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Educational Laws, Practices,
Tends and Issues:
Table of Contents
Chapter I: Historical Evolution of Educational Goals and Objectives ................ 3
Aims of Education during the Pre-Spanish Period ............................................ 3
Goals of Education during the Spanish Regime................................................ 4
Purposes of Education during the Revolutionary Period ................................. 4
Objectives of Education during American Regime............................................ 5
Aims of Education during the Commonwealth Government............................ 6
Aims of Education during the Japanese Occupation ........................................ 6
Objectives of Education under the Republic of the Philippines....................... 7
Objectives of Education based on Sinco Committee Report........................... 8
Mandate and Objectives of Education under the New Administration........... 9
Chapter II: Laws Relating to Organization and Control...................................... 12
The Philippine Constitution ................................................................................. 12
Education Act of 1982.......................................................................................... 14
Philippine Commission Act 1974 ....................................................................... 14
Executive Orders 716 .......................................................................................... 15
Republic Acts Relating to Organization and Control....................................... 15
Chapter III: Laws Relating to Teaching Personnel ............................................. 18
Republic Acts Relating to Teaching Personnel ............................................... 18
Executive Orders Relating to Teaching Personnel ......................................... 19
Chapter IV: Laws Relating to School Curriculum ................................................ 20
Republic Acts Relating to School Curriculum .................................................. 20
Philippine Educational System ........................................................................... 20
Chapter V: Laws Relating to Pupils or Students ................................................. 24
Republic Acts Relating to Pupils or Students................................................... 24
Other Legal Bases Related to Pupils and Students........................................ 25
Chapter VI: Laws Affecting School Administration and Supervision................ 26
Republic Acts Affecting School Administration and Supervision .................. 26
Department Orders Affecting School Administration and Supervision ........ 27
Chapter VII: Laws Relating to Finance and Support Services .......................... 28
Republic Acts Relating to Finance and Support Services ............................. 28
Additional Compensation to Teachers .............................................................. 28
Fund for Assistance to Private Education......................................................... 29
Chapter I: Historical Evolution of Educational Goals and Objectives
From the Pre-Spanish to present, the educational system of the
Philippines has undergone several stages of development.
Aims of Education during the Pre-Spanish Period
During the Pre-Spanish era, the education of Filipinos was fit for the needs
of their times. There was no formal schooling. Parents trained their children
informally. Fathers taught their male chi ldren in hunting, carpentry, agriculture,
shipbuilding and mining. Mothers taught their female children in housekeeping,
weaving, basket-making and other agriculture-related activities. Skills taught
would vary on their industries and locations, i.e., whether highland, lowlands or
Education was oral, practical and hand-on. The aims of education are: for
survival and conformity and for enculturation. It was more on domestic chores
and practical honing and on theoretical and moral awakening. Teaching methods
were “tell me and show me”, observation and imitation, and indoctrination.
During this period, education was still decentralized. Children were
provided more vocational training but lesser academics, which were headed by
their parents or by their tribal teachers. They used a unique system of writing
known as the “baybayin”, which means “to spell”.
Goals of Education during the Spanish Regime
The pre-Spanish system of education underwent major changes during
the Spanish colonization. The tribal teachers were replaced by the Spanish
missionaries. Education was religion-centered and was compulsory for elite
Spanish. Boys and girls were separated. Religion was the core of the curriculum.
During this regime, the Friars established parochial schools and linked
with churches to teach catechism to the natives. Education was managed,
supervised and controlled.
The Royal Decree of 1555 mandated these goals of Spanish education in
the country. These were indoctrination of Christianity, imposition of Spanish
culture, and promotion of Spanish language. Education Decree of 1863 gave
Filipinos a complete system of education from elementary to collegiate level
(Zulueta & Maglaya, 2012). The education of Filipino was focused mainly on the
learning of Christian Doctrine. It was simple catechism, the doctrina, not the
same as Christian education in Europe. The methods of teaching used during
this era were: dictation, memorization, and other techniques such as cenaculo,
moro-moro and other theatrical performances.
Purposes of Education during the Revolutionary Period
After the Spanish colonial government was overthrown, the schools
established during the Spanish era were closed down for a time by Emilio
Aguinaldo’s government. The Malolos Constitution made elementary education
compulsory and provided free schooling. The curricula of schools were not much
different from those under Spanish domination. Tagalog was established as the
national language by the Constitution of Biak-na-Bato, reading, writing and
literary studies in Spanish were still given emphasis.
Objectives of Education during American Regime
Education became a very important issue for the American colonial
government since it allowed it to spread their cultural values, particularly the
English language, to the Filipino people. The aim of education was to promote
democratic ideals and way of life. Training was done through schools (private
and secular) by Thomasites. Education was influenced by the philosophy of John
They also implemented the Educational Act of 1901 that laid the
foundation of the Philippine school system- first level (seven-year elementary
school), second level (four-year school) and third level (two-year junior college
and a four-year program). The Monroe Commission on Philippine Education was
created in 1925 with the aim of reporting on the effectiveness of the education in
the Phi lippines during the period of U.S. annexation. The 1927 American Director
of the Bureau of Education stated the aims of education. These were training for
self-government and provision of English as common language.
Aims of Education during the Commonwealth Government
The aims of education during the Commonwealth government were to
develop moral character, personal discipline, civic conscience and vocational
efficiency and to teach the duties of citizenship.
Executive Order No. 17 in 1939 also known as Quezon Code of
Citizenship and Ethics, This legal mandate prescribed certain civic and ethical
principles to be taught in all schools in the Phi lippines which served as the
foundation of emerging philosophy of Philippine education. Executive Order No.
134 in 1940 ordered Tagalog as the basis of national language while Executive
Order No. 263 in 1940 required teaching of the Filipino national language.
Aims of Education during the Japanese Occupation
During the Japanese era, the aims of education were to make people
understand the position of the Philippine as a member of the East Asia Co-
Prosperity Sphere, to remove the old idea of reliance upon western stares
particularly the United States and Great Britain, to evaluate the morals of the
people by giving-up over emphasis on materialism, to diffuse elementary
education and promote vocational education, and to include Nihonggo in
Training was dome formally through schools. The government established
agricultural schools and colleges. The content of curricula was centered on
values rooted on love of labor emphasizing on vocational education.
Proclamation No. 1 informed the people that authority of the US over the
Philippines was over and that the Martial Law was to rule and also made the
country a member of the East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere.
Objectives of Education under the Republic of the Philippines
Under the Republic of the Philippines, the aim of education focused on
democracy and society. Content of curricula entailed on training for occupation,
promotion of democratic nation building and of community development.
Board of Textbooks was created according to RA 139 enacted on June
14, 1947. Civil Service Eligibility of teachers was made permanent pursuant to
RA1079. Board of National Education (BNE) was established to formulate
educational policies to give direction to Philippine education. Flag ceremony was
made compulsory in all schools including the singing of national anthem, the
“Lupang Hinirang.” Elementary education was nationalized.
Objectives of Education based on Sinco Committee Report
The Sinco plan would divide the secondary school course into two
periods. The first period, of three years, would complete the basic education
which every citizen should have; it would be a terminal course for all those who
would not continue their studies. The subsequent period, two years in length,
would be either a “vocational secondary course” for the traini ng of skilled workers
and craftsmen or the “collegiate secondary course” which would prepare the
student in college.
According to the Sinco Report, the objective of the elementary school was
"functional literacy". It underscored that the school should therefore emphasize
the acquisition of skills in the three R's and included within the scope of this
objective were the development of health habits, an understanding of science,
awareness of duties, rights and privileges, the foundation of an incorruptible
character and adult morality, learning the rudiments of the fine arts and
acquaintance with the practical arts. On the other hand, the basic secondary
school the objective was "intelligent citizenship". The courses designed to
accomplish this objective were much the same as in existing high-school
curricula with the addition, however, of a heavy schedule of practical and fine
arts. More time would be spent in the study of English (Meany, 1962).
Mandate and Objectives of Education under the New Administration
The objectives of education under the new administration are provision for
a broad education, manpower training in middle-level skills, and development of
the high-level professions and evaluation.
On January 17, 1973, President Marcos ratified the 1973 Constitution by
Proclamation 1102. The 1973 Constitution set out the three fundamental aims of
education in the Philippines:
To foster love of country;
To teach the duties of citizenship; and
To develop moral character, self-discipline, and scientific, technological
and vocational efficiency.
Bilingual Education Policy required the use of English and Filipino as
media of instruction in specific learning areas. Some educational programs
initiated were Project Impact (Instructional Management by Parents, Community,
and Teachers), In School-Off School Approach (ISOSA), Continuous Progression
Scheme (CPS), Program for a Decentralized Educational Development
(PRODED). Department of Education, Culture, and Sports (DECS) required
Grade VI pupils to take the National Elementary Achievement Test (NEAT) and
Fourth year students to take the National Secondary Achievement Test (NSAT).
Tertiary honor students are granted civil service eligibility pursuant to
Department Order No. 25 s. 1974. Professional Board Examination for Teachers
(PBET) provides teachers license to teach. Presidential Decree No. 232 entitled
“An Act Providing for the Establishment and Mai ntenance of an Integrated
System of Education” aims to provide for mai ntenance of quality education in the
During the previous administrations, education aimed to promote national
development and values education. Some of educational system and curricular
Implementation of New Elementary School Curriculum (NSEC) which
featured fewer learning areas and emphasis on mastery learning,
focused on the development of 3R’s, and emphasis on the
development of intellectual skills and the development of Humanism
and Filipinism in all learning areas.
Implementation of Secondary Education of Development Program
(SEDP) which featured subjects generally oriented to the development
of values, concept-based subject areas, development of specific
competencies, and uni-disciplinary treatment of curriculum content.
In 2011, Department of Education (DepEd) started to implement the new
K-12 educational system, which includes the new curricula for all schools. In this
system, education is now compulsory. The K-12 program aims to overhaul the
deficiencies of the 10-year basic education cycle in which learners had less time
to comprehend their lessons and had put them at a disadvantage in terms of
basic education in other countries. It aims to provide sufficient time for mastery of
concepts and skills, to develop lifelong learners, and to prepare graduates for
college education, middle-level skills development, employment, and
Chapter II: Laws Relating to Organization and Control
The Philippine Constitution
Philippine Constitution 1973
Article XV (General Provisions) contained the envisioned system of
Philippine education, which was "a complete, adequate, and integrated system of
education relevant to the goals of national development." The Phi lippine
Constitution of 1973 (Article XV, Sections 8-11), mandated the State to regulate
all educational institutions; granted academic freedom to all institutions of higher
learning; required the study of the Constitution in all schools; mandated the State
to maintain a system of free public elementary education, provide citizenship and
vocational training to adult citizens and out-of-school youth, and establish and
maintain a system of scholarship to poor and deserving students; mandated the
State to promote scientific research and invention and to give priority to science
and technology; made it essential to preserve and develop the Filipino culture for
national identity; designated the State as patron of the arts and letters; ensured
the protection of the rights of investors, authors and artists to their inventions
writings and artistic creations; mandated the State to provide scholarships,
grants-in-aid or other forms of incentive to specially gifted children; and
mandated the State to take into account the customs, traditions, beliefs and
interests of cultural communities in the formulation and implementation of state
Philippine Constitution 1982
Article II, Section 17 mandates the state to give priority to education,
science and technology, arts, culture and sports with the following priority goals:
1. To foster patriotism- patriotism is love of devotion to one’s country.
Nationalism is an attitude or belief characterized by a deep sense of
national consciousness of common culture, race and interests of people
who considered themselves one and distinct from others. Both emphasize
love to one’s country and the promotion of its interest.
2. To accelerate social progress- the fulfillment by the state of constitutional
mandate will hasten the attainment of social progress, national growth and
development. In essence, social progress implies improvement in the
quality of life of every citizen- economic, social, political and cultural.
3. To promote total human liberation and development- the ultimate goal is to
promote the common good for all. The individual should need assistance
and support so that he may develop harmoniously his physical, moral and
intellectual faculties and in, effect, liberate himself from the shackles of
poverty, ignorance, illiteracy, fear, anxiety and other adverse
4. The constitutional provisions explicitly stress that it is the responsibility of
the State to provide quality education to all citizens, regardless of their
socio-economic status. This is premised on the concept of universal
education (Zulueta & Maglaya, 2012).
Education Act of 1982
Republic Act No. 232 otherwise known as the Education Act of 1982
provides for an integrated system of education covering both formal and non-formal
education at all levels. Section 29 of the act seeks to upgrade education
institutions' standards to achieve "quality education", through voluntary
accreditation for schools, colleges, and universities. Section 16 and Section 17
upgrade the obligations and quali fications required for teachers and
administrators. Section 41 provides for government financial assistance to private
schools. This act also created the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports.
Philippine Commission Act 1974
Act No. 74 of 1901 enacted into law by the Philippine Commission. The
Act created the Department of Public Instruction, laid the foundations of the
public school system in the Philippines, provided for the establishment of the
Philippine Normal School in Mani la and made English as the medium of
Executive Orders 716
Executive Order No. 716 created a committee to assess the competence
and performance of career service officers and other officers in the civil services.
It was enacted on August 6, 1981.
Republic Acts Relating to Organization and Control
Republic Act No. 416, the law converted the Philippine Normal School to
Philippine Normal College conferring the degree of Bachelor of Science in
Elementary Education and Master of Arts in Education. Republic Act No. 7168
converted Philippine Normal College into University.
Republic Act No. 7665 converted the Bulacan College of Arts and Trades
in the province of Bulacan into a State University to be known as the Bulacan
Republic Act No. 7722 also known as the Higher Education Act of 1994,
the Act created the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) whose main task
is to regulate and develop tertiary education in the Philippines.
Republic Act No. 7796, also known as the Technical Education and Skills
Development Act (TESDA) of 1994, the Act’s objecti ve was to provide relevant
and quality technical education that is accessible to all and to create the agency
that will manage technical education and skills development in the Philippines.
Republic Act No. 7722 (May 18, 1994) and Republic Act No. 7796 (August
23, 1994) created the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) and the
Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA), respectively,
giving rise to a trifocali zed education system which refocused DECS’ mandate to
basic education covering pre-school, elementary and secondary, and non-formal
Republic Act No. 7731, the Act abolished the National College Entrance
Examinations (NCEE) to give the marginalized students a greater chance to gain
access to college education.
Republic Act No. 7743, the Act provides the establishment of
congressional, city and municipal libraries and barangay learning centers
throughout the Philippines.
Republic Act No. 7889, the Act established the University of the
Philippines in Mindanao.
Republic Act No. 7784, this Act strengths teacher education in the
Philippines by establishing centers of excellence and creating a teacher
education council for the purpose.
Republic Act No. 8292, also known as Education Modernization Act of
1997, this law provides for a democratized uniform composition of the governing
boards of state universities and colleges (SUCs) and clothed these governing
boards with sufficient powers to effectively and efficiently transform the SUCs
into dynamic learning organizations (Zulueta & Maglaya, 2012).
Republic Act No. 8545 was enacted to strengthen the private sectors
involvement in tertiary education.
Republic Act No. 9155 mandates that all functions, programs and
activities related to sports be transferred to Philippine Sports Commission (PSC)
and the Bureau of Physical Education and School Sports (BPESS) will be
abolished. However, the program for school sports and physical fitness remains
part of the basic education curriculum. Likewise, cultural activities will now be
fully handled by the National Commission of Culture and Arts (NCAA). Culture
will be taught as a humanities subject including music and literature (San Mateo
& Tangco, 2003).
Chapter III: Laws Relating to Teaching Personnel
Republic Acts Relating to Teaching Personnel
Republic Act No. 660, the Act amended Commonwealth Act No. 186 and
created and established a Government Service Insurance System (GSIS).
Created by Commonwealth Act No. 186 passed on November 14, 1936, the
GSIS is mandated to provide and administer the following social security benefits
for government employees: compulsory life insurance, optional life insurance,
retirement benefits, disability benefits for work-related contingencies and death
benefits. In addition, the GSIS is entrusted with the administration of the General
Insurance Fund by virtue of RA656 of the Proper ty Insurance Law. It provides
insurance coverage to assets and properties which have government insurable
interests. Republic Act No. 8291, the Act amended Presidential Decree 1145 to
expand and increase the coverage and benefits of the GSIS.
Republic Act No. 7836, also known as the Philippine Teachers
Professionalization Act of 1994, the Act made it mandatory for people pursuing a
career in teaching to take the licensure examinations that are administered and
regulated by the Professional Regulatory Commission (PRC).
Republic Act No. 4670, also known as the Magna Carta for Public School
Teachers, this Act enacts to promote and improve the social and economic
status of public school teachers, their living and working conditions, their terms of
employment and career prospects in order that they may compare favorably with
existing opportunities in other walks of life, attracts and retains in the teaching
profession more people with the proper qualifications. It is being recognized that
advance in education depends on the qualifications and ability of the teaching
staff and that education is an essential factor in the economic growth of the
nation as a productive investment of vital importance.
Executive Orders Relating to Teaching Personnel
Executive Order No. 500 established a new system of career progression
for public school teachers.
Executive Order No. 189 placed all public secondary school teachers
under the administrative supervision and control of the Department of Education,
Culture and Sports (DECS).
Chapter IV: Laws Relating to School Curriculum
Republic Acts Relating to School Curriculum
Republic Act No. 1425, the Act requires to include in the curricula of all
public and private schools, colleges and universities courses on the life, works
and writing of Jose Rizal, particularly his novels- Noli Me Tangere and El
Republic Act No. 6655, also known as “Free Public Secondary Education
Act of 1988”, the Act mandates in establishing and providing for a free public
secondary education. Free Public Secondary Education means that the students
enrolled in secondary course offerings in national high schools, general
comprehensive high schools, trade, technical, vocational, fishery and agricultural
schools, and in schools established, administered, maintained and funded by
local government units, including city, provincial municipal and barangay high
schools, and those public high schools which may be established by law, shall be
free from payment of tuition and other schools fees
Philippine Educational System
Department Order No. 25 S 1974, known as Bilingual Education
Program, mandated the use of English and Filipino separately as media of
instruction. English Communication Arts, Mathematics and Sciences are to be
taught in English and the rest of the subjects are to be taught in Filipino (San
Mateo & Tangco, 2003).
MEC Order No. 6 S 1982 developed New Elementary School Curriculum
(NESC). It featured:
1. Fewer learning areas and emphasis on mastery learning;
2. More time allotted to the development of the basic skills specially the 3Rs
in the lower grades;
3. Greater emphasis on the development of intellectual skills, which are as
important as, work skills;
4. Focus on the development of senses of humanity and nationhood in all the
learning areas; and
5. Health values development infused into the whole curriculum, not only in
the period for character building activities and science and health.
DECS Order No. 11 S 1989 developed the New Secondary School
Curriculum. It responded to the following needs:
1. Continue the pupil development started by the Program for Decentralized
2. Improve the quality of high school graduates and internal efficiency of the
3. Expand access to quality secondary education (Zulueta & Maglaya, 2012).
DepEd Order No. 25, s. 2002 dated June 17, 2002 ordered the
implementation of the 2002 Basic Education Curriculum during the SY 2002-
2003. The BEC focused on the basics of reading, writing, arithmetic, science and
patriotism. Values are integral to all the subject areas. Students can then be
ready for lifelong learning. It seeks to cure the inability of students who cannot
read with comprehension at grade 3 and worse, at grade 6. The features of BEC
1. Greater emphasis on helping every learner to become a successful
2. Emphasis on interactive and collaborative learning approaches;
3. Emphasis on the use of integrative learning approaches;
4. Teaching of values in all learning areas;
5. Development of self-reliant and patriotic citizens; and
6. Development of creative and critical thinking skills.
Republic Act No. 10533, also known as “Enhanced Basic Education Act
of 2013”, the act enhances the Philippine Basic Education system by
strengthening its curriculum and increasing the number of years for basic
The enhanced basic education program encompasses at least one (1)
year of kindergarten education, six (6) years of elementary education, and six (6)
years of secondary education, in that sequence. Secondary education includes
four (4) years of junior high school and two (2) years of senior high school
education. This program is known as K+12 Program.
Salient features of this program are:
1. Strengthening early childhood education (Universal Kindergarten);
2. Building proficiency through language (Mother Tongue-based
3. Making curriculum relevant to the learners (Conceptualization and
4. Gearing up for the future (Senior High School);
5. Ensuring integrated and seamless learning (Spiral Progressions); and
6. Nurturing the holistically developed Filipino (College and Livelihood
Readiness, 21st Century Skills).
Chapter V: Laws Relating to Pupils or Students
Republic Acts Relating to Pupils or Students
Republic Act No. 896, also known as Elementary Education Act of 1953,
this Act provided compulsory education for 7 years and made it mandatory on the
part of parents to enroll their children in public schools upon reaching the age of
Republic Act No. 4090, the Act provides for state scholarship in science,
arts, and letters for poor but deserving students and to create a state scholarship
council to integrate, systematize, administer, and implement all programs of
Republic Act No. 4206, the Act prohibits the collection of contributions for
the Red Cross, Anti-Tuberculosis, Parent-Teacher Associations, School Athletic
Meets, Medical and Dental Services or for any other project or purpose, whether
voluntary or otherwise, from school children of public primary and intermediate
Republic Act No. 6139, the Act regulates tuition and other school fees of
private educational institution.
Republic Act No. 7079, also known as Campus Journalism Act of 1991,
the Act upholds and protects the freedom of the press at the campus ranks and
promotes development and growth of campus journalism as a means of
strengthening ethical values, encouraging critical and creative thinking, and
developing moral character and personal discipline of the Filipino youth.
Other Legal Bases Related to Pupils and Students
Presidential Decree No. 907, the decree provides the honor graduates
from the school year 1972-1973 from schools, colleges and universities of good
standing as determined by the Secretary of Education and Culture shall be
conferred appropriate civil service eligibility. The term honor graduate refers to
student who finished his course with at least cum laude honor (San Mateo &
Chapter VI: Laws Affecting School Administration and Supervision
Republic Acts Affecting School Administration and Supervision
Republic Act No. 139 provides the basis for selection and adoption of
textbooks. It created the Board of Textbooks which selects and approves
textbooks for use in the public schools. The Board does not select textbooks for
private schools. Private schools, however, cannot use any textbook to which the
Board has any objection (San Mateo & Tangco, 2003).
Republic Act No. 1147, this Act provides for holding of regular and
promotional teachers, civil service examination at least once every two years.
Republic Act No. 1265, this Act makes flag ceremony compulsory in all
Republic Act No. 1880, an Act amending section 562 and 564 of the
Revised Administrative which prescribes the legal hours of labor - eight hours a
day, five days a week or forty hours a week.
Republic Act No. 9155, principals are given wide latitude to decide on
how to improve their schools in a way most beneficial to their students. They are
granted administrative powers such as preparation of manpower and logistics
requirements, recommending teacher applicants, deciding on appropriate
textbooks for their students and formulating education programs suited to their
Department Orders Affecting School Administration and Supervision
Department Order No. 27 S 1972, this order gives the institutions
authority to expel, dismiss, suspend indefinitely, or cause the expulsion,
dismissal, or suspension of any faculty members, employees and students, who
after the investigation were found to have engaged or were engaged in
supervision or similar illegal activities or were known to be active member of
subversive organizations and activities.
Department Order No. 30 S 1972, this prescribed the use of identification
cards by all students, faculty and staff members in each institution.
Chapter VII: Laws Relating to Finance and Support Services
Republic Acts Relating to Finance and Support Services
Republic Act No. 364, this Act authorized all vocational schools to collect
tuition fees and to receive contributions from private persons and contract loans
from the government and private banks and other financial institutions and to
create special trusts fund for each student.
Republic Act No. 1284, this law exempt from amusement tax all athletic
meets, schools programs and exhibitions, and other educational activities
conducted by public schools, by amending the National Internal Revenue Code.
Republic Act No. 5447, this Act is otherwise known as Special Education
Additional Compensation to Teachers
Admin Order No. 53, this implemented the grant of additional
compensation in the Amount of Php 500.00 per month to Public School Teacher.
The grant of the additional compensation authorized in said Special Provision is
limited to public school teachers under the Department of Education, Culture and
Sports (DECS) occupying positions allocated to Salary Grade 25 and below.
Admin Order No. 204, this authorized to increase in cash allowance for
the purchase of chalks, erasers, forms and other classroom supplies and
materials. This is to lessen the teachers’ burden duri ng actual teaching and
enable them to better stir classroom interaction, an increase in said cash
allowance is granted to public school classroom teachers under the Department
of Education (DepEd), from P300 to P500 each per annum.
DepEd Order No. 23, S 2013, this provided the guidelines on the granting
of redeployment allowance to excess teachers from both elementary and
secondary schools. The redeployment allowance shall only be given to teachers
being redeployed from schools with excess teacher items to schools with teacher
Fund for Assistance to Private Education
Executive Order 15, also known as “Fund for Assistance to Pri vate
Education”, this is established for the purpose of financing programs or
assistance to private education, utilizing only the earnings thereof, whether in the
form of interest, dividends or capital gains, through grants and/or loans for faculty
training and development in the forms of a scholarships, research grants, faculty
incentives, inter-institutional cooperative projects, and other programs of benefit
to private education, but excluding any support of religious worship or instruction.
DepEd Order No. 26, S 2014 provides the policies and guidelines on the
implementation of the government assistance to Students and Teachers in
Private Education (GASTPE) Program effective School Year 2014-2015.
Education Service Contracting (ESC) aims to provide financial assistance to
elementary school graduates who want to pursue their secondary education in
private schools; whereas Teacher Salary Subsidy (TSS) provides the grant of
salary subsidy to licensed secondary teachers in participating private secondary
school in the ESC program.
Jardin, R. (2013, January 3). History of Philippine Educational System. Retrieved
from Prezi: http://prezi.com/8nfkpztc5wa0/copy-of-history-of-philippine-educational-
Meany, J. J. (1962). Philippine Studies: The Sinco Report. Quezon City: Ateneo
De Manila University.
San Mateo, R. A., & Tangco, M. G. (2003). Foundations of Education II. Quezon
City: Katha Publishing Co, Inc.
Zulueta, F. M., & Maglaya, E. M. (2012). Foundations of Education. Mandaluyong
City: National Book Store.