TOPIC : ELEMENTS OF LANDSCAPE AND DESIGN PRINCIPLES
• Landscape Design is the coordinated and sustainable use of plant life and materials
to create a functional, easy-to-manage outdoor environment in which to live, work,
• It combines the use of principles of design, ecology, budgeting and finance,
construction, and psychology to create please outdoor spaces that serve as a buffer
between civilization and the natural world.
• It helps the planet – in addition to reducing the
energy use of your home, landscaping can serve as
a buffer between the environmental impact
of your home and the natural world around it.
• It improves your health and well-being –
landscaping, when done well, reduces stress .
The 5 basic elements of landscape design are:
•Line of sight
•Scale or balance
•Water bodies & their types
• In landscape design, form is the shape of a plant.
• Form is the two or three-dimensional shape and structure of an object or space.
• Whether it is two or three dimensional, form is line surrounding mass.
• Most deciduous trees and shrubs have a rounded form.
• A conical form is characteristic of many evergreen trees.
• Evergreen shrubs have more of a horizontal form.
2. Oval 3. Conical 4. Round 5. Weeping 6. Horizontal
•Formal concepts suggest the use of very tailored forms of
plant material and ground beds.
•Such a formal landscape would include very straight, crisp,
and precise planting beds; and other visually clean-lined
FORMAL AND INFORMAL FORM
•Informal concepts mandate much more irregular or
•Casual curving ground beds and loosely branched trees
and vines have forms to satisfy this concept.
APPLICATION OF FORM
•Use vertical forms for strong
accents and for adding height.
•Incorporate weeping or drooping forms
to create soft lines and to provide a
transition to the ground plane.
•Rounded plant forms create large
masses and are effective as
borders and enclosures.
•Horizontal or spreading forms add
visual width to tall structures.
Texture affects the view of distance and scale.
Bold colours increase the contrast and the texture appears coarser, while
the soft colours flatten texture. It refers to the visual roughness or
smoothness of a plant.
Texture effects are most visible at close range and in smaller landscape
paintings. Depending on the texture plants can be classified in three
COARSE FINE MEDIUM
COARSE TEXTURED PLANTS
Coarse textured plants tend to be
dominant and attractive.
They visually have dense foliage
or broad leaves.
They have leaves of irregular
edges, varied colours and thick
To make the space appear
smaller, place the coarse textures
along the outer perimeter and
the fine textures near the viewer.
FINE TEXTURED PLANTS
Fine textured plants appear
delicate and tend to recede from
They usually have fine foliage or
There are thin leaves, thin stems,
tiny twigs, long stems and
To make the space appear larger,
locate plants of the fine textures
along the outer perimeter, the
medium textures in the middle
and the coarse texture near the
MEDIUM TEXTURED PLANTS
In planting composition, medium
textured plants should dominate
and contrast with either the
coarse or the fine textures.
They have medium sized leaves
with simple shapes and smooth
There are average sized branches
which are not densely spaced nor
Color theory is often used in landscape design by dividing the color spectrum into 4 categories:
•Primary: reds, yellows and blues.
•Secondary: greens, violets (purples) and oranges.
•Tertiary: Mixtures of the primary and secondary
•Neutral: White, grays and silvers.
• Line in the landscape is created by the edge between two material of a long
• Lines can be used to create many varieties of shapes and forms.
•Landscape designer use lines to -
4. Organized theme in a landscape.
Three primary line types create form in the landscape:
• Lines should be dramatic.
• Done with a sense of flamboyancy and be
very expressive in their shape in curvilinear
•Straight lines = direction change.
•Curved lines =relaxed moment.
•Angled lines=creating framework or bond.
SCALE AND PROPORTION
• No hard and fast rules.
• Relative size.
• Affect viewers' mood.
• Scale usually bears references to the size of a thing or object to have a pleasing
relationship to other things or to the design as a whole.
Proportion is the relationship of the
width to the length of an area or the
relationship to parts of an
Absolute proportion is the scale or size
of the object.
The fixed parameters of the garden
decide to some extend how spaces
and pattern can be used.
Marble--Many individuals elect to use marble
when decorating their landscape. Marble can be
used to create signs, around or in garden ponds,
and even marble fountains can be purchased in
order to bring out the natural appeal of a pond or
garden area. They are also used in sculptures.
Natural Stone--Natural stone is often a choice
for small landscaping structures.
Decorative Stones--Decorative stones are used
in pathways or trails to beautify the garden.
Some of them are Royal George, Walnut nuggets,
Beachwood pebbles and many more.
Other-- Other than that there are pebbles
used for sidewalks, stepping stones used in
gardens and stone is also used as stone lantern
in Chinese gardens.
• Water is also another most important landscape element.
• Water bodies improve the quality and the worth of the site. It makes the site
There are many types of water bodies :
• Excellent land water interface gives an ecological home for the animals
• Water runoff reduced.
• Hydrological cycle is maintained.
• Microclimate is created.
• Moisture level maintained.
• Wetland, marshes, swampy areas are conserved.
• Maintaining vegetation into wetlands.
• Site aesthetics are enhanced
USES OF WATERBODY
• A fountain is a stream of water that is forced up into the air through a small
hole, for a decorative or dramatic effect.
Types Of Fountains:
Types Of Pools: 1.
Lighting: Lighting symbols are based on
design of lighting, lights can be represented
by filled squares, circles, triangles. Symbols
in a series should be connected by a line to
represent circuit and power source.
Landscape lighting has excessive potential
to enhance the landscape and provides
many benefits for both residential and
WHY LIGHTING OF LANDSCAPE?
SAFETY – Avoid tripping on steps, pathways
SECURITY – Deter unwanted guests (persons
and animals) from your property.
UTILITY – Use your outdoor living space
after the sun goes down.
BEAUTY – Make your home and garden
dramatic and beautiful at night.
The techniques of architectural lighting are
used to emphasize the variation in texture as
well as architectural features in brick and
stonework, soffit details and facade.
Architectural lighting can also be used to
enhance gateways, statues
Spotlighting or Highlighting
Paths and Steps
Designed to provide orientation.
Special care should be given to illuminating
steps and level changes
Make user feel safe and comfortable
Lighting in landscape
Outdoor lighting is used to illuminate pedestrian walkways , roads and
entry areas . It may also provide a dramatic effect when it lights up
benches and fountain .
High intensity light is required for highways and other heavily used areas .
Warm and colour illumination is best suited for quite areas along minor
residential streets an parking areas.
Types of Lights
•This is the heavy duty cousin of the
path light. Bollard lights are great for
creating an architectural look or to
stylize a space. Use them as guide
posts around a space or to separate a
driveway from a yard
•Another variant on the
spotlight, well lights are
recessed into the ground
to create a seamless look
in both landscape and hard
cape setting. The inset
profile is minimal and can
be used to up light trees,
walls or art.
•This is the heavy duty
cousin of the path light.
Bollard lights are great for
creating an architectural
look or to stylize a space.
Use them as guide posts
around a space or to
separate a driveway from a
Types of Lights
•Down lighting occurs when a light
is placed in an elevated location
and pointed downward to
highlight a large surface area.
Down lighting adds a beautiful
effect and can mimic the glow of
the moonlight hovering down on a
•These are going to be the
backbone of any landscape
system. Spotlights can be
used for highlighting a
number of outdoor
features, including trees,
buildings, sculptural and
Hardscape Lights •Hardscape lights are a
newer addition to
landscape lighting, thanks
to LED technology. These
are tiny lights with brackets
or flanges that install onto
or into structures that are
used to wash and graze
walls with light.
Types of lights
STEP LIGHTING / DECK LIGHTING
Step lighting brings deck to life at night and help guests navigate stairs
safely with specialized step and deck lighting. Fixtures can be installed
beneath benches, as recessed lights in the risers of steps, and as surface
lights on vertical posts and below railings.
TREE LIGHTING / UPLIGHTING / DOWNLIGHTING
Uplighting is a dramatic way to highlight the beauty of statuary, trees,
especially large or flowering types. By lighting trees from two or more
directions, your target appears to be 3-dimensional and more lifelike.
Types of Lights
•Provides a strong illumination toward a specific task or area
•Creates sharp shadows and highlights
•The light source illuminates below the horizon surface of the luminary or fixture
Benefits of Direct Lighting:
•Provides an illumination to the surrounding areas
•Helps prevent excessive brightness and contrast
•The light source illuminates above the horizon surface of the luminary or fixture
Benefits of Indirect lighting:
A landform is a natural feature of the solid surface
of the Earth or other planetary body. Landforms
together make up a given terrain, and their
arrangement in the landscape is known as
• Typical landforms include hills, mountains, plateaus,
canyons, valleys, as well as shoreline features such as
bays, peninsulas, and seas, including submerged
features such as mid-ocean ridges, volcanoes, and
the great ocean basins.
Sloped landform blocks views & creates spatial edges.
Level landform does the opposite.
Rock or stone is a naturally
occurring solid aggregate of one or
more mineral. For example, the
common rock granite is a
the quartz, feldspar and
biotite minerals. The Earth's outer
solid layer, the lithosphere, is
made of rock.
2. Retaining wall
3. Stacked stone wall
• Stones are hard, impermeable, inorganic elements used extensively in
• Stones are basically used for the following:
Retaining Walls--There are many different types of stones
that can be used when it comes to creating retaining walls
in the lawn. One may elect to assemble a retaining wall
around a small pond, or even a garden.
Flagstone-- Flagstone is a very popular choice when
it comes to stones that are used for steps, or simple
Boulders --Homeowners elect to implement the use of
boulders in the decorative design of their landscaping.
Great products in the way of boulders include that of
Birchwood, Wisconsin, Granite, and even Honeycomb
Landscaping with stone brings in a natural element that evokes solidness and a sense
Types of Landscape Stones and their uses-
• Street Furniture is a collective
term for objects and pieces of
equipments installed on
streets and roads for various
• It includes benches, traffic
barriers, post boxes, phone
boxes, street lamps, traffic
lights, traffic signs, bus stops,
waste receptacles, etc.
• An important consideration in
the design of street furniture
is how it affect road safety.
PLACEMENT OF STREET
The location of the
furnishings should be based
on their function and
coherent with the patterns
and designs of the hard
surfaces at the site.
The items of furniture should
not give the appearance of
The furniture should not be
hazardous for pedestrians; if
it used along a walking area
it should be aligned to make
passage easier, rather than
staggered like an obstacle
• BENCH : IT is essentially a chair made for
more than one person, usually found in
central parts of settlements [ such as
plazas and parks ]. They are often provided
by the local councils or contributors to
serve as a place to rest and admire views.
• BOLLARDS : These are posts, short poles,
or the pillars with the purpose of
preventing the movement of vehicles onto
sidewalks or grass.
• POST BOXES and PHONE BOXES : Post Boxes
are found throughout the world, and have
a variety of forms.
Phone Boxes are prominent in
• STREET LAMPS : These are designed to
illuminate the surrounding area at night.
The color of street lights bulb differ but
are mostly found of white and yellow.
TRAFFIC LIGHTS : It usually includes
three colors : green indicates
vehicles should proceed through an
intersection; yellow indicates
vehicles should prepare to start; and
red indicates vehicles should stop.
They are generally mounted on poles
or hung from wires.
TRAFFIC SIGNS: It communicate roads
condition to inform safe driver
behaviors. Postings may specify
aspects such as speed limits,
intersection protocols, slippery road
conditions or reduced visibility.
Direction signs tell the reader the
way to a location through diagrams
or written instructions. Signs may be
illuminated to aid night time users.
STREET FURNITURE DESIGN
The furnishing of urban outdoor
spaces should be designed with the
needs of the disabled, children and
the elderly in the mind.
In public spaces this stimulus can be
created by the selection and
arrangement of the street
furniture; for instance, if benches,
rubbish bins and telephone boxes
are far apart, they may have the
effect of drawing people apart,
whereas if they are arranged closely
linked with each other amenities,
they tend to bring people together
SAFETY AND SECURITY
SAFETY AND SECURITY : Furniture
items designed for outdoor spaces
must be constructed of safe
materials and designed to
prevent injury, without sharp
They are usually either
attached to the ground or should
be embedded in the ground.
The type of furniture and
its arrangement should also take
into account visibility and
sightlines, lighting and
accessibility issues that may be
faced by every one.
• Furniture selection and design should
take into account weather effects such
as sunlight, expansion and contraction,
win stress, moisture and in some
cases, salt spray, frost or ice.
• The best designs usually incorporates
strong simple shapes, native materials,
and natural finishes, generally in black
grey, accepted with bright colors.
• The most popular materials used are
steel and wood; other possibilities are
stone, concrete, recycled plastic and
various other materials.
• The choice of materials depend on the
context and limitation of the design.
• Unity is achieved by linking elements
and features to create a consistent
character in the composition .
• The simplest way to create unity is
through the use of a design theme or a
design style .
• Unity in design can be achieved by
reducing the number of different
elements such as plant species, sizes,
forms, colors or texture.
Balance is concept of equal visual attraction and weight on central axis.
Balance is of two types in nature :-
• Achieved when the same objects are placed on
either side of an imaginary axis.
• In formal balance weight or numbers of objects
on either side of a central axis should be
exactly the same.
• Plants are frequently clipped, lines tend to be
straight and edges are clearly defined.
Formal balance & Informal balance
• Achieved by equal visual weight of different forms,
or texture on either side of an axis, the mass can be
by combinations of plants, structure and garden
• Plants should be irregularly placed on either side of an
imaginary axis so that the mass or weight on either side
of the appears to be balanced.
• Dominant features that capture attention are called
focal points .
• Focal points are used to draw attention to a
particular location. The are the features or objects in
garden that draw eyes and lead the visitor towards
• They play a vital role both in movement around the
garden and in composition as whole.
• Dominance may be created by form, texture, color,
or location of element within a design. The
dominant element becomes the focal point .
Focal point can be carried out in number of ways –
• A dramatic fountain at the end of
• The perfect positioning of a
simple garden pot at the
end of a wall
• A pot or obelisk in a formal sitting
• A piece of sculpture half hidden in a border
• A pool set to catch a reflection • A bench under a rose-covered trellis
• A mound swinging under an apple tree
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