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thorium based nuclear power

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thorium based nuclear power

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thorium based nuclear power

  1. 1. THORIUM BASED NUCLEAR POWER SUBMITTED BY PREETAM MEENA
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION  Thorium-based nuclear power is nuclear reactor-based electrical power generation fuelled primarily by the fission of the isotope uranium-233 produced from the fertile element thorium.  A nuclear reactor consumes certain specific fissile isotopes to produce energy. The three most practical types of nuclear reactor fuel are:  Uranium-235, purified (i.e. "enriched") by reducing the amount of uranium-238 in natural mined uranium. Most nuclear power has been generated using low-enriched uranium (LEU), whereas high- enriched uranium (HEU) is necessary for weapons.  Plutonium-239, transmuted from uranium-238 obtained from natural mined uranium. Plutonium is also used for weapons.  Uranium-233, transmuted from thorium-232, derived from natural mined thorium. That is this article's subject.
  3. 3. THORIUM FUEL CYCLE  The thorium fuel cycle is a nuclear fuel cycle that uses the isotope of thorium, 232Th, as the fertile material.  In the reactor, 232Th is transmuted into the fissile artificial uranium isotope 233U which is the nuclear fuel.  The thorium fuel cycle claims several potential advantages over a uranium fuel cycle-  thorium's greater abundance  superior physical and nuclear properties  better resistance to nuclear weapons  plutonium and actinide production
  4. 4. NUCLEAR REACTION WITH THORIUM  In the thorium cycle, fuel is formed when 232Th captures a neutron (whether in a fast reactor or thermal reactor) to become 233Th. This normally emits an electron and an anti-neutrino (ν) by β− decay to become 233Pa. This then emits another electron and anti-neutrino by a second β− decay to become 233U.
  5. 5. ENERGY FROM THORIUM
  6. 6. WHY WE NEED THORIUM-BASED NUCLEAR POWER…….???
  7. 7. World Energy Consumption is Rapidly Escalating Future Energy Consumption Has Been Significantly Underestimated  In 2007, the world consumed*: 5.3 billion tonnes of coal (128 quads**) 31.1 billion barrels of oil (180 quads) 2.92 trillion m3 of natural gas (105 quads) 65 million kg of uranium ore (25 quads) Contained 16,000 MT of thorium! **1 quad = 1 quadrillion BTU = 172 million barrels (Mbbl) of crude oil 29 quads of hydroelectricity Dominated by Hydrocarbons Year US World 2010 108 510 2020 121 613 2030 134 722 Total Energy Demand Projections (quads)*** In a global warming environment, where will the world turn for safe, abundant, low-cost energy?
  8. 8. Thorium Fuel Supply  Thorium is abundant around the world and rich in energy  Estimated world reserve base of 1.4 million MT  INDIA has about 20% of the world reserve base World Thorium Resources Country Australia India USA Norway Canada South Africa Brazil Other countries World total Reserve Base (tons) 340,000 300,000 300,000 180,000 100,000 39,000 18,000 100,000 1,400,000 Source: U.S. Geological Survey, Mineral Commodity Summaries, January 2008
  9. 9. Energy Generation Comparison 6 kg of fissile material in a liquid-fluoride reactor has the energy equivalent (66,000 MW*hr electrical*) of: = 230 train cars (25,000 MT) of bituminous coal or, 600 train cars (66,000 MT) of brown coal, or, 440 million cubic feet of natural gas (15% of a 125,000 cubic meter LNG tanker), or, 300 kg of enriched (3%) uranium in a pressurized water reactor. *Each ounce of thorium can therefore produce $14,000-24,000 of electricity (at $0.04-0.07/kW*hr)
  10. 10. TYPES OF THORIUM-BASED REACTORS  HEAVY WATER REACTORS (PHWRs)  HIGH-TEMPERATURE GAS COOLED REACTORS(VHTR)  BOILING WATER REACTOR(BWR)  PRESSURIZED WATER REACTOR(PWRs)
  11. 11. LIQUID FLUORIDE THORIUM REACTOR
  12. 12. OTHER APPLICATION  Industrial process heat for many uses, such as ammonia production with the Haber process.  Desalination of water  Hydrogen production by water splitting  Combined heat and power  Nuclear marine propulsion
  13. 13. ADVANTAGES  Inherent safety  Stable coolant- Molten fluorides are chemically stable and impervious to radiation  Low pressure operation- Because the coolant salts remain liquid at high temperatures, LFTR cores are designed to operate at low pressures  Leak Resistance. Due to the low pressure operation , the potential for large leaks is also greatly reduced  Easier to control
  14. 14. INDIAN SCENARIO
  15. 15. REFERENCES [1] “Ministry of Power". Powermin.gov.in. Retrieved 22 August 2010. [2] “Nuclear Power Plants in India”, Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited (NPCIL), retrieved 21 January 2011. [3] "Projects under Construction". NPCIL. Retrieved 10 April 2014. [4] "Nuclear Programme" (Press release). Press Information Bureau, Government of India, Department of Atomic Energy. [5] J. B. Gupta. “Power System Analysis”.
  16. 16. THANK YOU……

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