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Android Automotive

  1. Android AutomotiveAndroid Automotive YouTube™ LivestreamYouTube™ Livestream September 4September 4thth 20192019
  2. CC-BY-SA 3.0 - Attribution requirements and misc., except 3rd party material, PLEASE READ: This slide must remain as-is in this specific location (slide #1), everything else you are free to change; including the logo :-) Use of figures in other documents must feature the below "Originals at" URL immediately under that figure and the below copyright notice where appropriate. You are FORBIDDEN from using the default "About" slide as-is or any of its contents. Several diagrams taken from 3rd party material: Attribution/citation made in every case Refer to each original for redistribution/citation Facts and data are not in principle copyrightable (ex: constants in header files), however if you don't feel comfortable with our use of your material then let us know and we'll remove it: Copyright (C) 2019, Opersys inc. These slides created by: Karim Yaghmour Originals at:
  3. AboutAbout Introduced Linux Trace Toolkit in 1999 Originated Adeos and relayfs (kernel/relay.c) Training, Custom Dev, Consulting, ...
  4. Why use Android in cars?Why use Android in cars? Users/industry expecting/standardizing on OS with: Touch (swipe, pinch-zoom, etc.) App/Developer ecosystem Connected Intelligent/Augmented/Bleeding-edge UX: Real-time updated data (ex.: navigation) Audio assistant etc. Android does that ... very well Android is open source etc.
  5. Challenges: Integration into existing car environment Security Upradability Power consumption Rear-view camera Storage wear-leveling Additional challenges: Android is "controlled" by Google Android is geared towards "disposable" devices
  6. About Android Automotive OverallAbout Android Automotive Overall "Final" approach/architecture probably TBD"Final" approach/architecture probably TBD Much work and publications not publicMuch work and publications not public Very much in fluxVery much in flux Key issues yet to be resolvedKey issues yet to be resolved General-purpose app dev still "alpha"General-purpose app dev still "alpha"
  7. TopicsTopics 1. Introduction 2. Architecture 3. Car System Service 4. Car app APIs 5. Car Apps 6. Car HIDL 7. Exterior View System 8. Vehicle Properties 9. Audio 10. Power Management 11. Wear leveling 12. Boot time optimizations 13. Additional topics
  8. IntroductionIntroduction "Auto" vs. "Automotive" -- old (?) naming scheme: "Auto" == projection app on your phone "Automotive" == full Android IVI/head-unit New nomenclature?: "embedded"/"native"/"powered by Android" We're focusing on "Automotive" AOSP extensions for Car functionality "Modular" addition to existing Android stack Internals documentation either out-of-date or incomplete App developer doc "overkill" for very tiny use-case systems-apple-carplay-interview
  9. No "reference" platform available to check against Emulator target available Best way to investigate "real" system for now See device/generic/car/ for implementation/build Significant changes from 8.x to 9.x 9.x first version officially supported for general app dev $ lunch ... 8. aosp_car_arm-userdebug 9. aosp_car_arm64-userdebug 10. aosp_car_x86-userdebug 11. aosp_car_x86_64-userdebug ... $ make -j32 $ emlator & $ adb root $ adb shell
  10. ArchitectureArchitecture
  11. Car System ServiceCar System Service packages/apps/Car/service Primarily a multiplexing service: Encompases all car-related services See packages/services/Car/service/src/com/android/car/ /** @hide */ interface ICar { /** * IBinder is ICarServiceHelper but passed as IBinder due to aidl hidden. * Only this method is oneway as it is called from system server. * This should be the 1st method. Do not change the order. */ oneway void setCarServiceHelper(in IBinder helper) = 0; IBinder getCarService(in String serviceName) = 1; int getCarConnectionType() = 2; }
  12. SystemActivityMonitoringService CarPowerManagementService CarPropertyService CarDrivingStateService CarUXRestrictionsService CarPackageManagerService CarInputService GarageModeService AppFocusService CarAudioService CarNightService InstrumentClusterService CarProjectionService SystemStateControllerService CarBluetoothService CarDiagnosticService PerUserCarServiceHelper CarStorageMonitoringService CarConfigurationService VmsSubscriberService VmsPublisherService
  13. Only a handful of these are publicly-available Like other system services: AIDL for each service HALs/HIDLs used when needed needed Communication w/ other system services as needed Packaged as a presistent app Started as a "service" when a first app attempts to connect with the Car Manager
  14. Car app APIsCar app APIs 2 types of APIs: General app dev for Google Play publication "Internal" app dev with AOSP APIs Regarding Google Play apps: Supported app categories for "Automotive" ( ): Media apps: ... and nothing else ... "Google Play services for Android Automotive OS is still in alpha stage."
  15. AOSP APIs are far more relevant and interesting AOSP APIs have no tutorials Official doc here: More interestingly, APIs found in AOSP itself: packages/services/Car/car-support-lib packages/services/Car/car-lib Those are the APIs used by the internal AOSP Car apps Similar in purpose as frameworks/base/core
  16. Car AppsCar Apps AOSP ships with default/sample Car apps Great starting point to see how to design your own As of 9.x: Dialer Hvac LatinIME Launcher LensPicker LocalMediaPlayer Media Messenger Radio Settings SystemUpdater They use combination of Android and Car APIs Ultimately rely on system services to operate
  17. Car HIDLCar HIDL hardware/interfaces/automotive: audiocontrol evs vehicle Default implementations for each
  18. Exterior View SystemExterior View System For imagery capture and display very early on boot Tailored for 2 second rear-view requirement Should NOT depend on SurfaceFlinger Requires low-level integration with drivers
  19. The main operations are in the app Take frame from camera and sends it to display Sample/reference EVS application: packages/services/Car/evs/app Aimed at being started as soon as camera/display "ready" Should be tailored/rewritten as needed Manager: packages/services/Car/evs/manager Facilitates shared access to camera 1 stream, multiple consumers No difference for apps between using Manager vs. HAL implementation
  20. HIDL: hardware/interfaces/automotive/evs/1.0/ Recommended to augment existing kernel drivers for EVS Again, do NOT rely on SurfaceFlinger
  21. Vehicle PropertiesVehicle Properties get/set/sub interface for all vehicle properties List and type of each property provided in HIDL def by Google See hardware/interfaces/automotive/vehicle/2.0
  22. AudioAudio Android responsible for infotainment sounds: media navigation communication Android NOT responsible for mission-critical chimes/warnings It's assumed there's a hardware mixer beneath Android that mixes Android audio and mission- critical audio.
  23. Power ManagementPower Management Android runs on the SoC SoC assumed to be controlled/tethered to Vehicle Master Control Unit (VMCU) Android Automotive knows about "deep sleep" (i.e. suspend to RAM) Android does NOT do hibernation Parts: CarPowerManager (the public API) CarPowerManagerService (the actual service)
  24. Wear levelingWear leveling Average data written to phone/day: 10GB "... we expect Android Automotive implementations to have more eMMC writes than a phone." For an 16GB eMMC w/ 3k erase/write cycles -- lifetime versus daily writes: 16GB/day: 10 years 32GB/day: 5 years Suggested to use "adoptable" SD card See "dumpsys car_service" for wear logs This is the biggest issue facing Android Automotive, IMHO
  25. Boot time optimizationsBoot time optimizations Minimizing Linux kernel boot times has been heavily studied Many conference presentations on documents on how to do this Little to no effort from Google to minimize Android boot times A few scattered conference presentations on the topic: Suspend to flash Use of suspendable containers In short, if it's time-critical, avoid Android at all cost At some point in the future, Android will need to address suspend to flash
  26. Additional topicsAdditional topics AOSP build considerations Use of containers/hypervisors
  27. Thank You!Thank You!