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Landscape design

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Landscape design

  1. 1. TOPIC : ELEMENTS OF LANDSCAPE AND DESIGN PRINCIPLES
  2. 2. • Landscape Design is the coordinated and sustainable use of plant life and materials to create a functional, easy-to-manage outdoor environment in which to live, work, and play. • It combines the use of principles of design, ecology, budgeting and finance, construction, and psychology to create please outdoor spaces that serve as a buffer between civilization and the natural world. • It helps the planet – in addition to reducing the energy use of your home, landscaping can serve as a buffer between the environmental impact of your home and the natural world around it. • It improves your health and well-being – landscaping, when done well, reduces stress .
  3. 3. The 5 basic elements of landscape design are: •Form •Texture •Color •Line of sight •Scale or balance •Water bodies & their types •Lightings •Landform •Rocks •Street furniture
  4. 4. 1. Upright FORM • In landscape design, form is the shape of a plant. • Form is the two or three-dimensional shape and structure of an object or space. • Whether it is two or three dimensional, form is line surrounding mass. • Most deciduous trees and shrubs have a rounded form. • A conical form is characteristic of many evergreen trees. • Evergreen shrubs have more of a horizontal form. 2. Oval 3. Conical 4. Round 5. Weeping 6. Horizontal
  5. 5. •Formal concepts suggest the use of very tailored forms of plant material and ground beds. •Such a formal landscape would include very straight, crisp, and precise planting beds; and other visually clean-lined plants. FORMAL AND INFORMAL FORM •Informal concepts mandate much more irregular or natural forms. •Casual curving ground beds and loosely branched trees and vines have forms to satisfy this concept.
  6. 6. APPLICATION OF FORM •Use vertical forms for strong accents and for adding height. •Incorporate weeping or drooping forms to create soft lines and to provide a transition to the ground plane. •Rounded plant forms create large masses and are effective as borders and enclosures. •Horizontal or spreading forms add visual width to tall structures.
  7. 7. TEXTURE  Texture affects the view of distance and scale.  Bold colours increase the contrast and the texture appears coarser, while the soft colours flatten texture. It refers to the visual roughness or smoothness of a plant.  Texture effects are most visible at close range and in smaller landscape paintings. Depending on the texture plants can be classified in three types. COARSE FINE MEDIUM
  8. 8. COARSE TEXTURED PLANTS  Coarse textured plants tend to be dominant and attractive.  They visually have dense foliage or broad leaves.  They have leaves of irregular edges, varied colours and thick branches.  To make the space appear smaller, place the coarse textures along the outer perimeter and the fine textures near the viewer.
  9. 9. FINE TEXTURED PLANTS  Fine textured plants appear delicate and tend to recede from view.  They usually have fine foliage or needle leaves.  There are thin leaves, thin stems, tiny twigs, long stems and delicate flowers.  To make the space appear larger, locate plants of the fine textures along the outer perimeter, the medium textures in the middle and the coarse texture near the viewer.
  10. 10. MEDIUM TEXTURED PLANTS  In planting composition, medium textured plants should dominate and contrast with either the coarse or the fine textures.  They have medium sized leaves with simple shapes and smooth edges.  There are average sized branches which are not densely spaced nor widely spaced.
  11. 11. Color theory is often used in landscape design by dividing the color spectrum into 4 categories: •Primary: reds, yellows and blues. •Secondary: greens, violets (purples) and oranges. •Tertiary: Mixtures of the primary and secondary categories. •Neutral: White, grays and silvers. Color
  12. 12. Line • Line in the landscape is created by the edge between two material of a long linear feature. • Lines can be used to create many varieties of shapes and forms.
  13. 13. •Landscape designer use lines to - 1. Patterns 2. Spaces 3. Forms 4. Organized theme in a landscape.
  14. 14. •Bed lines •Hard scape •Plants •Line can be created by long and narrow materials like fence or wall. Three primary line types create form in the landscape: lines
  15. 15. • Lines should be dramatic. • Done with a sense of flamboyancy and be very expressive in their shape in curvilinear design. •Straight lines = direction change. •Curved lines =relaxed moment. •Angled lines=creating framework or bond.
  16. 16. SCALE AND PROPORTION • No hard and fast rules. • Relative size. • Affect viewers' mood. • Scale usually bears references to the size of a thing or object to have a pleasing relationship to other things or to the design as a whole.
  17. 17. Proportion is the relationship of the width to the length of an area or the relationship to parts of an organization. Absolute proportion is the scale or size of the object. The fixed parameters of the garden decide to some extend how spaces and pattern can be used.
  18. 18.  Marble--Many individuals elect to use marble when decorating their landscape. Marble can be used to create signs, around or in garden ponds, and even marble fountains can be purchased in order to bring out the natural appeal of a pond or garden area. They are also used in sculptures.  Natural Stone--Natural stone is often a choice for small landscaping structures.  Decorative Stones--Decorative stones are used in pathways or trails to beautify the garden. Some of them are Royal George, Walnut nuggets, Beachwood pebbles and many more.  Other-- Other than that there are pebbles used for sidewalks, stepping stones used in gardens and stone is also used as stone lantern in Chinese gardens.
  19. 19. WATERBODY • Water is also another most important landscape element. • Water bodies improve the quality and the worth of the site. It makes the site attractive. There are many types of water bodies : Fountains Pools Ponds Spouts Artificial waterfalls 1. 2. 3. 4.5.
  20. 20. • Excellent land water interface gives an ecological home for the animals and plants. • Water runoff reduced. • Hydrological cycle is maintained. • Microclimate is created. • Moisture level maintained. • Wetland, marshes, swampy areas are conserved. • Maintaining vegetation into wetlands. • Site aesthetics are enhanced USES OF WATERBODY
  21. 21. FOUNTAINS • A fountain is a stream of water that is forced up into the air through a small hole, for a decorative or dramatic effect. Musical fountain Splash Drinking Types Of Fountains: 1. 2.3.
  22. 22. POOLS Swimming Pool Tide Pool Plunge Pool Stream Pool Reflecting Pool Types Of Pools: 1. 2. 3. 4.5.
  23. 23. Lighting: Lighting symbols are based on design of lighting, lights can be represented by filled squares, circles, triangles. Symbols in a series should be connected by a line to represent circuit and power source.  Landscape lighting has excessive potential to enhance the landscape and provides many benefits for both residential and commercial applications. WHY LIGHTING OF LANDSCAPE?  SAFETY – Avoid tripping on steps, pathways and decks.  SECURITY – Deter unwanted guests (persons and animals) from your property.  UTILITY – Use your outdoor living space after the sun goes down.  BEAUTY – Make your home and garden dramatic and beautiful at night. LIGHTING
  24. 24. LIGHTNING TECHNIQUES  Architectural Lighting  The techniques of architectural lighting are used to emphasize the variation in texture as well as architectural features in brick and stonework, soffit details and facade.  Architectural lighting can also be used to enhance gateways, statues  Spotlighting or Highlighting  Silhouetting  Shadowing  Grazing Light  Paths and Steps  Designed to provide orientation.  Special care should be given to illuminating steps and level changes  Make user feel safe and comfortable
  25. 25. Lighting in landscape  Outdoor lighting is used to illuminate pedestrian walkways , roads and entry areas . It may also provide a dramatic effect when it lights up benches and fountain .  High intensity light is required for highways and other heavily used areas .  Warm and colour illumination is best suited for quite areas along minor residential streets an parking areas.
  26. 26. Types of Lights Bollard Lights •This is the heavy duty cousin of the path light. Bollard lights are great for creating an architectural look or to stylize a space. Use them as guide posts around a space or to separate a driveway from a yard Well Lights •Another variant on the spotlight, well lights are recessed into the ground to create a seamless look in both landscape and hard cape setting. The inset profile is minimal and can be used to up light trees, walls or art. Flood Lights •This is the heavy duty cousin of the path light. Bollard lights are great for creating an architectural look or to stylize a space. Use them as guide posts around a space or to separate a driveway from a yard.
  27. 27. Types of Lights Down lighting •Down lighting occurs when a light is placed in an elevated location and pointed downward to highlight a large surface area. Down lighting adds a beautiful effect and can mimic the glow of the moonlight hovering down on a beautiful landscape. Spotlight •These are going to be the backbone of any landscape system. Spotlights can be used for highlighting a number of outdoor features, including trees, buildings, sculptural and architectural details. Hardscape Lights •Hardscape lights are a newer addition to landscape lighting, thanks to LED technology. These are tiny lights with brackets or flanges that install onto or into structures that are used to wash and graze walls with light.
  28. 28. Types of lights  STEP LIGHTING / DECK LIGHTING  Step lighting brings deck to life at night and help guests navigate stairs safely with specialized step and deck lighting. Fixtures can be installed beneath benches, as recessed lights in the risers of steps, and as surface lights on vertical posts and below railings. TREE LIGHTING / UPLIGHTING / DOWNLIGHTING  Uplighting is a dramatic way to highlight the beauty of statuary, trees, especially large or flowering types. By lighting trees from two or more directions, your target appears to be 3-dimensional and more lifelike.
  29. 29. Types of Lights •Provides a strong illumination toward a specific task or area •Creates sharp shadows and highlights •The light source illuminates below the horizon surface of the luminary or fixture Benefits of Direct Lighting: •Provides an illumination to the surrounding areas •Helps prevent excessive brightness and contrast •The light source illuminates above the horizon surface of the luminary or fixture Benefits of Indirect lighting:
  30. 30. LANDFORM
  31. 31.  A landform is a natural feature of the solid surface of the Earth or other planetary body. Landforms together make up a given terrain, and their arrangement in the landscape is known as topography. LANDFORM • Typical landforms include hills, mountains, plateaus, canyons, valleys, as well as shoreline features such as bays, peninsulas, and seas, including submerged features such as mid-ocean ridges, volcanoes, and the great ocean basins.
  32. 32.  Sloped landform blocks views & creates spatial edges.  Level landform does the opposite.
  33. 33. Rocks  Rock or stone is a naturally occurring solid aggregate of one or more mineral. For example, the common rock granite is a combination of the quartz, feldspar and biotite minerals. The Earth's outer solid layer, the lithosphere, is made of rock.
  34. 34. 1. Paving 2. Retaining wall 3. Stacked stone wall 4. Sitting 5. Shelters 6. Parapets 7. Bridges 8. Sculptures 9. Planters 10.Bollards • Stones are hard, impermeable, inorganic elements used extensively in landscape architecture. • Stones are basically used for the following:
  35. 35.  Retaining Walls--There are many different types of stones that can be used when it comes to creating retaining walls in the lawn. One may elect to assemble a retaining wall around a small pond, or even a garden.  Flagstone-- Flagstone is a very popular choice when it comes to stones that are used for steps, or simple ornamental design.  Boulders --Homeowners elect to implement the use of boulders in the decorative design of their landscaping. Great products in the way of boulders include that of Birchwood, Wisconsin, Granite, and even Honeycomb Western stone. Landscaping with stone brings in a natural element that evokes solidness and a sense security.  Types of Landscape Stones and their uses-
  36. 36. STREET FURNITURE • Street Furniture is a collective term for objects and pieces of equipments installed on streets and roads for various purposes. • It includes benches, traffic barriers, post boxes, phone boxes, street lamps, traffic lights, traffic signs, bus stops, waste receptacles, etc. • An important consideration in the design of street furniture is how it affect road safety.
  37. 37. PLACEMENT OF STREET FURNITURE  The location of the furnishings should be based on their function and coherent with the patterns and designs of the hard surfaces at the site.  The items of furniture should not give the appearance of being cluttered.  The furniture should not be hazardous for pedestrians; if it used along a walking area it should be aligned to make passage easier, rather than staggered like an obstacle course.
  38. 38. STREET FURNITURES • BENCH : IT is essentially a chair made for more than one person, usually found in central parts of settlements [ such as plazas and parks ]. They are often provided by the local councils or contributors to serve as a place to rest and admire views. • BOLLARDS : These are posts, short poles, or the pillars with the purpose of preventing the movement of vehicles onto sidewalks or grass. • POST BOXES and PHONE BOXES : Post Boxes are found throughout the world, and have a variety of forms. Phone Boxes are prominent in most cities. • STREET LAMPS : These are designed to illuminate the surrounding area at night. The color of street lights bulb differ but are mostly found of white and yellow.
  39. 39.  TRAFFIC LIGHTS : It usually includes three colors : green indicates vehicles should proceed through an intersection; yellow indicates vehicles should prepare to start; and red indicates vehicles should stop. They are generally mounted on poles or hung from wires.  TRAFFIC SIGNS: It communicate roads condition to inform safe driver behaviors. Postings may specify aspects such as speed limits, intersection protocols, slippery road conditions or reduced visibility. Direction signs tell the reader the way to a location through diagrams or written instructions. Signs may be illuminated to aid night time users.
  40. 40. STREET FURNITURE DESIGN  The furnishing of urban outdoor spaces should be designed with the needs of the disabled, children and the elderly in the mind.  In public spaces this stimulus can be created by the selection and arrangement of the street furniture; for instance, if benches, rubbish bins and telephone boxes are far apart, they may have the effect of drawing people apart, whereas if they are arranged closely linked with each other amenities, they tend to bring people together quite naturally.
  41. 41. SAFETY AND SECURITY  SAFETY AND SECURITY : Furniture items designed for outdoor spaces must be constructed of safe materials and designed to prevent injury, without sharp edges. They are usually either attached to the ground or should be embedded in the ground. The type of furniture and its arrangement should also take into account visibility and sightlines, lighting and accessibility issues that may be faced by every one.
  42. 42. MATERIALS • Furniture selection and design should take into account weather effects such as sunlight, expansion and contraction, win stress, moisture and in some cases, salt spray, frost or ice. • The best designs usually incorporates strong simple shapes, native materials, and natural finishes, generally in black grey, accepted with bright colors. • The most popular materials used are steel and wood; other possibilities are stone, concrete, recycled plastic and various other materials. • The choice of materials depend on the context and limitation of the design.
  43. 43. PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN Unity Balance Focal Point
  44. 44. • Unity is achieved by linking elements and features to create a consistent character in the composition . • The simplest way to create unity is through the use of a design theme or a design style . • Unity in design can be achieved by reducing the number of different elements such as plant species, sizes, forms, colors or texture. UNITY
  45. 45. BALANCE  Balance is concept of equal visual attraction and weight on central axis.  Balance is of two types in nature :- Formal Balance Informal Balance
  46. 46. Formal balance • Achieved when the same objects are placed on either side of an imaginary axis. • In formal balance weight or numbers of objects on either side of a central axis should be exactly the same. • Plants are frequently clipped, lines tend to be straight and edges are clearly defined. Formal balance & Informal balance Informal balance • Achieved by equal visual weight of different forms, color or texture on either side of an axis, the mass can be achieved by combinations of plants, structure and garden ornaments. • Plants should be irregularly placed on either side of an imaginary axis so that the mass or weight on either side of the appears to be balanced.
  47. 47. FOCAL POINT • Dominant features that capture attention are called focal points . • Focal points are used to draw attention to a particular location. The are the features or objects in garden that draw eyes and lead the visitor towards them. • They play a vital role both in movement around the garden and in composition as whole. • Dominance may be created by form, texture, color, or location of element within a design. The dominant element becomes the focal point .
  48. 48. Focal point can be carried out in number of ways – • A dramatic fountain at the end of the avenue • The perfect positioning of a simple garden pot at the end of a wall • A pot or obelisk in a formal sitting
  49. 49. • A piece of sculpture half hidden in a border • A pool set to catch a reflection • A bench under a rose-covered trellis • A mound swinging under an apple tree
  50. 50. THANK YOU

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