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DAPA programmes: Using logic models (truncated version)
This presentation was originally going to be given at the CABE Design and Planning Advice directorate away day on 23 March 2010 but there wasn't time. It sets out to briefly explain what logic models are, what they look like and how we can use them to enhance planning, management and evaluation in DAPA. (This is a truncated version - missing a worked example and consideration of how key messages relate to the CABE logic model template)
Logic models come in as many sizes and shapes as the programmes they represent
Although, at their heart they all have the five basic components of: Inputs: the things we invest in a programme or bring to bear on a situation. The materials that the organisation or programme takes in and then processes to produce the results desired by the organisation Activities: Processes are used by the organisation or programme to manipulate and arrange items to produce the results desired by the organisation or programme. Logic models are usually only concerned with the major recurring processes associated with producing the results desired by the organisation or programme Outputs: Outputs are usually the tangible results of the major processes in the organization. They are usually accounted for by their number Outcomes: Outcomes are the (hopefully positive) impacts on those people whom the organization wanted to benefit with its programs. Outcomes are usually specified in terms of: a) learning, including enhancements to knowledge, understanding/perceptions/attitudes, and behaviors b) skills (behaviors to accomplish results, or capabilities) c) conditions (increased security, stability, pride, etc.) It's often to specify outcomes in terms of short-term, intermediate and long-term Impact: Can be seen as Outcome in the longer term (7 - 10 years)
Saying that you crawl before you walk before you run is a descriptive logic model; Saying that you crawl, and crawling develops the gross-motor skills and body control capabilities that make it possible to walk; you walk, and walking develops the balance, further gross-motor skills, and body control needed to run .... moves the model from programme logic to programme theory
Avoid linear thinking by starting from the desired outcome and working back ... rather than strictly following the left to right orthodoxy of inputs to outcome ... Paul McCawley, University of Idaho, suggests asking the following sorts of questions: 1. What is the current situation that we intend to impact? 2. What will it look like when we achieve the desired situation or outcome? 3. What behaviours need to change for that outcome to be achieved? 4. What knowledge or skills do people need before the behaviour will change? 5. What activities need to be performed to cause the necessary learning? 6. What resources will be required to achieve the desired outcome?
Key sources: - W.K.Kellogg Foundation Logic Model Development Guide, Updated 2004 http://www.wkkf.org/knowledge-center/Resources-Page.aspx [Accessed 20/03/10] - Utilization-Focused Evaluation, 4th Edition, Michael Quinn Patton, Sage 2008 - Teaching for Quality Learning at University, 3rd Edition, John Biggs and Catherine Tang, SRHE/OU 2007 - The Logic Model for program planning and evaluation, Paul F. McCawley, Associate director, University of Idaho Extension. Downloaded from http://www.uidaho.edu/extension/LogicModel.pdf [Accessed 20/03/10] - Paper outlining approach to Logic model used by the Center for Youth and Communities at the Heller School for Social Policy and Management, Brandeis Universities. Downloaded from http://www.service-learningpartnership.org/site/DocServer/Tool_2_Logic_Models.pdf?docID=2282 [Accessed 20/02/10] - University of Winsconsin Extension Program development and evaluation pages (information, templates and link to an online course) http://www.uwex.edu/ces/pdande/evaluation/evallogicmodel.html [Accessed 20/03/10] - United Way: Outcome measurement resource network i. Program outcome model http://www.liveunited.org/Outcomes/Resources/MPO/model.cfm [Accessed 20/03/10] ii. Measuring program outcomes: a practical approach, 1996 http://www.liveunited.org/Outcomes/Resources/MPO/ [Accessed 20/03/10]
DAPA programmes: Using logic models (truncated version)
Using logic diagrams to
aid critical reﬂection
Paul Ducker, DAPA Day, 23 March 2010
What is a logic model?
“If you don’t know where you’re going, how are you
gonna’ know when you get there?”
Yogi Berra, Former major league baseball player and manager
• a logic model is a picture of how you believe your
programme will work
• it lays out what the programme is expected to
achieve, based on an identiﬁed chain of events
• it helps create shared understanding
• it enables you to anticipate the data and
resources you will need to achieve success
What do they look like?
INPUTS ACTIVITIES OUTPUTS OUTCOMES IMPACT
How are they used?
“Most of the value in a logic model is in the process
of creating, validating and modifying the model....”
W.K.Kellogg Foundation Evaluation Handbook (1998)
• during design and planning to help develop and
communicate programme strategy
• during programme implementation and
management to focus energy
• throughout development and delivery to ensure
evaluation and strategic reporting are
embedded and encourage reﬂection and learning.
• A logic model only has to be logical and sequential
• It becomes more powerful when you say why you
expect the desired change to happen
• Adding the causal mechanism moves the model
from programme logic to programme theory
“A logic model brings program concepts and dreams to life”
W.K.Kellogg Foundation Logic Model Development Guide
“These models help build a common understanding between managers
and evaluation ... such agreement is a pre-requisite for evaluation work that
is likely to be useful to management. [These models] display the key events
(inputs, activities, outcomes) that could be monitored and the assumed
causal linkages that could be tested in evaluations of the program”
Joseph S. Wholey, Harry P. Haltry and K.E Newcomer quoted in W.K.Kellogg Foundation Logic Model Development Guide
“The idea that evaluation should include conceptualising and testing a
program’s theory of change emerged in the 1970s as part of a more general
concern about assessing a program’s readiness for evaluation........
evaluability assessment was the evaluator’s version of foreplay: getting the
program ready for the act itself - the act being evaluation”
Micheal Quinn Patton, Utilization-Focused Evaluation
Limits of logic (criticisms of logic models)
• Over simplifying complex problems
clear how model relates to wider environment)
(include assumptions, be
• Encourages narrow, linear thinking based on past
experience (start with need and desired outcomes, and then work back to activities)
• All very well but .... (start from the premise that evaluation is about helping focus
effort on the right things, not just be about reporting on progress to funders, otherwise it is not worth