruction.
  16. 16. Executive Orders 716 Executive Order No. 716 created a committee to assess the competence and performance of career service officers and other officers in the civil services. 15 It was enacted on August 6, 1981. Republic Acts Relating to Organization and Control Republic Act No. 416, the law converted the Philippine Normal School to Philippine Normal College conferring the degree of Bachelor of Science in Elementary Education and Master of Arts in Education. Republic Act No. 7168 converted Philippine Normal College into University. Republic Act No. 7665 converted the Bulacan College of Arts and Trades in the province of Bulacan into a State University to be known as the Bulacan State University. Republic Act No. 7722 also known as the Higher Education Act of 1994, the Act created the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) whose main task is to regulate and develop tertiary education in the Philippines. Republic Act No. 7796, also known as the Technical Education and Skills Development Act (TESDA) of 1994, the Act’s objecti ve was to provide relevant and quality technical education that is accessible to all and to create the agency that will manage technical education and skills development in the Philippines.
  17. 17. Republic Act No. 7722 (May 18, 1994) and Republic Act No. 7796 (August 23, 1994) created the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) and the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA), respectively, giving rise to a trifocali zed education system which refocused DECS’ mandate to basic education covering pre-school, elementary and secondary, and non-formal 16 education. Republic Act No. 7731, the Act abolished the National College Entrance Examinations (NCEE) to give the marginalized students a greater chance to gain access to college education. Republic Act No. 7743, the Act provides the establishment of congressional, city and municipal libraries and barangay learning centers throughout the Philippines. Republic Act No. 7889, the Act established the University of the Philippines in Mindanao. Republic Act No. 7784, this Act strengths teacher education in the Philippines by establishing centers of excellence and creating a teacher education council for the purpose. Republic Act No. 8292, also known as Education Modernization Act of 1997, this law provides for a democratized uniform composition of the governing boards of state universities and colleges (SUCs) and clothed these governing boards with sufficient powers to effectively and efficiently transform the SUCs into dynamic learning organizations (Zulueta & Maglaya, 2012).
  18. 18. Republic Act No. 8545 was enacted to strengthen the private sectors 17 involvement in tertiary education. Republic Act No. 9155 mandates that all functions, programs and activities related to sports be transferred to Philippine Sports Commission (PSC) and the Bureau of Physical Education and School Sports (BPESS) will be abolished. However, the program for school sports and physical fitness remains part of the basic education curriculum. Likewise, cultural activities will now be fully handled by the National Commission of Culture and Arts (NCAA). Culture will be taught as a humanities subject including music and literature (San Mateo & Tangco, 2003).
  19. 19. Chapter III: Laws Relating to Teaching Personnel Republic Acts Relating to Teaching Personnel Republic Act No. 660, the Act amended Commonwealth Act No. 186 and created and established a Government Service Insurance System (GSIS). Created by Commonwealth Act No. 186 passed on November 14, 1936, the GSIS is mandated to provide and administer the following social security benefits for government employees: compulsory life insurance, optional life insurance, retirement benefits, disability benefits for work-related contingencies and death benefits. In addition, the GSIS is entrusted with the administration of the General Insurance Fund by virtue of RA656 of the Proper ty Insurance Law. It provides insurance coverage to assets and properties which have government insurable interests. Republic Act No. 8291, the Act amended Presidential Decree 1145 to expand and increase the coverage and benefits of the GSIS. Republic Act No. 7836, also known as the Philippine Teachers Professionalization Act of 1994, the Act made it mandatory for people pursuing a career in teaching to take the licensure examinations that are administered and regulated by the Professional Regulatory Commission (PRC). Republic Act No. 4670, also known as the Magna Carta for Public School Teachers, this Act enacts to promote and improve the social and economic status of public school teachers, their living and working conditions, their terms of employment and career prospects in order that they may compare favorably with 18
  20. 20. existing opportunities in other walks of life, attracts and retains in the teaching profession more people with the proper qualifications. It is being recognized that advance in education depends on the qualifications and ability of the teaching staff and that education is an essential factor in the economic growth of the nation as a productive investment of vital importance. Executive Orders Relating to Teaching Personnel Executive Order No. 500 established a new system of career progression 19 for public school teachers. Executive Order No. 189 placed all public secondary school teachers under the administrative supervision and control of the Department of Education, Culture and Sports (DECS).
  21. 21. Chapter IV: Laws Relating to School Curriculum Republic Acts Relating to School Curriculum Republic Act No. 1425, the Act requires to include in the curricula of all public and private schools, colleges and universities courses on the life, works and writing of Jose Rizal, particularly his novels- Noli Me Tangere and El 20 Filibusterismo. Republic Act No. 6655, also known as “Free Public Secondary Education Act of 1988”, the Act mandates in establishing and providing for a free public secondary education. Free Public Secondary Education means that the students enrolled in secondary course offerings in national high schools, general comprehensive high schools, trade, technical, vocational, fishery and agricultural schools, and in schools established, administered, maintained and funded by local government units, including city, provincial municipal and barangay high schools, and those public high schools which may be established by law, shall be free from payment of tuition and other schools fees Philippine Educational System Department Order No. 25 S 1974, known as Bilingual Education Program, mandated the use of English and Filipino separately as media of instruction. English Communication Arts, Mathematics and Sciences are to be
  22. 22. taught in English and the rest of the subjects are to be taught in Filipino (San 21 Mateo & Tangco, 2003). MEC Order No. 6 S 1982 developed New Elementary School Curriculum (NESC). It featured: 1. Fewer learning areas and emphasis on mastery learning; 2. More time allotted to the development of the basic skills specially the 3Rs in the lower grades; 3. Greater emphasis on the development of intellectual skills, which are as important as, work skills; 4. Focus on the development of senses of humanity and nationhood in all the learning areas; and 5. Health values development infused into the whole curriculum, not only in the period for character building activities and science and health. DECS Order No. 11 S 1989 developed the New Secondary School Curriculum. It responded to the following needs: 1. Continue the pupil development started by the Program for Decentralized Educational Development; 2. Improve the quality of high school graduates and internal efficiency of the system; and 3. Expand access to quality secondary education (Zulueta & Maglaya, 2012).
  23. 23. DepEd Order No. 25, s. 2002 dated June 17, 2002 ordered the implementation of the 2002 Basic Education Curriculum during the SY 2002- 2003. The BEC focused on the basics of reading, writing, arithmetic, science and patriotism. Values are integral to all the subject areas. Students can then be ready for lifelong learning. It seeks to cure the inability of students who cannot read with comprehension at grade 3 and worse, at grade 6. The features of BEC 22 are: 1. Greater emphasis on helping every learner to become a successful reader; 2. Emphasis on interactive and collaborative learning approaches; 3. Emphasis on the use of integrative learning approaches; 4. Teaching of values in all learning areas; 5. Development of self-reliant and patriotic citizens; and 6. Development of creative and critical thinking skills. Republic Act No. 10533, also known as “Enhanced Basic Education Act of 2013”, the act enhances the Philippine Basic Education system by strengthening its curriculum and increasing the number of years for basic education. The enhanced basic education program encompasses at least one (1) year of kindergarten education, six (6) years of elementary education, and six (6) years of secondary education, in that sequence. Secondary education includes
  24. 24. four (4) years of junior high school and two (2) years of senior high school education. This program is known as K+12 Program. Salient features of this program are: 1. Strengthening early childhood education (Universal Kindergarten); 2. Building proficiency through language (Mother Tongue-based 23 Multilingual Education); 3. Making curriculum relevant to the learners (Conceptualization and Enhancement); 4. Gearing up for the future (Senior High School); 5. Ensuring integrated and seamless learning (Spiral Progressions); and 6. Nurturing the holistically developed Filipino (College and Livelihood Readiness, 21st Century Skills).
  25. 25. Chapter V: Laws Relating to Pupils or Students Republic Acts Relating to Pupils or Students Republic Act No. 896, also known as Elementary Education Act of 1953, this Act provided compulsory education for 7 years and made it mandatory on the part of parents to enroll their children in public schools upon reaching the age of 24 7. Republic Act No. 4090, the Act provides for state scholarship in science, arts, and letters for poor but deserving students and to create a state scholarship council to integrate, systematize, administer, and implement all programs of scholarships. Republic Act No. 4206, the Act prohibits the collection of contributions for the Red Cross, Anti-Tuberculosis, Parent-Teacher Associations, School Athletic Meets, Medical and Dental Services or for any other project or purpose, whether voluntary or otherwise, from school children of public primary and intermediate schools. Republic Act No. 6139, the Act regulates tuition and other school fees of private educational institution. Republic Act No. 7079, also known as Campus Journalism Act of 1991, the Act upholds and protects the freedom of the press at the campus ranks and promotes development and growth of campus journalism as a means of
  26. 26. strengthening ethical values, encouraging critical and creative thinking, and developing moral character and personal discipline of the Filipino youth. Other Legal Bases Related to Pupils and Students Presidential Decree No. 907, the decree provides the honor graduates from the school year 1972-1973 from schools, colleges and universities of good standing as determined by the Secretary of Education and Culture shall be conferred appropriate civil service eligibility. The term honor graduate refers to student who finished his course with at least cum laude honor (San Mateo & 25 Tangco, 2003).
  27. 27. Chapter VI: Laws Affecting School Administration and Supervision Republic Acts Affecting School Administration and Supervision Republic Act No. 139 provides the basis for selection and adoption of textbooks. It created the Board of Textbooks which selects and approves textbooks for use in the public schools. The Board does not select textbooks for private schools. Private schools, however, cannot use any textbook to which the Board has any objection (San Mateo & Tangco, 2003). Republic Act No. 1147, this Act provides for holding of regular and promotional teachers, civil service examination at least once every two years. Republic Act No. 1265, this Act makes flag ceremony compulsory in all 26 educational institutions. Republic Act No. 1880, an Act amending section 562 and 564 of the Revised Administrative which prescribes the legal hours of labor - eight hours a day, five days a week or forty hours a week. Republic Act No. 9155, principals are given wide latitude to decide on how to improve their schools in a way most beneficial to their students. They are granted administrative powers such as preparation of manpower and logistics requirements, recommending teacher applicants, deciding on appropriate textbooks for their students and formulating education programs suited to their needs.
  28. 28. Department Orders Affecting School Administration and Supervision Department Order No. 27 S 1972, this order gives the institutions authority to expel, dismiss, suspend indefinitely, or cause the expulsion, dismissal, or suspension of any faculty members, employees and students, who after the investigation were found to have engaged or were engaged in supervision or similar illegal activities or were known to be active member of 27 subversive organizations and activities. Department Order No. 30 S 1972, this prescribed the use of identification cards by all students, faculty and staff members in each institution.
  29. 29. Chapter VII: Laws Relating to Finance and Support Services Republic Acts Relating to Finance and Support Services Republic Act No. 364, this Act authorized all vocational schools to collect tuition fees and to receive contributions from private persons and contract loans from the government and private banks and other financial institutions and to create special trusts fund for each student. Republic Act No. 1284, this law exempt from amusement tax all athletic meets, schools programs and exhibitions, and other educational activities conducted by public schools, by amending the National Internal Revenue Code. Republic Act No. 5447, this Act is otherwise known as Special Education 28 Fund Act. Additional Compensation to Teachers Admin Order No. 53, this implemented the grant of additional compensation in the Amount of Php 500.00 per month to Public School Teacher. The grant of the additional compensation authorized in said Special Provision is limited to public school teachers under the Department of Education, Culture and Sports (DECS) occupying positions allocated to Salary Grade 25 and below. Admin Order No. 204, this authorized to increase in cash allowance for the purchase of chalks, erasers, forms and other classroom supplies and
  30. 30. materials. This is to lessen the teachers’ burden duri ng actual teaching and enable them to better stir classroom interaction, an increase in said cash allowance is granted to public school classroom teachers under the Department of Education (DepEd), from P300 to P500 each per annum. DepEd Order No. 23, S 2013, this provided the guidelines on the granting of redeployment allowance to excess teachers from both elementary and secondary schools. The redeployment allowance shall only be given to teachers being redeployed from schools with excess teacher items to schools with teacher 29 shortage. Fund for Assistance to Private Education Executive Order 15, also known as “Fund for Assistance to Pri vate Education”, this is established for the purpose of financing programs or assistance to private education, utilizing only the earnings thereof, whether in the form of interest, dividends or capital gains, through grants and/or loans for faculty training and development in the forms of a scholarships, research grants, faculty incentives, inter-institutional cooperative projects, and other programs of benefit to private education, but excluding any support of religious worship or instruction. DepEd Order No. 26, S 2014 provides the policies and guidelines on the implementation of the government assistance to Students and Teachers in Private Education (GASTPE) Program effective School Year 2014-2015. Education Service Contracting (ESC) aims to provide financial assistance to
  31. 31. elementary school graduates who want to pursue their secondary education in private schools; whereas Teacher Salary Subsidy (TSS) provides the grant of salary subsidy to licensed secondary teachers in participating private secondary 30 school in the ESC program.
  32. 32. Bibliography Jardin, R. (2013, January 3). History of Philippine Educational System. Retrieved from Prezi: http://prezi.com/8nfkpztc5wa0/copy-of-history-of-philippine-educational- 31 system/ Meany, J. J. (1962). Philippine Studies: The Sinco Report. Quezon City: Ateneo De Manila University. San Mateo, R. A., & Tangco, M. G. (2003). Foundations of Education II. Quezon City: Katha Publishing Co, Inc. Zulueta, F. M., & Maglaya, E. M. (2012). Foundations of Education. Mandaluyong City: National Book Store.

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