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Week 5

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Week 5

  1. 1. Week 5
  2. 2. The Societal Consequences Digital Health <ul><li>Emotional & Physical Health </li></ul><ul><li>Economic imperative </li></ul><ul><li>Political inclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Critical thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Personal safety </li></ul>
  3. 3. Critical Thinking – Digital Literacy
  4. 6. Or simply…media that is created to be shared freely http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MpIOClX1jPE&feature=related
  5. 7. A Gateway for Dangerous Behavior?
  6. 8. Visit these sites at your own risk!
  7. 9. http://omegle.com/ http://www.chatroulette.com/
  8. 10. Cyber Bullying and Social Isolation: Phoebe & Alexis
  9. 11. Anonymity Breeds Irresponsibility The problem, say Formspring's critics, is the site offers a perfect haven for cyberbulllying. As the &quot;Edumacation&quot; blog puts it: &quot;Anyone who works with young people can quickly point out that anonymity nearly always breeds irresponsibility.&quot; The recent suicide of 15-year-old Pheobe Prince has drawn attention to the problem of bullying in cyberspace because victims often have no idea who is tormenting them. A Boycott Formspring Group on Facebook claims almost 7,300 members. http://www.dailyfinance.com/story/media/do-you-know-who-your-children-are-online-formsprings-raunchy-f/19452194/?a_dgi=aolshare_email A young person speaks..then tribute http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8lyYjZyeN80 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q1Y5hH1ScY0&feature=related
  10. 12. Cyberbullying What the research is telling us… Amanda Lenhart Youth Online Safety Working Group May 6, 2010 Washington, DC
  11. 13. Teen internet use basics <ul><li>93% of teens 12-17 go online </li></ul><ul><li>63% of online teens go online daily </li></ul><ul><li>89% of online teens go online from home, and most of them go online from home most often </li></ul><ul><li>77% of teen go online at school </li></ul><ul><li>71% go online from friends or relatives house </li></ul><ul><li>60% go online from a library </li></ul><ul><li>27% go online on their mobile phone </li></ul><ul><li>76% of households with teens go online via broadband, 10% via dial up, and 12% do not have access at home. </li></ul>May 2010
  12. 14. What are teens doing online? <ul><li>94% go online to do research for school assignments; 48% do so on a typical day. </li></ul><ul><li>81% go to websites about movies, TV shows, music groups, or sports stars </li></ul><ul><li>64% of online teens have created some kind of content online </li></ul><ul><li>62% go online to get news </li></ul><ul><li>57% have watched a video on a video-sharing site like YouTube or GoogleVideo </li></ul><ul><li>55% go online to get information about a college, university or other school that they are thinking about attending. </li></ul><ul><li>48% have bought something online like books, clothes or music </li></ul><ul><li>31% have looked online for health, dieting or physical fitness information; 17% have looked online for sensitive health information </li></ul>May 2010
  13. 15. How else are teens connecting? <ul><li>75% of teens have a cell phone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No gender or race/ethnic differences in ownership </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>50% of teens with phones talk to friends daily </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>54% of teens send text messages daily </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>27% use their phone to go online </li></ul></ul><ul><li>73% of teens use an online social network site </li></ul><ul><ul><li>37% of SNS users send messages through social networks daily </li></ul></ul><ul><li>80% of teens have a game console </li></ul><ul><li>51% of teens have a portable gaming device </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teens connect and interact with others online through games </li></ul></ul>May 2010
  14. 16. Concerns in Online Safety Sphere <ul><li>Inappropriate contact </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strangers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bullies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inappropriate content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accidental Exposure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deliberate Exposure </li></ul></ul>May 2010
  15. 17. Bullying <ul><li>Olweus (1993) </li></ul><ul><li>“ A person is bullied when he or she is exposed, repeatedly and over time, to negative actions on the part of one or more other persons, and he or she has difficulty defending himself or herself.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>This definition includes three important components: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Bullying is aggressive behavior that involves unwanted, negative actions. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Bullying involves a pattern of behavior repeated over time </li></ul><ul><li>3. Bullying involves an imbalance of power or strength.” </li></ul><ul><li>Bullying </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relational/Verbal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Internet </li></ul></ul>May 2010
  16. 18. Online Harassment & Cyberbullying <ul><li>Online harassment: aggressive behavior, “harm doing,” insults, denigration, impersonation, exclusion, outing, activities associated with hacking – stealing information, breaking into accounts, damaging websites, profiles etc. (Willard, 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>Cyberbullying: online harassment that is </li></ul><ul><ul><li>repeated over time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Involves a power imbalance between a perpetrator and a victim. Power imbalance may be differences in online skills. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other complicating factor -- perpetrators are also often victims, sometimes online, sometimes elsewhere. Internet bullying can be particularly hard to disentangle. (Willard, 2006) </li></ul>May 2010
  17. 19. What makes online harassment & bullying different? <ul><li>Technology is vehicle </li></ul><ul><li>Persistence of content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Editable, alterable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Distributability of content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Speed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Breadth </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dis-inhibition over computer-mediated communication </li></ul><ul><li>Invasive </li></ul>May 2010
  18. 20. Pew Internet: Online Harassment <ul><li>32% of online teens have experienced one of the following forms of online harassment: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>15% of teens reported having private material (IM, txt, email) forwarded without permission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>13% had received threatening messages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>13% said someone had spread a rumor about them online </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6% had someone post an embarrassing picture of them online without permission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Lenhart, 2007) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>26% of teens have been harassed via their cell phones either by voice or text </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Lenhart, 2010) </li></ul></ul>May 2010
  19. 21. 01/30/11
  20. 22. Cyberbullying <ul><li>Other research shows prevalence of cyberbullying or online harassment between 9% and 33% of youth ages 10-18. (Wolak et al, 2007, Ybarra et al, 2007) </li></ul><ul><li>Much of the difference is definitional and depends on how the question was asked. Specific activities often yield higher levels of response than blanket definitions. </li></ul><ul><li>Mid-teens (ages 14-17) is the age of greatest prevalence of online harassment & bullying (Pew, 2007, Hinduja & Patchin, 2008) </li></ul><ul><li>Perpetrators of online bullying (similar to offline bullying) are generally the same age as their victim. (Wolak, 2007) </li></ul>May 2010
  21. 23. Frequency of bullying victimization among 11-16 year olds May 2010 ( n =1,193) (Ybarra, 2009)
  22. 24. Online Harassment (2) <ul><li>Girls, particularly older girls, report more online harassment; 38% of all online girls reported experiencing some type of harassment (Pew, 2007) </li></ul><ul><li>Social network users are also more likely to report online harassment – 39% of SNS users have experience it. (Pew, 2007) </li></ul><ul><li>But most teens (67%) think bullying & harassment happens more OFFLINE. (Pew, 2007) </li></ul>May 2010
  23. 25. Frequency of bullying victimization among 11-16 year olds by environment May 2010 ( n =1,193) (Ybarra, 2009)
  24. 26. Online (or not) Harassment <ul><li>School is by far the most common place youth report being bullied (31%) versus elsewhere (e.g., 13% online) </li></ul><ul><li>The prevalence rate of Internet harassment (both perpetration and victimization) appears to be stable (2006-2008) . </li></ul><ul><li>The majority (59%) of Internet harassment comes from other minors </li></ul><ul><li>Youth who report being harassed online report a myriad of concurrent psychosocial problems offline, too </li></ul><ul><li>Source: Michele Ybarra & colleagues work on the 2005 Youth Internet Safety Survey fielded by UNH CCRC & 2007-2008 Growing up with Media research funded by the CDC. </li></ul>May 2010
  25. 27. Why should we worry? <ul><li>Bullying is broadly associated with: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>School violence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Delinquency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suicidal ideation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bullied teens (and often bullies themselves) have higher levels of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Depression and other psychological problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Substance abuse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Delinquency / School avoidance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weapon-carrying </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor parent/caregiver relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Offline victimization/sexual abuse/physical abuse </li></ul></ul>May 2010
  26. 28. Why should we worry (2)? <ul><li>Some research suggests that significant portions of teens aren’t bothered by online harassment or bullying </li></ul><ul><li>Research suggests that 1/3 of teens (34%) are distressed by online harassment. (Wolak et al, 2007) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distressed = “Extremely or very upset or afraid” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Teens who are high internet users are more likely to be distressed (Wolak, 2007) </li></ul>May 2010
  27. 29. Overlap of cyberbullying & internet victimization May 2010 (Ybarra, 2010)
  28. 30. Differences between cyberbullying & internet harassment <ul><li>Cyberbullying is not more common than Internet harassment </li></ul><ul><li>On average (between 2007-2008): 37% were harassed, 14% were bullied online in the past year </li></ul><ul><li>Cyberbullying is not more damaging than Internet harassment </li></ul><ul><li>Among those cyberbullied, 15% report being very / extremely upset </li></ul><ul><li>Among those harassed, between 17-34% report being very / extremely upset </li></ul>May 2010
  29. 31. Cell phone-based harassment <ul><li>75% of teens have cell phones </li></ul><ul><li>54% of all teens text message daily </li></ul><ul><li>26% have been harassed through their cell phone by voice calls or text messages </li></ul><ul><li>47% have sent a text message they regretted sending </li></ul><ul><li>And then there’s sexting – which is generally not a form of harassment itself, but when the images are shared, can lead to harassment and bullying. </li></ul>May 2010
  30. 32. 01/30/11
  31. 33. Sending Sexts <ul><li>No difference by gender </li></ul><ul><li>Oldest teens most likely to have sent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>8% of 17 year olds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4% of 12 year olds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>17% who pay for all the costs of the phone send sexts vs. 3% of others </li></ul>May 2010
  32. 34. Receiving Sexts <ul><li>Again, no gender differences and increases by age </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4% of 12 year olds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>20% of 16 year olds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>30% of 17 year olds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sending texts, having unlimited texting plan increases receipt </li></ul>May 2010
  33. 35. Sexting Scenarios <ul><li>Between two romantic partners, as a part of, instead of, or as a prelude to sex – never leaves couple </li></ul><ul><li>Between two romantic partners – but shared with others </li></ul><ul><li>Between two people where at least one would like to be in a relationship – shows interest </li></ul>May 2010
  34. 36. Element of coercion for some sexting <ul><li>“ When I was about 14-15 years old, I received/sent these types of pictures. Boys usually ask for them or start that type of conversation. My boyfriend, or someone I really liked asked for them. And I felt like if I didn’t do it, they wouldn’t continue to talk to me. At the time, it was no big deal. But now looking back it was definitely inappropriate and over the line.” - 17 year old girl </li></ul>May 2010
  35. 37. Summary <ul><li>Somewhere between 1/10 th and 1/3 rd of teens are being bullied online </li></ul><ul><li>Bullying still happens more offline – at school – than online. </li></ul><ul><li>For the majority of teens, it isn’t distressing, but for a minority, cyberbullying is extremely serious and paired with major problems that can affect their lives, their schools and their community. </li></ul><ul><li>Venues for bullying have diversified, and with it comes increased visibility. But impulse behind behaviors hasn’t changed – just the vehicle. </li></ul>May 2010
  36. 38. Final Thoughts <ul><li>Need more high-quality, national data on this issue. </li></ul><ul><li>Coordination in the definitions of cyberbullying. </li></ul><ul><li>When thinking about solutions, important to remember that bullying crosses boundaries – it’s everywhere that children are </li></ul><ul><li>Stay tuned for more work from Growing up with Media study (Ybarra - CDC) and research on cyberbullying and suicide by Hinduja & Patchin </li></ul>May 2010
  37. 39. Thirty-two percent of online teens have experienced some form of harassment via the Internet, a problem also known as &quot;cyberbullying.&quot; According to recent data, 15% of online teens have had private material forwarded without permission, 13% have received threatening messages and 6% have had embarrassing photos posted without permission.