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adolf Loos.pdf

  1. Adolf Loos, 1870 -1933 Loos in 1930, portrait by Oskar Kokoschka, 1909
  2. BIRTH, EDUCATION & EARLY INFLUENCES 1870 Born in the Czech Republic to German parents, a sculptor and stonemason. 1880 - 1893 Attends series of Austrian and Czech technical colleges, including architecture at Dresden Technical University. 1893 - 1896 Travels and works as a mason and floor-layer in the U.S., where he becomes enamored with the efficiency of American architecture. In particular, he comes to admire the work of Louis Sullivan, whose aesthetic was based on the premise that form should follow function. 1897 First solo design at Ebenstein Couturier, beginning of theoretical and critical activity.
  3. His essay Ornament and Crime advocated smooth and clear surfaces in contrast to the lavish decorations of the Fin de siècle and also to the more modern aesthetic principles of the Vienna Secession. Loos became a pioneer of modern architecture and contributed a body of theory and criticism of Modernism in architecture and design. Essay on Ornament and Crime: Adolf Loos 1928
  4. Evolution is synonymous with the removal of ornament from objects of everyday use . Loos's essay, "passion for smooth and precious surfaces"he explains his philosophy, describing how ornamentation can have the effect of causing objects to go out of style and thus become obsolete. It struck him that it was a crime to waste the effort needed to add ornamentation, when the ornamentation would cause the object to soon go out of style.
  5. Loos introduced a sense of the "immorality" of ornament, describing it as "degenerate", its suppression as necessary for regulating modern society. He took as one of his examples the tattooing of the "Papuan" and the intense surface decorations of the objects about him—Loos says that, in the eyes of western culture, the Papuan has not evolved to the moral and civilized circumstances of modern man, who, should he tattoo himself, would either be considered a criminal or a degenerate. Loos concluded that "No ornament can any longer be made today by anyone who lives on our cultural level ... Freedom from ornament is a sign of spiritual strength“.
  6. The essay was written when Art Nouveau, which Loos had excoriated even at its height in 1900, was about to show a new way of modern art. The essay is important in articulating some moralizing views, inherited from the Arts and Crafts movement, which would be fundamental to the Bauhaus design studio and would help define the ideology of Modernism in architecture.
  7. 1870 Born in the Czech Republic to German parents, a sculptor and stonemason. 1880-90 Attended a series of technical colleges in Austria and the Czech Republic. 1892-93 Studied architecture at Dresden Technical University. 1893-96 Traveled and studied Chicago, St Louis, Philadelphia, New York, London and Paris before returning to Vienna. 1897 First solo design at Ebenstein couturierie, beginning of theoretical and critical activity. 1898 Café Museum in Vienna; referred to as “Café Nihilism” by critics.
  8. 1908 Published "Ornament and Crime," a legendary diatribe against adornment in design. 1910 Looshaus, Vienna; Goldmann & Salatsch department store in stark modern style built across the street from the Hofburg Imperial Palace in Vienna; great scandal, Austrian emperor enraged. 1910 Steiner House, Vienna; Raumplan concept of terraced rooms first employed. 1922 Notorious submission to Chicago Tribune contest; his proposed tower is a giant Doric column.
  9. 1928 Loos was disgraced by a pedophilia scandal in Vienna.He was found partially guilty in a court decision of 1928.In 2008 the original case record was rediscovered and confirmed the accusation. 1930 Villa Müller, Prague, 1930; Loos considered this the final realization of his anti-ornamental aesthetic and Raumplan 1933 Died at the Kalkoburg Sanatorium near Vienna. 2001 Villa Müller, painstakingly restored, opens to the public as a museum dedicated to the life and work of Adolf Loos.
  10. Early work: Café Museum, Vienna, 1898-99
  11. Early work: Villa Karma, Switzerland and K-bar, or American Bar, Vienna l: Villa Karma, Switzerland, 1904-6; r: American Bar, Vienna, 1907
  12. Haus am Michaelerplatz, Vienna, Austria 1910-11
  13. LoosHaus am Michaelerplatz (façade detail)
  14. LoosHaus am Michaelerplatz (interior detail)
  15. Steiner Haus, Vienna, 1910 Front elevation (above) Garden façade (below)
  16. Chicago Tribune competition,1922
  17. Josephine Baker House model (never built)
  18. Tristen Tzara Haus, Paris, 1926-27
  19. Müller Villa, Prague, 1930
  20. Müller Villa, interior, 1930
  21. Müller Villa, interior, 1930
  22. Müller Villa, 1930, roof view
  23. Adolf Loos furniture Elephant trunk table, c. 1902 Haberfeld table, c.1900
  24. Adolf Loos furniture
  25. Adolf Loos designs Crystal service, c. 1930 Lighting
  26. Scheu Haus, Vienna, by Adolf Loos, 1912-14 computer models by Whitney Smithers, 1994
  27. Ludwig Wittgenstein, 1889-1951
  28. Wittgenstein House, Vienna,1926-28
  29. Wittgenstein House, Vienna, 1926-28