Hatha yoga, the most popular branch of yoga. involves various practices of the physical body to achieve the
goal of yoga i.e., establishment of the seer in his own essential nature.
Currently, hatha yoga is more popular in terms of physical health since, according to hatha yoga, the body is a
medium for approaching the highest state of consciousness , thus physical purification, Asan, pranayama, and
other practices are emphasized.
Hathyoga deals with physical aspect of Yoga through Asan, Pranayama, Mudra, Bandh. Hathyoga is also an
umbrella term for many type of yoga style Iyengar,Vikram,Vinyasa.
4. Chaturanga yoga
Founder – Swami swatmaram
Yogi Swami Swatmarama was a 15th
and 16th century yogic sage in India.
He is best known for compiling the Hatha
Yoga Pradipika, which introduced the
system of Hatha Yoga
5. Details of chaturanga yoga
Serial no. Part Number
1 Asana 15
2 Pranayama Asthkumbhak (8)
3 Mudra-Bandh 10
4 Nadanushandhan 4 stage
6. Ghatastha yoga (Saptanga Yoga)
Founder - Sage Gherangda
Ghaṭastha yoga is the name of a type of Yoga defined in the Gheraṇḍa saṃhitā.
The term Ghatastha literally means “within the pot” and implies looking at the body as a sealed container.
Gheranda Samhita is a text on practical yoga in 17th century by sage Gheranda. Also known as Saptanga
7. Gherand Samhita (Saptanga yoga)
The seven chapters of "Gheranda Samhita" follow the
sevenfold path of yoga, which was taught by the sage
Gheranda to his student, Chanda Kapali.
शोधनं दृढता चैव स्थैर्यं धैर्यं च लाघवम् |
प्रत्यक्षं च नननलिप्तं च घटस्य सप्तसाधनम् ||1/9
षट्कमिणा शोधनं च आसनेन भवेद् दृढं |
मुद्रर्या स्स्थरता चैव प्रत्याहारेण धीरता ||1/10
प्राणार्यामल्लघावं च ध्यनात्प्रत्यक्षमात्मनः |
समानधना नननलिप्तं च मुस्िरेव न संशर्यः || 1/11
8. Details of Saptanga Yoga
Serial no. Type of yogig practice number Achievment
1 Shatkarma 6 Purification
2 Asana 32 Strength or firmness
3 Mudra 25 Steadiness
4 Pratyahara 5 Patience
5 Pranayama 8 Lightness
6 Dhyana 3 Inner perception(self
7 Samadhi 6 Non-involvement
9. Iyengar Yoga
Founded by world renowned yoga instructor B.K.S.Iyengar, pupil of Tirumalai Krishnamacharya
A form of Hath yoga
Iyengar yoga is also based on the concept of “eight limbs” of Ashtanga yoga.
Iyengar yoga focuses on performing each Asana (or posture) with attention to alignment and breath control.
Go deeper in any yoga posture by safe manner.
Iyengar pioneered the use of props such as blocks, cushion, belts, and straps, and other props.
It also combines the Asanas with Pranayama, which is a good way to recharge mind and body together.
10. The History Of Iyengar Yoga
B.K.S. Iyengar as the father of modern yoga.
He reframed yoga for the modern world with his approach to yoga.
B.K.S Iyengar began studying yoga during the 1930s in India.
B.K.S. Iyengar began teaching yoga in 1936
11. Books and publication
Adding to his popularity Iyengar published two book
light on yoga in 1966
Light on pranayama in 1981
The book changed the way yogis talked about yoga.
Ramamani Iyengar Memorial Yoga Institute (RIMYI) in Pune, India in 1975.
Light on yoga research trust (LOYRT) in 1978.
Youth`s offering to Guruji (YOG) in 1996.
Iyengar Yogashraya in 2001.
Bellur Krishnamachar & Seshamma Smaraka Niddhi Trust (BKSSNT)
13. Precautionary Measures For Iyengar Yoga
As with any Yoga practice, one should take certain precautions before performing Iyengar Yoga.
You should never perform Iyengar Yoga on full stomach.
Always maintain at least 3 hours gap between meals and exercise.
Wear comfortable clothing to avoid uneasiness.
Ensure you follow the instructions of the trainer carefully, as it involves certain props.
Never attempt difficult postures without achieving perfection in the basic asanas.
Breathing techniques are very important to attain maximum benefits.
Never consume alcohol before practice.
14. Training, certification, and standards
Iyengar teachers have traditionally completed at least two years of yoga teacher training for the introductory
YTTC is accredited by the yoga Alliance in America.
The Yoga Alliance sets standards for 200-hour and 500-hour Recognized Yoga Teacher levels, which are
accepted in America and other countries.
15. BKS Iyengar has systematised more than
200 Yoga postures or Asana and also 14
different types of Pranayamas (breath
The asanas and pranayamas are taught in
18. Evidence based impact on health of Iyengar yoga
Effect of Iyengar yoga therapy on obesity
A. Ross et all,(2016) , The study suggests that Yoga can be an effective tool in promoting weight loss by reducing
stress eating, suppressing hunger cravings and increasing awareness on mindful eating and improving the ability to
deal with negative emotions (1).
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med.
19. Effect of Iyengar yoga therapy for chronic low back pain
Williams KA et all,2005. Univariate analyses of medical and functional outcomes revealed significant reductions in pain
intensity (64%), functional disability (77%) and pain medication usage (88%) in the yoga group at the post and 3-month
follow-up assessments. 
Journal of pain
20. Williams K, Abildso C et all,( 2009 ), objective of the study to Evaluation of the effectiveness and efficacy of
Iyengar yoga therapy on chronic low back pain. Yoga improves functional disability, pain intensity, and depression in
adults with CLBP. There was also a clinically important trend for the yoga group to reduce their pain medication
usage compared to the control group .
21. Speed-Andrews AE et all (2010), In this pilot study of breast cancer
survivors participating in IY for 12 week , we found improvements in QoL
and psychosocial functioning. 
Effect of Iyengar yoga on breast cancer survivors
An international journal for Cancer Care Research
22. Santana MJ et all (2013), 25 patients diagnosed with pulmonary arterial
hypertension and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (mean age 60 years)
were invited to participate. At the end of the 12-week period, changes in
Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale(HADS),anxiety and Chronic Respiratory
Questionnaire (CRQ), fatigue scores were statistically significant (P<0.05) and
changes in Health Utilities Index, (HUI)  .
Effects of Iyengar yoga on chronic Respiratory Diseases
Canadian Respiratory Journal
23. Bukowski EL,(2007), Objective of the study to analyzed 6-week Iyengar
yoga on the 15 patients of osteoarthritis. This study found functional
changes in Hamstring flexibility, Quadriceps strength and also improvement
in quality of life .
Effect of Iyengar Yoga on Osteoarthritis of the Knee
International Quarterly of Community Health Education
24. Harner H, Hanlon AL et all,(2010). Although 21
women initially participated in the intervention, 6
women completed the 12-week intervention. A
significant linear decrease was demonstrated in
symptoms of depression over time, and a nonlinear
change in stress over time .
Effect of Iyengar yoga in mental health
25. Andreas Michelsen et all, (2017) In this study found a significant
decrease of blood pressure and heart rate after an 8-week Iyengar
yoga training. .
Effect of Iyengar Yoga on Cardiovascular Risks
International congress for integrative health & medicine
26. Side Effects
Yoga improves your flexibility and mental ability. But there are certain side effects for certain conditions. Let us have a
look at the possible side effects of yoga:
Glaucoma complications – in glaucoma there is extra
pressure behind the eyeballs, and it can eventually lead
to loss of eyesight. Certain yoga asanas such as
headstand, handstand, shoulder stand which increases
the pressure on the eyes can complicate the
27. Blood pressure patients, forceful breathing and various types of yoga poses that involve inversions can aggravate the
28. Advanced yoga asanas should be practiced under proper guidance, or else it may lead to a serious back
Muscle pull or muscle strain is a common side effect of yoga which is caused due to improper postures.
29. Bikram Yoga
Bikram Yoga is a system of hot yoga.
The style was founded by Bikram Choudhury in 1970.
It's a rigid discipline known for two things. Number one, Bikram is practiced in a very hot environment.
practiced in a room heated to 105 °F (41 °C) with a humidity of 40%.
And number two, it incorporates 26 specific poses that must be performed in an exact order over a 90-
30. Classes consist of a fixed sequence of 26 postures.
The 26 poses that were chosen for the practice are intended to keep oxygenated blood flowing steadily
throughout the body.
26 poses including 24 Asana,1Pranayam,1 Shatkarma.
The poses are mostly traditional Hath Yoga, and they must be done in the correct order to enjoy all the
advantages of a Bikram class.
31. Purpose of Hot room
Protecting the muscles to allow for deeper stretching.
Detoxing the body (open pores to let toxin out).
Thinning the blood to clear the circulatory system.
Increasing heart rate for better cardiovascular workout.
Improving strength by putting muscles, tissue in optimal state for reorganization.
Reorganize the lipids (fat) in the muscular structure.
36. Evidence based Health impact of Bikram Yoga
Hewett ZL et all, (2015) ,A systematic review in 2015 found that Bikram Yoga improved lower body strength,
range of joint motion in both upper and lower body, and balance and found possible improvements in glucose
tolerance, bone density, blood lipids, artery stiffness, mindfulness, and "perceived stress".
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med.
37. Cramer H et all, A 2013 review of 76 yoga-related adverse events included 3 in Bikram Yoga. The three case reports
consisted of one case of rosacea, one , Psychotic episode and one of hyponatremia (low salt level). 
Adverse effect of Bikram yoga
rosacea Psychotic break (colloquial)
hyponatremia (low salt level).
38. Vinyasa Yoga
“The Sanskrit word Vinyasa comes from a prefix vi, which means variation, and a suffix, nyasa, which means
‘within prescribed parameters.’”
Founder- K. Pattabhi Jois was an Indian yoga guru who developed and popularized the flowing style of yoga as
exercise known as Astshanga vinyasa.
In 1948, Jois established the Ashtanga Yoga Research Institute in Mysore , India
Vinyasa yoga, also called "flow" because of the smooth way the poses run together, is one of the most
popular contemporary style of Yoga.
39. Principle of Vinyasa Yoga
The sequence may be fixed, as in Ashtanga, in which the poses are always done in the same order.
In vinyasa yoga, each movement is synchronized with a breath.
The breath is given primacy, acting as an anchor as you move from one pose to the next.
43. Adverse effect of vinyasa yoga
In an article published by The Economist , it was reported that "a good number of Mr Jois's students seemed
constantly to be limping around with injured knees or backs because they had received his "adjustments",
yanking them into Lotus, the splits, or a backbend".
Mikkonen PP et al, In 2008, a small survey in 110 Finnish Ashtanga Vinyasa Yoga practitioners, 62% of
respondents reported at least one yoga-related musculoskeletal injury, mainly sprains and strains .
Int J Yoga Therap
44. 1Ross A, Brooks A, Touchton-Leonard K, Wallen G. A Different Weight Loss Experience: A Qualitative Study
Exploring the Behavioral, Physical, and Psychosocial Changes Associated with Yoga That Promote Weight Loss.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2016;2016:2914745. doi: 10.1155/2016/2914745. Epub 2016 Aug 10.
PMID: 27594890; PMCID: PMC4995338.
2 Williams KA, Petronis J, Smith D, Goodrich D, Wu J, Ravi N, Doyle EJ Jr, Gregory Juckett R, Munoz Kolar M,
Gross R, Steinberg L. Effect of Iyengar yoga therapy for chronic low back pain. Pain. 2005 May;115(1-2):107-17.
doi: 10.1016/j.pain.2005.02.016. PMID: 15836974.
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Evaluation of the effectiveness and efficacy of Iyengar yoga therapy on chronic low back pain. Spine (Phila Pa
1976). 2009 Sep 1;34(19):2066-76. doi: 10.1097/BRS.0b013e3181b315cc. PMID: 19701112; PMCID:
4 Speed-Andrews AE, Stevinson C, Belanger LJ, Mirus JJ, Courneya KS. Pilot evaluation of an Iyengar yoga
program for breast cancer survivors. Cancer Nurs. 2010 Sep-Oct;33(5):369-81. doi:
10.1097/NCC.0b013e3181cfb55a. PMID: 20467310.
45. 5. Santana MJ, S-Parrilla J, Mirus J, Loadman M, Lien DC, Feeny D. An assessment of the effects of Iyengar yoga
practice on the health-related quality of life of patients with chronic respiratory diseases: a pilot study. Can Respir J. 2013
Mar-Apr;20(2):e17-23. doi: 10.1155/2013/265406. PMID: 23616973; PMCID: PMC3630052.
6.Bukowski EL, Conway A, Glentz LA, Kurland K, Galantino ML. The effect of iyengar yoga and strengthening
exercises for people living with osteoarthritis of the knee: a case series. Int Q Community Health Educ. 2006-
2007;26(3):287-305. doi: 10.2190/IQ.26.3.f. PMID: 17827096.
7.Harner H, Hanlon AL, Garfinkel M. Effect of Iyengar yoga on mental health of incarcerated women: a feasibility study.
Nurs Res. 2010 Nov-Dec;59(6):389-99. doi: 10.1097/NNR.0b013e3181f2e6ff. PMID: 20842067.
8. 29 March 2017
8.Andreas Michalsen, MD is the chief Physician of the Department of Natural Health at the Immanuel Hospital in Berlin.
He is a specialist in internal medicine and cardiology. His field of expertise include Homeopathy, Physical Medicine and
Balneology, Nutritional Medicine, Acupuncture and Mind-Body Medicine.
10.Cramer H, Krucoff C, Dobos G. Adverse events associated with yoga: a systematic review of published case reports
and case series. PLoS One. 2013 Oct 16;8(10):e75515. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0075515. PMID: 24146758; PMCID:
46. 11.Hewett ZL, Cheema BS, Pumpa KL, Smith CA. The Effects of Bikram Yoga on Health: Critical Review and Clinical Trial
Recommendations. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2015;2015:428427. doi: 10.1155/2015/428427. Epub 2015 Oct 5.
PMID: 26504475; PMCID: PMC4609431.
13. McLean, Bethany (April 2012). "Yoga-for-Trophy-Wives Fitness Fad That's Alienating Discipline Devotees". Vanity Fair.
Archived from the original on 12 January 2013.
14. Cahn, Lauren (3 August 2009), "Five Words That Do Not Belong in Yoga", Huffington Post, archived from the original on
28 August 2012
15. Broad, William (2012). The Science of Yoga: The Risks and the Rewards. New York, USA: Simon & Schuster. pp. 133–
134. ISBN 978-1451641424.
16.Mikkonen PP, Pedersen P, McCarthy, P W (2008) A survey of musculoskeletal injury among Ashtanga Vinyasa yoga
practitioners. Int J Yoga Therap 18: 59–64.