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Introduction Bluetooth Wireless Technology (BWT) was developed in1994 at Ericsson in Sweden. It is named for Harald Blaatand. Bluetooth-Wireless and Automatic technology simplifyingart of communication. Frequency used is 2.45 GHz, same used in ISM devices. Purpose – Originally it was build to eliminate the need forcable connections between PDAs and notebook PCs.Later the goals were to enable different devices througha commonly accepted standard for wireless connectivity. Ericsson on advent of BWT conceptualized a RadioTechnology through a wireless personal area network(WPAN).
Bluetooth Specification Bluetooth-Wireless technology providinglink between mobile and electronicdevices. It operates on 2.45 GHz radio signalsusing frequency hopping spread spectrum. Technology of Bluetooth concentrates onshort range of communication.
Bluetooth Specification•Standard: IEEE 802.15•ISM Band Frequency: 2.4 GHz•Range: 10 – 100 meters•Channel Bandwidth: 1 Mbps•Maximum Asymmetric Data TransferRate: 721 Kbps
Types of Bluetooth WirelessTechnologyDepending on the power consumptionand range of the device, there are 3Bluetooth Classes as:•Class 1: Max Power – 100mW ;Range – 100 m•Class 2: Max Power – 2.5mW ;Range – 10 m•Class 3: Max Power – 1mW ;Range – 1 m
Why the name Bluetooth?The name was adopted as a tribute tothe tenth-century vikingking HaraldBlatand who peacefully unitedDenmark and Norway.Harald liked to eat blueberries,which gave his teeth the colorationthat lead to the nickname"Bluetooth."
How to reduce interference?•BWT devices hop randomly betweenfrequencies up to 1600 times persecond.•So,if another device using a 2.4 GHzfrequency (e.g.:cordless phone) ,then the interference with the BWTnetwork lasts only for about 1/1600of a second.•By then, the devices hop to anotherfrequency.
Bluetooth Basics Bluetooth is low powered and low cost. All the devices follow a uniform structure Devices Connect through network calledPico nets. Strength lies in handling data and videotransmission simultaneously.
Bluetooth Basics Specification- Bluetooth specification givesdevelopers data link and application layerdefinitions Spectrum-Bluetooth operates between 2.4and 2.485 GHz using a frequency hoppingspread spectrum. Interference- is reduced using AdaptiveFrequency Hopping allowing a betterefficiency and greater performance.
Bluetooth Topology2 main topologies are as:i.PICONET TOPOLOGY,&ii.SCATTERNET TOPOLOGY
i.Piconet Topology•A piconet consists of upto 8 BWT-enabled devices.•When piconet is established, onedevice sets up frequency-hoppingpattern and other devicessynchronize their signals to the samepattern.•Each piconet has a differentfrequency-hopping pattern.
ii.Scatternet Topology•Scatternet consists of several piconetsconnected by devices participating inmultiple piconet.• There is a ‘BRIDGE’ connecting 2piconets which is also a slave inindividual piconets.Advantages of Scatternet :•Higher throughput•Multi-hop connections between devicesindifferent piconets
Network Topologies?Bus Network17Tree NetworkStar NetworkRing NetworkAd Hoc NetworkThere are SO many technical questions: such as…
Future Of Bluetooth•BROADCAST CHANNELS:Adoption ofBluetooth into mobile phones andenable advertising models based onusers pulling information from theinformation points.•TOPOLOGY MANAGEMENT:Automaticconfiguration of piconet topologies inscatternet situations.
Bluetooth Software Bluetooth software can be installed andused on Bluetooth capable devices. There exists different software for differentdevices like PDA , personal computer. Enables the device to use technology at itsfullest. Best example is Bluesoleil.
Bluetooth software Bluesoleil can be installed onpersonal computer or on personal digital assistant also On a PC, it provides a lot ofExtra wireless features. It also has a graphical userinterface (GUI). On a PDA, provides basicBluetooth profiles such asheadset and hands free profile,personal networking (PAN)profile
How Bluetooth works? They normally operate at 2.45GHZ in licensefree globally available ISM radio band. Advantage-worldwide availability andcompatibility. Disadvantage- devices must share the bandwith other RF emitters including automobilesecurity systems, noise sources such asMicrowaves Solution- Frequency Hopping SpreadSpectrum.
Frequency Hopping SpreadSpectrum (FHSS) Frequency hopping is jumping from onefrequency to another within the ISM radioband. Efficient use of entire bandwidth. Low Interference Provides basic level of security.
Working of FHSS There exists a master-slave relation betweendevices. A device in master mode can communicate withupto seven slave devices. Bluetooth devices work in a short range toconserve the battery power.
Technical operations High speed, low powered wireless technology. Circuits are Contained on a 0.9 cm square. This offers 1MB link with security. Each device offers unique 48 bit address fromIEEE 802.15 standard. Authentification is via a 128 bit key. Supports up to 721KBps along with 3 voicechannels.
Bluetooth Keyboard Bluetooth keyboard is one of major applications ofBluetooth technology. It was first developed by Microsoft in 2002. Today most of companies offer this type ofkeyboard, some of which companies include Dell,Apple.. A Bluetooth keyboard and mouse combination willallow the user to work at distances of up to 30 feet. There are mainly two types in this-wirelesskeyboard and virtual keyboard.
Wireless and Virtual keyboard Wireless keyboard, calledOptical Desktop Elite offeredby Microsoft work with 2.4 GHzBluetooth technology. Apple wireless keyboard is asleek and compact design andmakes a secure, reliableconnection with Mac. Foldable types are anothertype of Bluetooth keyboards. It ranges in full size keyboardto mini keyboard.
Virtual keyboard Virtual keyboard is projectedon a flat, non reflective surfaceand keystrokes areaccompanied by key clickingsounds that are simulated. The keyboard has 63 keys andit measures only 295*95 mmwith a height of 3.5 inches. Keyboard works by producinga red diode laser light whenkeyboard is projected onsurface.
Bluetooth Security Supports Unidirectional or Mutual Encryption basedon a Secret Link key Shared Between Two Devices Security Defined In 3 modes:• Mode1- No Security• Mode 2 - Service Level Security: Not EstablishedBefore Channel is Established at L2CAP• Mode 3 - Link Level Security: Device InitiatesSecurity Before LMP Link is Setup
Bluetooth Security 3 Levels of Service Access• Require Authorization and Authenication• Require Authentication Only• Default Security for Legacy Applications32
Bluetooth Based SensorNetworks•One such application is : WIRELESSSENSOR NETWORKS (WSN)•Important features ofWSN:Collaboration of network nodesduring execution and Data Centricnature.•Many smart sensor nodes scatteredin the field collect data and send it tousers via ‘gateway’ using multi-hoproutes.
Wireless Sensor Networks(WSN)WSN consists of number of smalldevices equipped with asensing unit,microprocessors, wirelesscommunication interfaceand powersource.
Sensor Network Implementation•OBJECTIVE: To build a Hardwareplatform and generic SoftwareSolutions to serve for research inWSN protocols.•Components of Sensor Network:Smart Sensor Nodes and Gateway
Example: Pressure SensorFor implementation of Pressure Sensoras Bluetooth Node, followingcomponents are important:•Bluetooth Device•Sensors•Microcontroller
Blutooth Hardware ArchitectureBluetooth Hardware consists of 3 mainfunctional modules:•2.4 GHz Bluetooth RF TransceiverUnit•Link Management Unit•Host Controller Interface
Industrial CyberSecurity The Case of Vitek Boden
On October 31, 2001 Vitek Boden was convicted of:• 26 counts of will fully using a restricted computer tocause damage• 1 count of causing serious environment harm The facts of the case:• Vitek worked for the contractor involved in theinstallation of Maroochy Shire sewage treatmentplant.• Vitek left the contractor in December 1999 andapproached the shire for employment. He wasrefused.• Between Jan 2000 and Apr 2000 the sewagesystem experienced 47 unexplainable faults,causing millions of liters of sewage to be spilled.
How did he do it? On April 23, 2000 Vitek was arrested with stolenradio equipment, controller programmingsoftware on a laptop and a fully operationalcontroller. Vitek is now in jail…DisgruntledContractorPLC PLCSewage PlantRogue Radio
Algorithms For Operation OfNetworks•Initialization of gateway andBluetooth Inquiry Procedure.•Discovery of Bluetooth device andChecking of major and minor devices.•Setting of parameters and assigningtype of devices and sensors.•Description by Service-Class Field.•Discarding of non-smart nodes.
•Else, service database of thediscovered smart node is searchedfor sensor services.•If no current sensor profile, thendatabase is searched for serial portconnection parameters.•Lastly, Bluetooth link is establishedand data exchange with smart nodestarts.
Sensor Market: $11B in 2001Installation (wiring) costs:>$100B43Freedonia Group report on Sensors, April 2002• Fragmented market platformopportunity• Installation cost limitspenetration reducinginstallation costincreases market sizeSlide courtesy of Rob Conant, DustHighly FragmentedSensor Market
Firewall Architectures44 The external router blocks attempts to use theunderlying IP layer to break security (e.g. IP spoofing,source routing, packet fragments, etc) and forces alltraffic to the proxy. The proxy firewall handles potential security holes in thehigher layer protocols. The internal router blocks all traffic except to the proxyserver.InternalRouterInternetExternalRouter
Statistics on Types of Attacks0 20 40 60 80 100 120Theft of Propriety InfoSabotageTelecom EvesdroppingSystem PenetrationInsider Abuse of Net AccessFinacial FraudVirusUnauthorized Insider AccessTelecom FraudActive WiretapLaptop TheftDenial of Service199719981999200020012002*Source: “2002 CSI/FBI Computer Crime and Security Survey” Computer SecurityInstitute - www.gocsi.com/losses.% of Respondents
There’s lot of “Wireless” From cellphones to PDAs to WiFito Satellite-based
Merits Wireless Inexpensive Automatic Interoperability Low interference and energy consumption. Share voice and data Instant PAN Upgradeable Long lasting technology. Easy link establishment
Demerits Data rate and security More susceptible to Interception andattack Less range Average Speed Short Life