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Case Study: High Rise Buildings

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Case Study: High Rise Buildings

A short and elaborate Case Study on High Rise Buildings for the course of Advanced Building Construction from students of 8th Semester Architecture at VNIT, Nagpur (January- April 2017)

A short and elaborate Case Study on High Rise Buildings for the course of Advanced Building Construction from students of 8th Semester Architecture at VNIT, Nagpur (January- April 2017)

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Case Study: High Rise Buildings

  1. 1. HIGH-RISE BUILDINGS
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITION High rise is defined differently by different bodies. Emporis standards- “A multi-story structure between 35- 100 meters tall, or a building of unknown height from 12-39 floors is termed as high rise. Building code of Hyderabad,India- A high-rise building is one with four floors or more, or one 15 meters or more in height. The International Conference on Fire Safety – "any structure where the height can have a serious impact on evacuation“ Massachusetts, United States General Laws – A high-rise is being higher than 70 feet (21 m).
  3. 3. DEMAND FOR HIGH RISE BUILDINGS • Sacrcity of land in urban areas. •Increasing demand for business and residential space. •Economic growth •Technological advancements •Innovation in structural systems •Desire for aesthetics in urban settings •Concept of city skyline •Cultural significance and prestige •Human aspiration to build higher.
  4. 4. GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF HIGH RISE
  5. 5. DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS • There are three major factors to consider in the design of all structures: ▫ Strength ▫ rigidity and ▫ Stability • As height increases, the rigidity and stability requirements become more important, and they are often the dominant factors in the design. So ▫ the size of the members may be increased beyond and above the strength requirements. ▫ change the form of the structure into something more rigid and stable to confine the deformation and increase stability.
  6. 6. CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS CONCRETE, STEEL, GLASS, CLADDING MATERIAL, HIGH ALUMINA CEMENT USED FOR ROOFS & FLOORS. IT CONTAINS BAUXITE INSTEAD OF CLAY, CEMENT, PORTLAND CEMENT OF LIME STONE, SILICA. CONCRETE:- CELLULAR CONCRETE OF CLAY-GYPSUM & INVENTION OF LIGHT WEIGHT CONCRETE. FERRO CONCRETE:-IT IS A LAYER OF FINE MESH SATURATED WITH CEMENT. GUNITE:- IT IS ALSO KNOWN AS SHOT CRETE. COMPRESSED AIR TO SHOOT CONCRETE ONTO (OR INTO) A FRAME OR STRUCTURE. SHOT CONCRETE IS FREQUENTLY USED AGAINST VERTICAL SOIL OR ROCK SURFACES, AS IT ELIMINATES THE NEED FOR FORMWORK. GLASS:- FLOAT GLASS WITH DOUBLE GLASS IS USED IN TALL BUILDINGS . TEMPERED GLASS IS USED IN TALL BUILDINGS INSTEAD OF PLAIN GLASS, AS THAT WOULD SHATTER AT SUCH HEIGHT.
  7. 7. ADVANTAGES PLASTICITY EASILY AVAILABILITY EASY IN CASTING NON CORROSIVE CAN BE CAST IN SITU DISADVANTAGES COST OF FORM DEAD WEIGHT DIFFICULTY IN POURING
  8. 8. FOUNDATION TYPES • Raft foundation: It is known for its load distributing capability. With the usage of this type of foundation the enormous load of the building gets distributed & helps the building stay upright and sturdy. Loads are transferred by raft into the ground. • Pile foundation: used for high rise construction. Load of building is distributed to the ground with the help of piles. Transfer the loads into the ground with an adequate factor of safety. • Combined raft-pile: is the hybrid of 2 foundation. It consists of both the pile and raft foundation. Useful in marshy sandy soil that has low bearing capacity.
  9. 9. PILE FOUNDATION
  10. 10. RAFT FOUNDATIO N
  11. 11. NSTUCTION METHODS AND TECHNIQUES Slip forming, continuous poured, continuously formed, or slip form construction is a construction method in which concrete is poured into a continuously moving form. Slip forming is used for tall structures (such as bridges, towers, buildings, and dams), as well as horizontal structures, such as roadways. In vertical slip forming the concrete form may be surrounded by a platform on which workers stand, placing steel reinforcing rods into the concrete and ensuring a smooth pour. Together, the concrete form and working platform are raised by means of hydraulic jacks. Generally, the slipform rises at a rate which permits the concrete to harden by the time it emerges from the bottom of the form
  12. 12. SLIP FORM CONSTRUCTION Slipforming is an economical, rapid and accurate method of constructing reinforced concrete. At its most basic level, slipforming is a type of movable formwork which is slowly raised, allowing the continuous extrusion of concrete.
  13. 13. CLIMB FORM CONSTRUCTION It is an economical, rapid and accurate method of constructing reinforced concrete, or post-tensioned concrete structures. At its most basic level, slipforming is a type of movable formwork which is slowly raised, allowing the continuous extrusion of concrete.
  14. 14. TABLE FORM/FLYING FORM A Table form/flying form is a large pre-assembled formwork And falsework unit, often forming a complete bay of Suspended floor slab. It offers mobility and quick installation For construction projects with regular plan layouts or long Repetitive structures, so is highly suitable for flat slab, and Beam and slab layouts. It is routinely used for residential flats, hotels, hostels, offices and commercial buildings.
  15. 15. SYSTEM COLUMN FORMWORK •The column formwork systems now available are normally modular in nature and allow quick assembly and erection on-site while minimizing labor and crane time. •They are available in steel, aluminum and even cardboard (not reusable but recycled) and have a variety of internal face surfaces depending on the concrete finish required.
  16. 16. VERTICAL PANEL SYSTEMS •Crane-lifted panel systems are commonly used on building sites to form vertical elements and usually consist of a steel frame with plywood, steel, plastic or composite facing material. •The systems are normally modular in nature, assembly times and labor costs are considerably lower than traditional formwork methods with far fewer components required. They offer greater opportunities for reuse for different applications on site. •Panel systems are extremely flexible and the larger crane-lifted versions can be used for constructing standard concrete walls, perimeter basement walls, columns and in conjunction with jump form climbing systems.
  17. 17. JUMP FORM SYSTEMS Generally, jump form systems comprise the formwork and working platforms for cleaning/fixing of the formwork, steel fixing and concreting. The formwork supports itself on the concrete cast earlier so does not rely on support or access from other parts of the building or permanent works. It is a highly productive system designed to increase speed and efficiency while minimising labour and crane time. Systems are normally modular and can be joined to form long lengths to suit varying construction geometries. Three types of jump form are in general use:
  18. 18. TUNNEL FORM Tunnel form is used to form repetitive cellular structures,and is widely recognised as a modern innovation that enables the construction of horizontal and vertical elements (walls and floors) together. Significant productivity benefits have been achieved by using tunnel form to construct cellular buildings such as hotels, low- and high-rise housing,hostels, student accommodation, prison and barracks accommodation.
  19. 19. STEEL STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS AND NO. OF STOR
  20. 20. TYPES OF CORE
  21. 21. STEEL STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS EXAMPLES
  22. 22. HEAR WALL SYSTEM • A type of rigid frame construction. • The shear wall is in steel or concrete to provide greater lateral rigidity. It is a wall where the entire material of the wall is employed in the resistance of both horizontal and vertical loads. • Is composed of braced panels (or shear panels) to counter the effects of lateral load acting on a structure. Wind & earthquake loads are the most common among the loads. • For skyscrapers, as the size of the structure increases, so does the size of the supporting wall. Shear walls tend to be used only in conjunction with other support systems.
  23. 23. FRAMED-TUBE STRUCTURES The lateral resistant of the framed-tube structures is provided by very stiff moment-resistant frames that form a “tube” around the perimeter of the building. The basic inefficiency of the frame system for reinforced concrete buildings of more than 15 stories resulted in member proportions of prohibitive size and structural material cost premium, and thus such system were economically not viable. The frames consist of 6-12 ft (2-4m) between centers, joined by deep spandrel girders. Gravity loading is shared between the tube and interior column or walls. Dewitt chestnut
  24. 24. THE TRUSSED TUBE The trussed tube system represents a classic solution for a tube uniquely suited to the qualities and character of structural steel. Introducing a minimum number of diagonals on each façade and making the diagonal intersect at the same point at the corner column. The system is tubular in that the fascia diagonals not only form a truss in the plane, but also interact with the trusses on the perpendicular faces to affect the tubular behavior. This creates the x form between corner columns on each façade. Relatively broad column spacing can resulted large clear spaces for windows, a particular characteristic of steel buildings. The façade diagonalization serves to equalize the gravity loads of the exterior columns that give a significant impact on the exterior architecture. John Hancock Center introduced trussed tube design. Recently the use of perimeter diagonals – thus the term “DIAGRID” - for structural effectiveness and lattice-like aesthetics has generated renewed interest in architectural and structural designers of tall buildings. Introducing a minimum number of diagonals on each façade and making the diagonal intersect at the same point at the corner column
  25. 25. The concept allows for wider column spacing in the tubular walls than would be possible with only the exterior frame tube form. The spacing which make it possible to place interior frame lines without seriously compromising interior space planning. The ability to modulate the cells vertically can create a powerful vocabulary for a variety of dynamic shapes therefore offers great latitude in architectural planning of at all building. Sears Tower, Chicago. BUNDLED TUBE SYSTEM
  26. 26. TUBE-IN-TUBE SYSTEM This variation of the framed tube consists of an outer frame tube, the “Hull,” together with an internal elevator and service core. The Hull and core act jointly in resisting both gravity and lateral loading. The outer framed tube and the inner core interact horizontally as the shear and flexural components of a wall-frame structure, with the benefit of increased lateral stiffness. The structural tube usually adopts a highly dominant role because of its much greater structural depth. Lumbago Tatung Haji Building, Kuala Lumpur
  27. 27. TAIPEI 101
  28. 28. INTRODUCTION • Taipei 101 , formerly known as the Taipei World Financial Centre, is a landmark super tall skyscraper in Xinyi District, Taipei, Taiwan. The building was officially classified as the world's tallest in 2004, and remained such until the opening of Burj Khalifa in Dubai in 2010. • In July 2011, the building was awarded the LEED Platinum certification, the highest award according the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) rating system, and became the tallest and largest green building in the world. • Taipei 101 was designed by C.Y. Lee & partners and constructed primarily by KTRT Joint Venture. • . The construction started in 1999 and finished in 2004. The tower has served as an icon of modern Taiwan ever since its opening.
  29. 29. • Taipei 101 comprises 101 floors above ground and 5 floors underground. The building was architecturally created as a symbol of the evolution of technology and Asian tradition. • Its postmodernist approach to style incorporates traditional design elements and gives them modern treatments. • The tower is designed to withstand typhoons and earthquakes. A multi-level shopping mall adjoining the tower houses hundreds of stores, restaurants and clubs. • Taipei 101 is owned by Taipei Financial Centre Corp. (TFCC) and managed by the International division of Urban Retail PropertiesCorporation based in Chicago.
  30. 30. FEATURE S • Taipei 101 is 508-meter high, • 101-story tower • a five-story deep basement • 61 elevators • most floor plan areas vary between 2000 and 2500 square meters (21,500 to 27,000 square feet), • Building aspect ratio (height/width) to the main roof is about 9 based on its ‘waist’ (and 6.8 counting the wider base). • Construction began in 1999 and ended this year 2004. • Architectural style is similar to a pagoda and bamboo. • Major materials used are glass and steel .
  31. 31. HEIGHT • The Taipei 101 tower has 101 floors above ground and five underground. Upon its completion Taipei 101 claimed the official records for: ▫ Ground to highest architectural structure : 508 m (1,667 ft). Previously held by the Petronas Towers 451.9 m(1,483 ft). ▫ Ground to roof: 449.2 m (1,474 ft). Formerly held by the Willis Tower 442 m (1,450 ft). ▫ Ground to highest occupied floor: 438 m (1,437 ft). Formerly held by the Willis Tower 412.4 m (1,353 ft). ▫ Fastest ascending elevator speed: designed to be 1,010 meters per minute, which is 16.83 m/s (55.22 ft/s) (60.6 kilometres per hour (37.7 mph)). ▫ Largest countdown clock: Displayed on New Year's Eve. ▫ Tallest sundial.
  32. 32. • Taipei 101 was the first building in the world to break the half- kilometer mark in height. The record it claimed for greatest height from ground to pinnacle was surpassed by the Burj Khalifa in Dubai (UAE), which is 829.8 m (2,722 ft) in height. • Taipei 101's records for roof height and highest occupied floor briefly passed to the Shanghai World Financial Centre in 2009, which in turn yielded these records as well to the Burj. • Taipei 101 displaced the Petronas Towers in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, as the tallest building in the world by 56.1 m (184 ft). • Various sources, including the building's owners, give the height of Taipei 101 as 508.0 m (1,667 ft), roof height and top floor height as 448.0 m (1,470 ft) and 438.0 m (1,437 ft). This lower figure is derived by measuring from the top of a 1.2 m (4 ft) platform at the base.
  33. 33. BASIC INFORMATION • Architect – C.Y.Lee & Partners • Structural Engineer – Shaw Shieh • Structural Consult. – Thornton- Tomasetti Engineers, New York City • Year Started – June 1998 • Total Height – 508m • No. of Floors – 101 • Plan Area – 50m X 50m • Cost – $ 700 million • Building Use – Office Complex + Mall • Parking - 83,000 m2, 1800 cars • Retail - Taipei 101 Mall (77,033 m2) • Offices - Taiwan Stock Exchange (198,347 m2)
  34. 34. BUILDING FRAME • Materials ▫ 60ksi Steel ▫ 10,000 psi Concrete • Systems ▫ Outrigger Trusses ▫ Moment Frames ▫ Belt Trusses • Lateral Load Resistance ▫ Braced Moment Frames in the building’s core ▫ Outrigger from core to perimeter ▫ Perimeter Moment Frames ▫ Shear walls ▫ Basement and first 8 floors
  35. 35. • Height • Typhoon • Winds • Frequent strong Earthquakes • Weak clayey soils CHALLENGES
  36. 36. • Skyscrapers must be flexible in strong winds yet remain rigid enough to prevent large sideways movement (lateral drift). • Flexibility prevents structural damage while resistance ensures comfort for the occupants and protection of glass, curtain walls and other features. • Thirty-six columns support Taipei 101, including eight "mega-columns" packed with 10,000 psi (69 MPa) concrete. • Every eight floors, outrigger trusses connect the columns in the building's core to those on the exterior. WIND DESIGN
  37. 37. STRUCTURAL DESIGN •Taipei 101 is designed to withstand the typhoon winds and earthquake tremors common in its area of the Asia-Pacific. •Planners aimed for a structure that could withstand gale winds of 60 m/s (197 ft/s, 216 km/h or 134 mph) and the strongest earthquakes likely to occur in a 2,500 year cycle. •Skyscrapers must be flexible in strong winds yet remain rigid enough to prevent large sideways movement. •Flexibility prevents structural damage while resistance ensures comfort for the occupants and protection of glass, curtain walls and other features. • Most designs achieve the necessary strength by enlarging critical structural elements such as bracing. The height of Taipei 101 combined with the demands of its environment called for additional innovations. The design achieves both strength and flexibility for the tower through the use of high-performance steel construction. • Thirty-six columns support Taipei 101, including eight "mega-columns" packed with 10,000 psi (69 MPa) concrete. • Every eight floors, outrigger trusses connect the columns in the building's core to those on the exterior.
  38. 38. •These features combine with the solidity of its foundation to make Taipei 101 one of the most stable buildings ever constructed. • The foundation is reinforced by 380 piles driven 80 m (262 ft) into the ground, extending as far as 30 m (98 ft) into the bedrock. • Each pile is 1.5 m (5 ft) in diameter and can bear a load of 1,000–1,320 tonnes (1,100– 1,460 short tons). •The stability of the design became evident during construction when, on 31 March 2002, a 6.8-magnitude earthquake rocked Taipei. The tremor was strong enough to topple two construction cranes from the 56th floor, the highest floor at the time. • Five people died in the accident, but an inspection showed no structural damage to the building, and construction soon resumed.
  39. 39. •Thornton-Tomasetti Engineers along with Evergreen Consulting Engineering designed a 660-tonne (728-short-ton) steel pendulum that serves as a tuned mass damper, at a cost of NT$132 million (US$4 million). •Suspended from the 92nd to the 87th floor, the pendulum sways to offset movements in the building caused by strong gusts. • Its sphere, the largest damper sphere in the world, consists of 41 circular steel plates of varying diameters, each 125 mm (4.92 in) thick, welded together to form a 5.5 m (18 ft) diameter sphere. • Two additional tuned mass dampers, each weighing 6 tonnes (7 short tons), are installed at the tip of the spire which help prevent damage to the structure due to strong wind loads.
  40. 40. CONSTRUCTION • 380 piles with 3 inch concrete slab. •Mega columns- 8 cm thick steel & 10,000 psi concrete infill to provide for overturning. •Walls - 5 & 7 degree slope. •106,000 tons of steel, grade 60- 25% stronger. •6 cranes on site – steel placement. •Electrical & Mechanical. •Braced core with belt trusses •Curtain wall placement.
  41. 41. SUPERSTRUCTURE CONSTRUCTION The structure is reinforced by a moment frame system linking the column on all floors. Massive steel outrigger trusses span between the columns on every eight floors.
  42. 42. WELDING OF SUPER-COLUMN
  43. 43. Cross section of super column and reinforcement filled with high strength concrete upto level 62.
  44. 44. • The structure concentrates main loads in two, generally 3 x 2.4-m vertical mega columns, 22.5 m apart along each face, almost touching the sloping perimeter wall at its base. • Main floor girders connect each mega column through moment connections with a core corner column along the same gridline, forming a tick-tack-toe board . • The 22.5-m-square core comprises 16 box columns in four lines, which are generally fully braced between floors. Composite floors are typically 13.5 cm thick. • At equipment floors every eighth level, outriggers connect mega columns and the core. • Outriggers are generally formed by vertically bracing main floor girders above and below equipment floors. • Further cross bracing between main perimeter columns at these levels forms belt trusses around the tower. • Two minor outriggers connect the core’s central columns with sloping H-shaped uprights in each module’s face. • From just below level 26 down, mega columns slope with the building’s profile. Two, 2 x 1.2-m columns are added toward the centre of each facade, while each corner is supported by an additional 1.4-m-square sloping box column.
  45. 45. • Corner columns are tied to the main frame with two-story-deep belt trusses under levels 9, 19 and 27. All other sloping mega columns are connected to core columns with double-story outriggers at these levels. • Designed for axial loads up to 38,000 tonnes, main mega columns are made of steel as thick as 8 cm. Along with the core elements, mega columns are filled with 10,000-psi reinforced concrete up to level 62. Additional box columns below floor 26 are also filled. • For enhanced resistance to seismic forces, main girders and the facade framework have welded connections to the mega columns. For additional ductility, key main beams have reduced flange widths next to column welds. • The design criteria are tougher than needed to comply with local codes. Codes require the frame to stay elastic in a 100-year shock and remain upright through a 950-year event. But actual capabilities are better. The building is engineered to stay up under a 2,500-year shock
  46. 46. FOUNDATION •The building is a pile through clay rich soil to bedrock 60-80m below. •The plies are topped by a foundation slab which is 3m thick at the edges and up to 5m thick under the largest of columns •There are a total of 380 1.5m dia. Tower piles.
  47. 47. FOUNDATION DETAILS • One of the most stable buildings ever constructed • Reinforced by 380 piles driven 262 feet into the ground, extending as far as 30 meters (98 ft. ) into the bedrock. • Each pile is 5 feet in diameter and can withstand a load of 1100-1450 tons, that is 2,900,000 pounds each.
  48. 48. Foundation depth 80 metres.
  49. 49. Reverse circulation pile.
  50. 50. COLUMN SYSTEM
  51. 51. •Gravity loads are carried vertically by a variety of columns. •Within the core, sixteen columns are located at the crossing points of four lines of bracing in each direction. •The columns are box sections constructed of steel plates, filled with concrete for added strength as well as stiffness till the 62nd floor. •On the perimeter, up to the 26th floor, each of the four building faces has two ‘super columns,’ two ‘sub-super-columns,’ and two corner columns. •Each face of the perimeter above the 26th floor has the two ‘super-columns’ continue upward. •The ‘super-columns’ and ‘sub-super- columns’ are steel box sections, filled with 10,000 psi (M70) high performance concrete on lower floors for strength and stiffness up to the 62nd floor.
  52. 52. TYPICAL PLAN UP TO 26TH STOREY TYPICAL PLAN FROM 27TH TO 91ST STOREY
  53. 53. LATERAL LOADING SYSTEM • For additional core stiffness, the lowest floors from basement to the 8th floor have concrete shear walls cast between core columns in addition to diagonal braces. • The most of the lateral loads will be resisted by a combination of braced cores, cantilevers from the core to the perimeter, the super columns and the Special moment resisting frame (SMRF).
  54. 54. SEISMIC DESIGN Taipei 101 includes a 728-ton sphere locked in a net of thick steel cables hung way up toward the top of the building. Tuned mass damper
  55. 55. • A TUNED MASS DAMPER OCCUPIES LEVEL 87 TO 91 • 736 TON SPHERE OF STACKED STEEL PLATES • SUSPENDED FROM 4 STEEL CABLES • IT’S A PENDULUM 0.26 OF BUILDINGS TOTAL WEIGHT
  56. 56. PRINCIPLE As LATERAL FORCE pass up through the structure, the ball remains all but stationary; its inertia helps to counteract the movements of the building around it, thus “dampening” the LATERAL FORCE.
  57. 57. TMD CONSTRUCTION Tuned mass damper of stacked field-welded steel plates will swing as a pendulum on steel cables.
  58. 58. Assembly of the Tuned Mass Damper Completed Assembly of the Tuned Mass Damper
  59. 59. • The cantilevers (horizontal trussed from the core to the perimeter) occur at 11 levels in the structure. 5 of them are double storey high and the rest single storey. • 16 of these members occur on each of such floors. • The balance of perimeter framing is a sloping Special Moment Resisting Frame (SMRF), a rigidly-connected grid of stiff beams and H shape columns which follows the tower’s exterior wall slope down each 8 story module. • At each setback level, gravity load is transferred to ‘super-columns’ through a story-high diagonalized truss in the plane of the SMRF. • Above the 26th floor, only two exterior super-columns continue to rise up to the 91st floor, so the SMRF consists of 600 mm deep steel wide flange beams and columns, with columns sized to be significantly stronger than beams for stability in the event of beam yielding. • Each 7-story of SMRF is carried by a story-high truss to transfer gravity and cantilever forces to the super-columns, and to handle the greater story stiffness of the core at cantilever floors.
  60. 60. Damping System • The main objective of such a system is to supplement the structures damping to dissipate energy and to control undesired structural vibrations. • A common approach is to add friction or viscous damping to the joints of the buildings to stabilize the structural vibration. • A large number of dampers may be needed in order to achieve effective damping when the movements of the joints are not sufficient to contribute to energy absorption.
  61. 61. •A TMD is a passive damping system, which consists of a spring, a viscous damping device, and a secondary mass attached to the vibrating structure •By varying the characteristics of the TMD system, an opportunity is given to control the vibration of the primary structure and to dissipate energy in the viscous element of the TMD. •The Taipei 101 uses a 800 ton TMD which occupy 5 of its upper floors (87 – 91). •The ball is assembled on site in layers of 12.5-cm-thick steel plate. It is welded to a steel cradle suspended from level 92 by 3” cables, in 4 sets of 2 each.
  62. 62. •Eight primary hydraulic pistons, each about 2 m long, grip the cradle to dissipate dynamic energy as heat. •A roughly 60-cm-dia pin projecting from the underside of the ball limits its movement to about 1 m even during times of the strongest lateral forces. •The 60m high spire at the top has 2 smaller ‘flat’ dampers to support it.
  63. 63. STRUCTURAL FACADE •Taipei 101's characteristic blue-green glass curtain walls are double paned and glazed •They offer heat and UV protection sufficient to block external heat by 50 percent, and can sustain impacts of 7 tonnes •.The façade system of glass and aluminium panels installed into an inclined moment-resisting lattices contributes to overall lateral rigidity by tying back to the mega-columns with one-story high trusses at every eighth floor. •This façade system is therefore able to withstand up to 95mm of seismic lateral displacements without damage.
  64. 64. INTERIOR •Taipei 101 is the first record- setting skyscraper to be constructed in the 21st century. It exhibits a number of technologically advanced features. •The original 2004 fibre- optic and satellite Internet connections permitted transfer speeds up to a gigabyte per second. •The double-deck elevators built by the Japanese Toshiba Elevator and Building Systems Corporation (TELC) set a new record in 2004 with top ascending speeds of 16.83 m (55.22 ft) per second .
  65. 65. •Taipei 101's elevators sweep visitors from the fifth floor to the 89th-floor observatory in only 37 seconds. •Each elevator features an aerodynamic body. •the world's first triple-stage anti- overshooting system. The cost for each elevator is NT$80 million (US$2.4 million). •The damper can reduce up to 40% of the tower's movements. •Two restaurants have opened on the 85th floor: Diamond Tony's,and Shin Yeh 101. •The multi-story retail mall adjoining the tower is home to hundreds of fashionable stores, restaurants, clubs and other attractions. The mall's interior is modern in design even as it makes use of traditional elements
  66. 66. STRENGTHS • Designed to withstand typhoons and earthquakes. • Withstands 134 mph winds. • Withstood a 7.0 Richter scale earthquake, which only happens in a 2,500 year cycle. • Withstood a 6.8 earthquake during construction in which a crane fell off of the tower and killed 5 people.
  67. 67. History Planning for Taipei 101 began in 1997 during Chen Shui-bian's term as Taipei mayor. Talks between merchants and city government officials initially cantered on a proposal for a 66-story tower to serve as an anchor for new development in Taipei's 101 business district. Planners were considering taking the new structure to a more ambitious height only after an expat suggested it, along with many of the other features used in the design of the building. It wasn't until the summer of 2001 that the city granted a license for the construction of a 101-story tower on the site. In the meantime, construction proceeded and the first tower column was erected in the summer of 2000. A major earthquake took place in Taiwan during 31 March 2002 destroying a construction crane at the roof top, which was at floor number 47. The crane fell down onto the Xinyi Road beneath the tower, crushing several vehicles and causing five deaths – two crane operators and three workers who were not properly harnessed. However, an inspection showed no structural damage to the building, and construction work was able to restart within a week. Taipei 101's roof was completed three years later on 1 July 2003. The formal opening of the tower took place on New Year's Eve 2004. Open-air concerts featured a number of popular performers. Visitors rode the elevators to the Observatory for the first time. A few hours later the first fireworks show at Taipei 101 heralded the arrival of a new year.
  68. 68. Taipei 101 is a record breaking extraordinary structure which has been the tallest building in the world from 2004-2010 over-coming the height of Petronas Towers by 58m. It has been the symbol of excellence and technology for Taiwan. It is the structure which is flexible enough to withstand earthquake and strong enough to resist typhoon winds. The engineers and the designers of Taipei 101 have gone beyond the expectations and imagination of human mind to construct this mega marvel. There are many mega-structures under construction and being constructed but Taipei 101 still maintains its uniqueness and variation. CONCLUSION
  69. 69. REFERENCES • Ingredient of High-Rise Design Structure Magazine, June 2006 • Taipei 101 at Skyscraper Page • Taipei 101 at Structure • Taipei 101 Official Website – Lights Schedule • LEED certified: The tallest "green" building in the world Siemens Building Technologies
  70. 70. EFFORTS BY: SHREYA SABLE BA13ARC041 SACHI DONGARWAR BA13ARC042 SAURABH DEOTALE BA13ARC043 SHHRRUTI JAIN BA13ARC044 SHIVANGI NEGI BA13ARC045 S.SUBHAMALA BA13ARC046 SWAPNIL PUDKE BA13ARC047 VRINDA TAPADIA BA13ARC048 PRASAD THANTHRATEY BA13ARC049 PAWAN TIRPUDE BA13ARC050

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