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3. TYPES OF DISASTER
4. WHEN DOES HAZARDS LEADS TO DISASTER
7. DISASTER MANAGEMENT
(CHAPTER TAKEN FROM BOOK “DISASTER MANAGEMENT” “CH-1”)
3. What is a Hazard?
• Hazard is danger event, natural or human induced that could
cause injury, loss of life damage to property, livelihood or
A hazard should be natural like earthquake, tsunami,
volcanic eruption etc. Some of the hazards like floods,
landslides, droughts are socio – natural hazards since their
cause are both natural and human induced. For example ;
flooding in an area can take place because of excessive rain
which is natural phenomenon or because of lack of proper
drainage facility which is because of human negligence. Some
of the hazards are human induced. Example of some human
induced hazards are industrial accidents, rails, road and air
accident, terrorist attack, dam failures, leakage of toxic waste,
war and civil strife etc. A community may prone to multiple
hazards for example; Gujarat is a prone of earthquake, but it is
also frequently affected by floods and cyclone.
4. What is a Disaster?
• A disaster is a serious disruption of the functioning of a community or a society
involving widespread human, material, economic or environmental losses and
impacts, which exceeds the ability of the affected community or society to cope
using its own resources.
• In contemporary academia, disasters are seen as the consequence of in
appropriately managed risk. These risks are the product of a combination of both
hazard/s and vulnerability. Hazards that strike in areas with low vulnerability will
never become disasters, as is the case in uninhabited regions.
• Developing countries suffer the greatest costs when a disaster hits – more than 95
percent of all deaths caused by hazards occur in developing countries, and losses
due to natural hazards are 20 times greater (as a percentage of GDP) in developing
countries than in industrialized countries
5. Types Of Disasters
A. Based on the Speed , a disaster can be termed as
Slow or Rapid.
Rapid onset disasters :-
Most of the 'natural' disasters we hear about arrive rapidly and in the
case of earthquakes, with no warning. They are rapid onset disasters.
Cyclones, hurricanes and typhoons - the same hazard with a different
name in different parts of the world - arrive with a few days warning,
and annually we know when the cyclone season is likely to occur in
specific regions, so that preparations can me made for their arrival.
Floods can arrive very fast, but the conditions in which floods are
likely to occur are quite predictable.
6. Slow onset disasters :-
Droughts are relatively slow disasters. Climate change, environmental
degradation and desertication are very slow onset events, but can and
should be considered as disasters in terms of the damage and
disruption to lives that they may or indeed already do create.
40% of the world's natural disasters occurred in Asia between 1999
and 2008 and accounted for 80% of disaster deaths.
(Development Asia, January - March 2011).
DWF works on mitigating against and adapting to the impact of both rapid and slow
onset hazards and disasters
7. B. Based on the cause , disaster can be natural or
Natural Disaster :-
A natural disaster is an event that is caused by natural hazards and leads to human,
material, economic and environmental losses, which exceed the ability of Those
affected to cope.
Natural disasters including floods, hurricanes, earthquakes and volcano eruptions that
have immediate impacts on human health and secondary impacts causing further
death and suffering from (for example) floods, landslides, fires, tsunamis.
Human – Induced disaster :-
A serious disruption of normal life triggered by a human- induced hazards causing
human, material, economic ad environmental losses , which exceed the ability of
those affected to cope , without the presence of human, there is no disaster.
Human- Induced disaster includes road accidents, drilling for hand pumps, Bhopal
gas tragedy, Jaipur serial blast.
8. When does HAZARDS leads to a
• A disaster occur when the impact of hazards on a
section of society is such that the people are unable to
cope with the event, causing death, injury, loss of
property and/or economic losses.
If an earthquake strikes a desert
uninhabited by human beings, it would not cause direct
and immediate damage to the society and thus, would
not be termed as a disaster. On the other hand, the
earthquake that struck Bhuj (Gujarat) in 2001 and killed
more than 10,000 people, became a disaster owing to its
immediate impact on the society.
9. What is Vulnerability?
• In relation to hazards and disaster, vulnerability is a concept
that links the relationship that people have with
their environment to social forces and institutions and the
cultural values that sustain and contest them. “The concept of
vulnerability expresses the multi-dimensionality of disasters
by focusing attention on the totality of relationships in a given
social situation which constitute a condition that, in
combination with environmental forces, produces a disaster”.
It's also the extent to which changes could harm a
system, or to which the community can be affected by the
impact of a hazard or exposed to the possibility of being
attacked or harmed, either physically or emotionally: "we
were in a vulnerable position".
10. What is a Risk?
• Risk is the probability of harmful consequence, or expected losses, such as
deaths, injuries, loss of property and livelihood, disruption in the economic
activity and environmental degradation resulting from interaction between
hazards and vulnerable condition.
Disaster risk reduction (DRR) is a systematic approach to
identifying, assessing and reducing the risks of disaster. It aims to reduce
socio-economic vulnerabilities to disaster as well as dealing with the
environmental and other hazards that trigger them: Here it has been
strongly influenced by the mass of research on vulnerability that has
appeared in print since the mid-1970s. It is the responsibility of
development and relief agencies alike. It should be an integral part of the
way such organizations do their work, not an add-on or one-off action. DRR
is very wide-ranging: Its scope is much broader and deeper than
conventional emergency management. There is potential for DRR initiatives
in just about every sector of development and humanitarian work.
The most commonly cited definition of DRR is one used by UN agencies
such as UNISDR and UNDP: "The conceptual framework of elements
considered with the possibilities to minimize vulnerabilities and disaster
risks throughout a society, to avoid (prevention) or to limit (mitigation and
preparedness) the adverse impacts of hazards, within the broad context of
11. What is Disaster Management?
• Disaster Management cover the range of activities designed to
maintain control over disaster/emergency situations and to provide a
framework for helping people to avoid, reduce the effect of, or recover
from impact of a disaster . These activities may be related to
preparedness, mitigation, emergency response, relief and recovery
(reconstruction and rehabilitation) and be conducted before, during or
after disaster. Disaster management is a management of resources
and responsibilities for dealing with all humanitarian aspects of
emergencies, in particular preparedness, response and recovery
in order to lessen the impact of disasters.