O slideshow foi denunciado.
Utilizamos seu perfil e dados de atividades no LinkedIn para personalizar e exibir anúncios mais relevantes. Altere suas preferências de anúncios quando desejar.

Architecture After the Industrial Revolution

From the Chrystal Palace in London and the Eiffel Tower in Paris to the sky scrapers of New York and Frank Lloyd Wright's Falling Water, we'll explore some foundational movements in architecture in the last 150 years.

  • Entre para ver os comentários

Architecture After the Industrial Revolution

  1. 1. Architecture <ul><li>The Crystal Palace (1851, London) </li></ul><ul><li>1,850’ long, 110’ tall </li></ul><ul><li>Iron and glass building constructed for the Great Exhibition of 1851 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First in a series of “World’s Fair” exhibitions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Celebration of modern technology and design </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Designed by Joseph Paxton </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gardener who had experimented with glass and iron greenhouses </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. Architecture <ul><li>Contained multiple gardens and fountains, main fountains 250’ high </li></ul><ul><li>After the Exhibition, Palace was relocated to another location in London </li></ul><ul><li>Functioned as a tourist attraction, destroyed by fire in 1936 </li></ul>
  3. 7. Architecture <ul><li>The Eiffel Tower (1887-89, Paris) </li></ul><ul><li>1,063’ high (81 floors) </li></ul><ul><li>Designed by Gustave Eiffel, designed bridges </li></ul><ul><li>Iron tower constructed as entrance for Paris’ World’s Fair </li></ul><ul><li>300 workers, one death during construction </li></ul><ul><li>Tower was criticized as an eyesore </li></ul><ul><li>Shape of the tower designed to withstand the force of wind </li></ul>
  4. 12. Architecture <ul><li>The Wainwright Building (1890-91, St. Louis) </li></ul><ul><li>One of the first skyscrapers (11 floors) </li></ul><ul><li>Red brick with steel frame- steel allowed taller buildings </li></ul><ul><li>Designed by Louis Sullivan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rejected traditional architecture- new materials require new designs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Form follows function”- The design of a building should reflect its purpose </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vertical lines emphasizes the height of the building, plant designs symbolize growth </li></ul>
  5. 16. Architecture <ul><li>The Chrysler Building (1928-30, New York) </li></ul><ul><li>1,047’, 77 floors </li></ul><ul><li>Originally built for the Chrysler Corporation </li></ul><ul><li>Tallest building in the world until Empire State Building was finished </li></ul><ul><li>New York builders involved in competition to build tallest building </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spire was secretly constructed inside building and then placed on top </li></ul></ul>
  6. 17. Architecture <ul><li>Decorated in Art Deco style- geometric shapes </li></ul><ul><li>Top of building- sunburst design in stainless steel </li></ul><ul><li>Decorated with Chrylser automobile features </li></ul>
  7. 26. Architecture <ul><li>The Empire State Building (1929-31, New York) </li></ul><ul><li>1,472’, 102 floors </li></ul><ul><li>Name derived from New York’s nickname </li></ul><ul><li>Art Deco style </li></ul><ul><li>World’s tallest building until 1972 </li></ul><ul><li>Financed by General Motors </li></ul><ul><li>Opening coincided with the Depression, resulted in lots of vacant office space- “The Empty State Building” </li></ul>
  8. 27. Architecture <ul><li>Building design involves a series of setbacks </li></ul><ul><li>Spire designed to be mooring mast for blimps, proved to be impractical </li></ul><ul><li>B-25 bomber collided with building in 1945 </li></ul><ul><li>Colored floodlights coincide with seasons and events </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple T.V. and radio stations broadcast from building </li></ul>
  9. 35. Architecture <ul><li>Fallingwater (1934-37, Pennsylvania) </li></ul><ul><li>Vacation home </li></ul><ul><li>Designed by Frank Lloyd Wright </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophy of integrating the building with its environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Built over a waterfall- can be heard throughout house </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses local materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constructed around boulders and trees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Horizontal terraces resemble rock formations </li></ul></ul>
  10. 36. Architecture <ul><li>Broad expanses of windows and multiple balconies </li></ul><ul><li>Extensive structural repairs in 2002 </li></ul><ul><li>Humidity causes mold problems- “Rising Mildew” </li></ul><ul><li>Has been a public museum since 1964 </li></ul>
  11. 42. Architecture <ul><li>The Guggenheim Museum (1957-59, New York) </li></ul><ul><li>Art museum focused on Modern (20th century) art </li></ul><ul><li>Designed by Frank Lloyd Wright (last work) </li></ul><ul><li>Organic design (lots of curves), different from surrounding buildings </li></ul><ul><li>Initially criticized by architects and artists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Design of building overshadows artwork </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hard to display artwork- spiral walkway </li></ul></ul>
  12. 43. Architecture <ul><li>Controversial addition- rectangular tower, 1992 </li></ul><ul><li>Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation- non-profit corporation that funds art museums </li></ul>
  13. 48. Architecture <ul><li>The Bauhaus Shop Block (1925-26, Dessau, Germany) </li></ul><ul><li>Walter Gropius </li></ul><ul><li>Art school-architecture, crafts, fine art </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unify art, craft and technology </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Closed by Nazi’s in 1933- “un-German” </li></ul>
  14. 49. Architecture <ul><li>International Style- 1920s, 30s </li></ul><ul><li>Foundation of modern architecture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Radical simplification of forms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rejection of ornamentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adoption of modern materials (glass, steel, concrete) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transparency of buildings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Window- change from hole IN the wall to THE wall </li></ul><ul><li>Style was independent of location- buildings look similar all over the world </li></ul>
  15. 53. Architecture <ul><li>Villa Savoye (1929-30, near Paris) </li></ul><ul><li>International Style </li></ul><ul><li>Vacation home </li></ul><ul><li>Designed by Le Corbusier (pseudonym) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Helped create International Style </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dedicated to better living conditions in crowded cities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Urban planner (designed cities) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Designed concrete buildings </li></ul></ul>
  16. 54. Architecture <ul><li>“ The Five Points”- philosophy of designing buildings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supporting columns to raise building from the ground </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flat roof with a terrace </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Free floor plan- no load bearing walls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Horizontal windows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exterior- thin walls and windows- no load bearing walls </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Villa Savoye- windows integrate interior/exterior </li></ul>
  17. 61. Architecture <ul><li>Unite d’Habitation (1947-52, Marseille, France) </li></ul><ul><li>Apartment complex </li></ul><ul><li>337 apartments, 12 floors </li></ul><ul><li>Designed by Le Corbusier </li></ul><ul><li>Building includes shops, sports, medical, and educational facilities, and a hotel </li></ul><ul><li>Made of concrete, inspired the Brutalism style </li></ul><ul><li>Brutalism- Geometric forms, roughly textured cement </li></ul><ul><li>Similar complexes built in other cities </li></ul>
  18. 68. Architecture <ul><li>Notre Dame du Haut (1950-54, Ronchamp, France) </li></ul><ul><li>Catholic pilgrimage chapel </li></ul><ul><li>Designed by Le Corbusier </li></ul><ul><li>Does not follow “The Five Points,” form inspired by hilltop location, organic forms </li></ul><ul><li>Made of textured concrete </li></ul><ul><li>Thick walls (7’ in places) with colored glass set deeply into them </li></ul><ul><li>Interior and exterior pulpits </li></ul>
  19. 75. Architecture <ul><li>The Seagram Building (1954-58, New York) </li></ul><ul><li>Skyscraper, 38 floors </li></ul><ul><li>Designed by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe and Philip Johnson </li></ul><ul><li>International Style </li></ul><ul><li>External bronze I-beams reflect internal steel structure </li></ul><ul><li>World’s most expensive skyscraper </li></ul><ul><li>Window blinds designed to be regular- had three positions </li></ul>
  20. 76. Architecture <ul><li>Large plaza in front of building- became popular gathering place </li></ul><ul><li>New York building code added incentives for developers to include open spaces </li></ul>