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Environmental toxicity Dr prerok regmi 15th May 2018

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Environmental toxicity Dr prerok regmi 15th May 2018

  1. 1. What is Our Current Toxic Burden? Are you toxic? LIVING INTHETOXICWORLD
  2. 2. ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICITY By, Dr. PREROK REGMI FirstYear P.G SCHOLAR, DEPT. OF AGADATANTRA UNDERTHE GUIDANCE OF Dr. SUDHEENDRAV. HONWAD PROFESSOR & HOD - DEPT. OF AGADATANTRA SDMCA, UDUPI 2
  3. 3. Environmental Toxicology
  4. 4. “Environment” Environment : • “surroundings in which an organization operates, including air, water, land, natural resources, flora, fauna, humans and their interrelation. NOTE: Surroundings in this context extend from within an organization to the global system.” Ecosystem •“An ecosystem is a dynamic complex of plant, animal, and microorganism communities and the nonliving environment interacting as a functional unit.”
  5. 5. NATURAL ENVIRONMENT MAN-MADE ENVIRONMENT SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT Broad generalizations in toxicology “Environmental exposures never go away - they reappear in other setting”
  6. 6. Toxicology 6 Focus Area: EnvironmentalToxicology [ecosystem affects]
  7. 7. TOXICITY • Toxicity refers to the potential for a substance to produce an adverse or harmful effect on a living organism. • A toxicant is an agent (e.g., whole effluent discharge) that can produce an adverse effect in a biological system, seriously damaging its structure or function or causing death.
  8. 8. What are toxins? • Metals, therapeutic drugs, industrial chemicals, pollutants, pesticides, fuels, herbicides and abused drugs (exogenous) • Bacterial toxins, parasitic products, bile, hormones (endogenous) • Substances that accumulate in the body producing toxicity, even accumulated nutrients and drugs could be toxic (Toxicity depends on dose) • Toxins cause several disorders and are also predisposing factors or component causes of most of the diseases. • Environmental toxins are cancer-causing chemicals and endocrine disruptors, both human-made and naturally occurring, that can harm our health by disrupting sensitive biological systems. “toxico- “ is a root of a word meaning poison or toxin.
  9. 9. Environmental toxicity or Ecotox is a multidisciplinary field of science concerned with the study of harmful effects of various chemical, biological and physical agents on living organisms. There are many sources of environmental toxicity that can lead to the presence of toxicants in our food, water and air. Environmental toxicity
  10. 10. • Pollution may be defined as addition of undesirable material into the environment as a result of human activities. • A pollutant may be defined as physical, chemical or biological substance, unintentionally released into the environment which is directly or indirectly harmful to human and other living organisms. POLLUTANTS ARE PRIME SOURCES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICITY
  11. 11. Toxicology and Ecotoxicology are similar but not identical Toxicology Ecotoxicology Absorption Release into the environment Distribution Fate and Disposition Metabolism Metabolism Elimination No counterpart! Toxicology • Host defense mechanisms • Individual susceptibility states • Single effects • Cumulative exposure Ecotoxicology • Bioaccumulation • Bioconcentration (in water) • Biomagnification • Never single effects • Movement between media (air, water,etc.)
  12. 12. Ecotoxicology • Fate and disposition Release into medium Pathways of migration, accumulation Biomodification Degradation or precipitation Ecosystem health change in population structure health of individual species damage to ecosystem
  13. 13. TYPES OF POLLUTION Air pollution Water pollution Soil pollution Radiation pollution
  14. 14. Air pollution THE MAJOR ISSUES • air toxics • stratospheric ozone layer depletion, • enhanced greenhouse effect • Occupational- indoor air quality HEALTH ISSUES ASSOCIATED • Mortality, associated with ozone • Morbidity aggravating lung disease, cardiovascular disease eye irritation increased risk of URI increased frequency of asthma and allergic problems attacks AIR QUALITY STANDARDS ISSUE: • visibility • loss of natural beauty
  15. 15. WATER POLLUTION Pollution of water bodies by mercury causes MINAMATA disease in human and DROPSY in fishes. Lead causes DISPLEXIA, cadmium causes ITAI-ITAI disease etc. Oil pollution of sea kills marine birds and adversely affects other marine life and beaches. Pollution due to pesticides and inorganic chemicals may enter in the food chain. METHODS OF CONTROLLING WATER POLLUTION Proper treatment of Sewage water by sedimentation, coagulation, filtration, disinfection, softening and aeration Water recycling after treatment should be practiced to the maximum extent possible The quantity of waste water discharge should be minimized
  16. 16. SOIL POLLUTION Addition of the substances which adversely affects the pollution of soil and its fertility is called soil pollution. Plastics, cloth, glass, metals and organic matter, sewage, building debris etc. causes soil pollution. Sources of soil pollution are pesticides use (agricultural sources) industrial sources etc. LANDPOLLUTION CONTROL • Indiscriminate disposal of solid waste should be avoided. • Stop the use of plastic bags.. • Organic matter segregatation and composted. • Industrial waste should be properly treated to remove hazardous materials. • Biomedical waste incineration.
  17. 17. Environmental Pollution and Disease •Pollutants to their effects on people- Often difficult, to link. • Persistence • Bioaccumulation • Biomagnification
  18. 18. How do we judge the risk of this incident? •Exposure assessment • pathway • magnitude • duration •Characterize the population exposed •Risk assessment • formal/informal risk assessment • identify subpopulations at risk
  19. 19. Process of Risk Assessment
  20. 20. Health Impact Assessment [HIA] • HIA: a method for describing and estimating the effects that a proposed that may have on the health of a population. WHO Framework for Human Health Assessment
  21. 21. Environmental Impact Assessment [EIA] • EIA is any change to the environment, whether adverse or beneficial, wholly or partially resulting from an organization’s activities, products, or services. • An EIA seeks abatement measures for pollution before it is produced. • Procedures for control of pollution should be feasible and cost effective. 21
  22. 22. Endocrine Disrupters •Case Study: 1980 chemical spill into LakeApopka, FL • Male alligators began to exhibit low testosterone levels and high estrogen levels IMPACT
  23. 23. The risk to the next generation • First period of risk: embryo • peak period of risk is first trimester, first ten weeks, during organogenesis • severe damage is likely to result in spontaneous abortion • Second period of risk: fetal development • some late developing organs • neurological development • After birth: • lactation and exposure through breast milk • environmental exposure • Toddlers and young children • accidental exposures
  24. 24. How do we manage the risk of this incident? • Risk characterization - what is the risk? • Risk assessment - how big is it? • Risk perception - how do people see the problem? • Risk communication - talking about risk • Risk management - doing something about it
  25. 25. • 5000 year back the practice of environmental poisoning was present • In olden days king use to be the prime attention enemies defeated in wars awaits a chance to kill the king due to their anger and revenge. • Kings and his military travel far and wide in pursuit of conquering various kingdoms and face the threat of being poisoned. राज्ञा अररदेशे ररपवस्तॄणाम्बु मार्ाान्न धूमश्वसनान् ववषेण । सन्दुष्यन्तेभिरततप्रदुष्टान ववज्ञाय भ िंर्ैरभिशोधयेत्तान ॥ सु.क. ३/६ King before entering the enemies kingdom should examine the-  Grass  Water  Path  Food  Smoke  Air And so on, which may be poisoned by enemies. BACKTO OUR HISTORY
  26. 26. जनपदोद्ध्विंसकर िाव • ते तु खल्ववमे िावााः सामान्य जनपदेषु िवल्न्त ; तद्धयता – वायुाः , उदकिं , देशाः, का इतत || (च. वव. ३/६ ) 26
  27. 27. दूवषत वायु अतिरूक्षं असात्म्य-गन्ध-वाष्प ससकिा-पांषु-धूमोपहिं यथािुुववषम …………………………. अतिस्तिसमि अतिचल अतिपरुष अतिशीि अत्मयुष्ण िद्यथा- यथिुुववषममतिस्तिसमिमतिचलमतिपरुषमतिशीिमत्मयुष्णमतिरूक्षमत्मयसिष्यस्न्िनमतििैर वारावमतिप्रतिहि- परतपरगतिमतिकु ण्डसलनमसात्म्यगन्धबाष्पससकिापांशुधूमोपहिसमति (च.वव.३/६ ) 27 धूमेऽतनले ववष स्प्रयुक्िे खगााः श्रमािाुाः प्रपिस्न्ि िूमौ कासप्रतिश्यायसशरोरुज िीव्रा नयनामया ||सु.क.३/१६||
  28. 28. Consequences • भशखररभशखरा िाव मथनम ्, • उत्पीडनिं सार्राणाम्, • उद्धवतानिं सरसािं, • आकम्पनिं च िूमेाः, • प्रततसरणम आपर्ानाम् • आधमनम अम्बुदानािं • िूतानािं च उपसर्ााः, 28 भशखररभशखरावमथनम्, उन्मथनमनोकहानाम ्, उत्पीडनिं सार्राणाम्, उद्धवतानिं सरसािं, प्रततसरणमापर्ानाम्, आकम्पनिं च िूमेाः, आधमनमम्बुदानािं (च.सु.१२ /८)
  29. 29. वायु शोधन • धूपन- ििो गुग्गुल्वगुरुसजुरसवचागौरसषुपचूणै लुवणतन्बपत्रववसमश्रैराज्ययुक्िैधूुपयेि् | (सु.सु.५/१७) • ाक्षाहररद्राततववषािया + अब्दहरेणुक ए ाद वक्रकु ष््म् + वप्रयङ्र्ु धूमातन ौ चावप ववशोधयेत ||१७|| (सु.क.३/१७) • होम – हवन • देवदारुनतानन्तामधुकाजुानर्ैररकम्| वज्रकन्दिं तािं ोध्रिं ववककरेच्छ् क्ष्णचूर्णातम्|…… अ.स.सू. ८। ४१
  30. 30. ववकृ ि जल कारण • कीट-मूत्र-पुरीष-अण्ड-शव • पङ्क-शैवा -ह्-तृण • क ुषिं • प्रदूवषतम् • ववषसिंयुतम् अ.स.सू ६/२१ 30
  31. 31. दुष्टिं ज िं वपल्च्छि मुग्रर्ल्न्ध फे नाल्न्वतिं राल्जभिरावृतिं च | मण्डूकमत्स्यिं भियते ववहङ्र्ा मत्ताश्च सानूपचरा भ्रमल्न्त ||७|| मज्जल्न्त ये चात्र नराश्वनार्ास्ते िर्दामोहज्वरदाहशोफान् | ऋ(र्)च्छिल्न्त तेषामपहृत्य दोषान् दुष्टिं ज िं शोधतयतुिं यतेत ||सु.क.३/ ८|| • वपल्च्छि मुग्रर्ल्न्ध • फे नाल्न्वतिं • राल्जभिरावृतिं • मण्डूकमत्स्यिं भियते • ववहङ्र्ा मत्ताश्च • अनूपचरा भ्रमल्न्त • नरा अश्व नार् – िर्दामोहज्वरदाहशोफ ||सु.क.३/ ८|| Ref: लक्षण
  32. 32. लक्षण • अत्यथा-ववकृ त-र्न्ध-वणा-रस-स्पशं • क् ेदबहु • अपक्रान्तज चरववहङ्र् • उपक्षीणज ेशय • अप्रीततकर • अपर्तर्ुणिं उिकं िु खल्वत्मयथुववकृ िगन्धवणुरसतपशं क्लेिबहुलमपक्रान्िजलचरववहङ्गमुपक्षीणजलेशयमप्रीतिकरमपगिगुणं ववद्याि्| च.वव.३/४
  33. 33. ज शोधन • अल्ननक्वथनिं • सूयाातपप्रताप • वपण्डार्दतनवाापणिं • र्न्धापनयने उपायमाह- नार्के शराः, राजचम्पकाः, उत्प िं, के तकीमल्व कार्द पुष्पार्ण|| डवहण on su.su.45/12
  34. 34. LAKSHANA OFVISHADUSHTA BHOOMI • ͤÉÌiÉmÉëSåzÉÇ ÌuÉwÉSÕÌwÉiÉÇ iÉÑ ÍzÉsÉÉiÉsÉÇ iÉÏjÉïqÉiÉåËUhÉÇuÉÉ || xmÉ×zÉÎliÉaÉɧÉåhÉ iÉÑrÉålÉ rÉålÉ aÉÉåuÉÉÎeÉlÉÉaÉÉå·íZÉUÉlÉUuÉÉ || iÉcNÕûlÉiÉÉÇrÉÉirÉjÉÇS½iÉå cÉ ÌuÉzÉÏrÉïiÉå UÉåqÉlÉZÉÇiÉjÉæuÉ || xÉÑ.Mü. 3/10 •A.Sa. Su 8/69 Mrita keeta sarisrpa Visheerana of nakha and kesha Daha kandu ruja Chardi, Murcha, Jwara, Moha, Shirashoola
  35. 35. दूवषत देश • ववकृ त-र्न्ध-वणा-रस-स्पशा • क् ेद बहु • सरीस्रप-व्या -मशक-श ि-मक्षक्षक-मूषक-उ ूक-श्मशानशकु तन-जम्िुक-आर्द • तृणो ूपोपवन्त, प्रतानार्द बहु • शुष्क-नष्ट शस्यिं • प्रतत उवकापात तनर्ाात िूसम क्पं अति ियवरूपं • च.वव.३/६
  36. 36. Shodhana of Dooshita bhumi • iɧÉÉmrÉlÉliÉÉÇxÉWûxÉuÉïaÉlkÉæÈ ÌmÉwOèuÉÉxÉÑUÉÍpÉÌuÉïÌlÉrÉÉåerÉ माaÉïqÉç|| ÍxÉgcÉåiÉçmÉrÉÉåÍpÉÈxÉÑqÉ×SÎluÉiÉæxiÉÇ ÌuÉQûÇaÉmÉÉPûÉMüOûpÉÏeÉsÉæuÉÉ || xÉç.Mü.3/12 • Root of Draksha, Sheegru and soma are to be mixed with little amount of dadhi and it is administered to the person or animal got influenced . • The urine , flesh and blood of goat , sheep, elephant, along with Shireesha soma twak are to be boiled well in water and spread all over poisoned land. (A. Sa. Su 8)
  37. 37. ववकृ ि काल • कालं िु खलु यथािुुसलङ्गाद्ववपरीिसलङ्गमतिसलङ्गं हीनसलङ्गं चाहहिं व्यवतयेि ् || • च. वव. ३/६ • यथ तुा ववपरीत भ ङ्र् • अतत भ ङ्र् • हीन भ ङ्र् 37
  38. 38. Treatment • Charak explained the treatment in common for all the sources. Dooshita Desha, Kala, Jala,Vayu- “Their ultimate treatment is shodhana. MüqÉïmÉÇcÉÌuÉkÉÇiÉåwÉÉÇpÉåwÉeÉÇmÉUqÉEcrÉiÉå| UxÉÉrÉlÉÉlÉÉÇÌuÉÍkÉuÉŠEmÉrÉÉåaÉÈmÉëxÉxrÉiÉå||(cÉ.ÌuÉ.3/13-14) • Use of rejuvenation therapy and observance of behavioural rules plays an important role in management of diseases caused by environmental toxicity. • Sushruta has explained the method of purifying the sources rather the person influenced by the environmental toxicity. • He has mentioned different yogas for purifying each sources.
  39. 39. APPROCHESTO MINIMIZE ENV .TOXICITY
  40. 40. OECD special initiative on toxicogenomics ToxInt National Environment Protection Authority (NEPA) in India Society ofToxicology, IndiaPollution control boards and departments Mission of International Union ofToxicology (IUTOX) Toxicological signatures Toxic Substances Control Act [TSCA] Molecular Mechanisms of EnvironmentalToxicity in Human Cell Culture Model System United States Environmental ProtectionAgency
  41. 41. Rachel Louise Carson Agent Orange Vietnam War Environmental toxicity, oxidative stress, human disease and the “black box” of their synergism: How much have we revealed? A cell array biosensor for environmental toxicity analysis Environmental toxicity, nutrition, and gene interactions in the development of atherosclerosis External environment toxicity causes for DNA Damage Modification of Environmental Toxicity by Nutrients
  42. 42. CONCLUSION • Environmental toxicity history- with less intensity and to the restricted area But in present situation the hazardous effects of environmental toxicity is bothering globally • Adapting Ayurvedic methods of purifying the natural sources will help in preventing the harmful effect of such toxicity.Treatment must be comprehensive and holistic to achieve the greatest chance for complete recovery. • Risk Assessment and Reduction of Source of env. toxicity should be followed to preserve the sanctity of the environment for future generations.
  43. 43. THANK YOU
  44. 44. REFERENCES • Coppede F. Mutation Research / GeneticToxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis Environmental toxicity , oxidative stress , human disease and the “ black box ” of their synergism : How much have we revealed ? 2009;674:1–2. • Hyung J, Mitchell RJ, Chan B, Cullen DC, Bock M.A cell array biosensor for environmental toxicity analysis. 2005;21:500–7. • Environmental toxicity, nutrition, and gene interactions in the development of atherosclerosis. Nutrition, Metabolism & Cardiovascular Diseases (2007) 17, 162e169 • Hennig B, Reiterer G, Majkova Z, Oesterling E, Meerarani P,Toborek M. Modification of Environmental Implications in Atherosclerosis. 2005;5(2):153–60. • MODI’S MEDICAL JURISPRUDENCEANDTOXICOLOGY (22nd Edition) • Sushrut Samhita- JADVJITRIKAMJI Acharya, Priyavrat Sharma (Chakhamba Publication • Charak Samhita –JADVJITRIKAMJI Acharya, RavidattaTripathi (Chakhamba Publication • Text Book ofAgadtantra ( Rashtriya Shikhan Mandal Publication, Pune ) Editor –Dr.V.P. Joglekar, Dr. S.G. Huparikar. • WHO guidelines

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