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KOMAL YADAV MOTIVATION MEANING AND THEORIES

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KOMAL YADAV MOTIVATION MEANING AND THEORIES

  1. 1. MEDI-CAPS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT SUBJECT: ORGANAIZATION BEHAVIOUR
  2. 2. MOTIVATION
  3. 3. Expectancy Theory Developed by Victor Vroom and is a very popular theory of work motivation.  Vroom suggests that motivation will be high when workers feel:  High levels of effort lead to high performance.  High performance will lead to the attainment of desire outcomes.
  4. 4. Expectancy Theory Involves 3 cognitions/perceptions: 1. Expectancy will the perceived probability that effort lead to task performance. E link 2. Instrumentality - the perceived probability that performance will lead to rewards. I link 3. Valence Effort Rewards or Outcomes the anticipated value of a particular outcome to an individual. Performance
  5. 5. E P Expectancy What is the probability that I can perform at the required level if I try? Effort Instrumentality or P O Theory What is the probability that my good performance will lead to outcomes? Performance Valence What value do I place on the potential outcomes? (see next slide) Outco
  6. 6. The simplicity of expectancy theory is deceptive because it assumes that if an employer makes a reward, such as a financial bonus or promotion, enticing enough, employees will increase their productivity to obtain the reward. In addition to that, if anyone in the armed forces or security agencies is promoted, there is a must condition for such promotions, that they he/she will be transferred to other locations. In such cases, if the new place is far from their permanent residence, where their family is residing, they will not be motivated by such promotions, and the results will be other way round. Because, the outcome, which this reward (promotion) will yield, may not be valued by those who are receiving it.
  7. 7. (born on December 4, 1925 in Mundare, a small town in Alberta, Canada) He is the leading researcher and theorist in the area of observational learning.
  8. 8. Reinforcement theory of motivation was proposed by BF Skinner and his associates. It states that individual’s behavior is a function of its consequences. (based on law of effect)
  9. 9. Positive and Negative Reinforcement Positive Reinforcement Negative Reinforcement  Observer is likely to  Observer is less likely  Behavior doesn’t  Behavior doenst repeat behavior a model demonstrates matter, reinforcement received matters. to repeat a beahavior a model demonstarets. matter, reinforcement received matters.
  10. 10. - Anything that increase the behavior - is a consequence of behavior that decreases the likelihood of repetition.
  11. 11. 1.The observer is reinforced by the model 2. The observer is reinforced by a third person 3. The imitated behavior itself leads to reinforcing consequences 4. Consequences of the model’s behavior affect the observers behavior vicariously (vicarious reinforcement)
  12. 12. Teaches new behaviors Increases or decreases the frequency with which previously learned behaviors are carried out Can encourage previously forbidden behavior Can increase or decrease similar behaviors.
  13. 13. The definition of behavioral reinforcement has been circular since it appears to argue that response strength is increased by reinforcement and defines reinforcement as something that increased responses strength .However the correct usage of reinforcement is that something is a reinforcer because of its effect on behavior and not the other way around .It become circular if one says that a particular stimulus strengthens behavior because it is are informer and does not explain why a stimulus is producing that effect on the behavior
  14. 14. Goal setting is recognized explicitly or implicitly by virtually every major theory of work motivation The existence of goals in and of themselves can motivate behavior People assigned difficult goals tend to perform better than those with moderately difficult to easy goals The idea behind goal setting theory is that goals motivate people to compare current performance to performance needed to meet goals It is better to state a specific goal than to simply urge people to do their best Goal setting has been found to enhance performance about 90 percent of the time
  15. 15. 1) CHOICE: Goal narrow attention and direct efforts to goal – relevant activities. 2)effort: Goal can lead to more effort for example if one typically produce 4 widget an hour and has the goal to producing 6 one may work more intensely toward the goal than one would otherwise. 3)persistence: someone become more prone to work through setbacks if pursuing a goal. 4) cognition: goals can lead individuals to develop and change their behavior
  16. 16. In an organization a goal of a manager may not align with the goal of the organization as a whole. In such cases the goal of an individual may come into direct conflict with the employing organization
  17. 17. Implication ofmust know how to Managers Equity Theory treat their employees with all fairness and justice, not only to attain the goals of the company, but also to boost the morale of each of the employees.
  18. 18. Equity Theories  The research evidence on equity theories is generally strong.  although it might be a mistake to reduce our understanding of all interpersonal interactions at work to a type of social exchange bargaining  equity theories may provide important insights into understanding how people believe they are treated work  research on equity theories provides important information on the influence of pay on motivation and on how people look to others to evaluate whether they think they are treated fairly
  19. 19. Ratio Comparisons Perception O/IA < O/IB Inequity – under rewarded O/IA = O/IB Equity O/IA > O/IB Inequity – over rewarded
  20. 20. Equity theory
  21. 21. Reducing Inequity Reactions to inequity Examples Distort Perceptions Changing one’s thinking to believe that the referent actually is more skilled than previously thought Increase referents input Encouraging the referent to work harder Reduce own input Deliberately putting forth less effort at work. Reducing the quality of one’s work Increase own outcomes Negotiating a raise for oneself or using unethical ways of increasing rewards such as stealing from the company Change referent Comparing oneself to someone who is worse off Leave the situation Quitting one’s job Seek legal action Suing the company or filing a complaint if the unfairness in question is under legal protection
  22. 22. Merits & criticism Merits Criticism Recognize the need of social comparison. Lack of clarity in choosing or changing a person he compares with. Adopts a realistic approach i.e. motivation is based on perceived behavior rather than the actual set of circumstances Inputs & outputs relation not looked into properly. Inappropriate methods used to resolve inequity.
  23. 23. What’s Behaviour Modification? Interfere positively in the child’s activities to influence its thoughts in order to bring in desirable changes in the pattern of behaviour
  24. 24. Techniques Techniques are various systematised tried and tested principles of action to bring in behavioural changes in the targeted population
  25. 25. Some Behaviour Modification techniques  Punishment  Extinction  Shaping and Chaining  Timeout  Overcorrecting  Assertiveness Training  Bio-feedback  Relaxation Methods
  26. 26. Extinction Parents can create behaviour “extinction” by carefully observing their child’s behavour and noticing what reward the child receives for that inappropriate behaviour.
  27. 27. Punishment The punishment procedures have been used with both typical and atypical developing children, teenagers, elderly persons, animals and people exhibiting different psychological disorders.
  28. 28. Shaping and Changing This is a behavioural term that refers to gradually moulding or training an organism to perform a specific response (behaviour) by reinforcing any response that are similar to the desired response.
  29. 29. Time Out Temporarily changing or separating the child from the environment where inappropriate behaviour has occurred. It’s intended to remove a positive reinforcement of the undesired behaviour.
  30. 30. Relaxation Methods To effectively combat stress, we need to activate the body’s natural relaxation response. We can do this by practicing relaxation techniques such as deep breathing, mindful meditation, rhythmic exercises and YOGA.
  31. 31. SUMMARY Motivation is an internal feeling which can be understood only by manager since he is in close contact with the employees. Needs, wants and desires are inter-related and they are the driving force to act. These needs can be understood by the manager and he can frame motivation plans accordingly.
  32. 32. The End

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