Discover 1000 Years of Missing History; the Muslim Heritage in Our World
1. The Rich Contribution of
Muslims to the History of
Discover 1000 Years of Missing History;
The Muslim Heritage in our World
3. Ever bothered to learn about the true origins of code
breaking, three Meals Course, treatment through music,
cappuccino, GPS, archs- torpedoes, trick devices, games,
spas, perfumes, photography, fashion and style, carpets,
Philosophy and many more of our modern life essentials and
From home remedies to astronomical discoveries and
physical/ chemical observations, this presentation seeks to
familiarize your good self with the true foundations of human
civilizations, laid and by Muslim grand grand fathers, and
mistakenly credited to the age of the Renaissance, so as to
feel proud and set firm your sense of identity as a Muslim.
4. Andalusia was the pathway that connected, or rather the gateway that brought
the light of of Islamic Civilization to Europe, inspiring prosperity at the hands of
Muslim scholars, entrepreneurs and advocates to many scientific, intellectual,
social, and economic fields. The Andalusian civilization lived for approximately
eight centuries, specifically during the period 92 - 897 A.H - 711-1492 A.D).
When the Islamic civilization first met with the Christian West during the medieval
times, Europe was living through its darkest ages.
It was the rich Islamic civilization, stretching from Spain to China, from the 7th
century and onwards, that brought much enlightenment to the human race.
Muslims brought forth great prosperity through their inventions that left their
mark on our world and still do.
5. When Muslims settled in Spain, they went on availing the tools for
the commencement and success of their civilization, they devotedly
invested much time and effort to acquiring knowledge. Developing
new theories and advancements that took existing development in
sciences, philosophy, architecture, literature and arts to new levels
and opened absolute new horizons for new inventions..
They sent light far and wide, penetrating through geographical
boundaries and nothing could stop the spread of their positive
impact until the Italian renaissance in the 15th. century. It was
during that time that Translation from Arabic into Andalusia
6. “No sooner had the Arabs completed the conquest of Spain
than they started to carry out the message of civilization there. In
less than a century, they managed to give life to dead lands,
reconstruct ruined cities, set up magnificent buildings, and
strengthen close trade relations with other nations. They then
started to dedicate themselves to studying sciences and arts and
to translate Greek and Latin books and set up universities which
continued to be a place for culture in Europe for a long time.”
-- Gustav Le Bon
9. In the coming slides, supported by
manuscripts and documentation, I
shall try to list only a few of
hundreds and perhaps thousands
of great achievements Muslims
advanced during the peak of the
Islamic Civilization, to heed their
experience and attempt to revive
the faded glory of our heritage.
AbuNarMohamedibnMohamedAl-Farabiisaṣ true talent
Of a philosopher and the master of Philosophy, the 'Second Master' (after
He was a philosopher, logician and musician, and a renowned political thinker. So
little is known about Al-Farabi’s personal life but his philosophical heritage is quite
rich. In the arena of metaphysics he’s nicknamed the 'Father of Islamic Neoplatonism’.
Analyzing his corpus, you’d find it fed on Aristotelianism, however it is this
Neoplatonic dimension that dominates much of his works.
20. Al-Farabi- (Continued)
Among his most reputed works is al-Madina al-fadila (The Virtuous City).
Without a doubt his book demonstrates evident Platonic elements, however its
theology adds to it far more elements than being a pure Platonic view of life.
Al-Farabi’s impact was rich and far outreaching, influencing major Islamic
philosophers such as Ibn Sina and Yahya ibn 'Adi, al-Sijistani, al-'Amiri and al-
Tawhidi, as well as Christian thinkers such as Thomas Aquinas.
25. The House of wisdom
The House of Wisdom was a school, a full-fledged learning center, a
translation institute, a library and a research center established in in Iraq
during the Abbasid-era.
It was first founded by and during the reign of Caliph Harun al-Rashid
and reached an advanced form of its intended role during the reign of his
son Caliph al-Ma'mun,
Based in Baghdad from the 9th to 13th centuries, Bait al Hikma, gave
Birth to a huge number of reputable Muslim scholars. It was ran by skilled
and devoted clerics who perfectly managed it as a research and
The House of Wisdom was an unparalleled learning center teaching
mathematics, astronomy, medicine, chemistry, zoology and geography,
30. Fatimah al-fihri
Born to a wealthy family from Kairouan in Tunisia, Fatima and her parents were
among many families who migrated to Morocco during the rule of King Idriss II.
Her husband, parents and brothers died, leaving behind a great wealth.
Fatimah and her sister Mariam inherited such wealth and decided to join
forces and devote their time, effort and wealth for serving their community,
working on the betterment of its conditions, and hence attain the satisfaction
of Allah Almighty.
Towards this end, Fatimah gave orders for the construction of Al
Qarawiyyin mosque, which later developed into the massive and indeed
the first academy. Mariam, on the other hand, decided to deliver part of
her legacy by building the grand Al Andalous Mosque.
31. Fatimah al-fihri- (contued)
As for Al Qarawiyyin Mosque and Madrasa, it established itself as a
key spiritual and educational academy that played a major role in
spreading the light of knowledge and set the milestone for cultural
exchange between the glorious Islamic Civilization and Europe. It
moreover had a unique social role of aiding the community and providing
support to the families in a variety of ways that reflected in the rapid
development of the city during that time. The renowned academy gave
birth to some of the most notable scholars, academics, writers, historians,
mathematicians, and Chemists, and scientists credited for laying the
foundation of many fields of development, which later sprouted to many
astounding inventions we benefit from till date.
35. Al- Zahrawi
Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas Al-Zahrawi, also known as
Albucasis, was an Arab Muslim physician who lived in Al-Andalus and
was valued as the greatest medieval surgeon on the Islamic World.
Among his notable works is Kitab al-Tasrif, a thirty-chapter medical
treatise that tackled a great number of medical issues, including dentistry
and childbirth. He is also credited for highlighting the importance of a
positive doctor-patient relationship and spoke highly of his students,
whom he once described as "my children”.
Al-Zahrawi is referred to as the father of modern surgery.
38. Al- Kindi
The musical advancement our modern age currently
enjoys owes much credit to the 9th century Muslims
who set the milestone for the cultivation and
advancement of music, using musical notation,
composing musical pieces, and designing musical
instruments, among other contributions. Their
influence in music and its arts remained strong and
advancing through the last millennium, and denying
them credit is ungrateful. Eleven hundred years ago,
developed a detailed fretting for the lute and
suggested a cosmological connotations of music. He
built upon and further developed advancement
scored by old Greek Musicians.
Al Kindi was one of the
early Music Scholars to
discover the therapeutic
impact of music, in trying
to cure a sick boy whose
father sent to Al Kindi to
help regain his health.
39. And as the musical band played the boy stood
up and regained some of his fading vividness,
but when the music stopped he dwelled into
previous sickness. Asking al Kindi to keep the
music playing, Al Kindi refused, noting that the
boy’s time is up and that his health, as destined
by Allah, has reached its limits, stressing that no
one can make longer a person’s life. Centuries
later, and in our modern times, music has become
a recognized type of alternative medicine used
to cure physical, mental and psychological
40. known as "the Philosopher of the Arabs", Al-Kindi
was also a renowned Muslim philosopher,
mathematician, physician, the first of the Muslim
peripatetic philosophers, hailed as the
"father of Islamic philosophy.
His greatest achievement started from the great House of
Wisdom in Baghdad, making the Greek thought and
philosophy accessible to Muslims, translating many
important texts and books. Al-Kindi’s efforts and work
made the contribution of great figures such as Al-Farabi,
Avicenna, and al-Ghazali possible.
41. Al Farabi
I don’t think I’ve given Al- Farabi his due
credit, or have I?
West as Alpharabius, to develop the famous
musical instrument known in the East as the
Rababah, an ancestor of the violin family,
authoring a number of books on the science of
music, the influence of which continued for
centuries that followed.
42. Al Farabi was also an acclaimed scientist,
philosopher, logician, cosmoligist of the Islamic
Golden Age. Many historical manuscripts
and books document his prized commentaries
and treatises, through which he became well
known among medieval Muslim intellectuals as
"The Second Teacher”; the successor to
Aristotle, "The First Teacher".
Nicknamed the Blackbird, given his beautiful voice and dark
complexion, Ziryab was a student of a famous Baghdad-based
musician. His fame and skills reached the Umayyad Caliph who
sent inviting him to come to Andalusia. Ziryab settled in Cordoba
around 820 CE, which was an era that enjoyed great advancement
in arts and cultural life in Cordoba, under the rule of Abdul Rahman
II, son of the Umayyad Caliph.
46. Ziryab- (continued)
Ziryab became the court entertainer and further developed his fine
skills and revolutionaries music. He used to receive a monthly salary
of about 200 golden dinars, which was a fortune at the time.
He established the first conservatory in the world, teaching musical
composition. He introduced the use of the lute to Europe and
added to it a fifth bass string. He set free metrical and rhythmical
parameters and composed songs, refurbishing the whole
entertainment life in Cordoba.
50. Al-Jazari’s Musical Machine
Al-Jazari created a musical automaton taking the form of
a boat, carrying four automatic musicians and floating on a
lake, part of a show to entertain guests at royal parties.
53. Zheng He
Zheng He was a Chinese Muslim mariner, explorer, diplomat and
fleet admiral. He led voyages to Southeast Asia, the Middle East,
He led 7 epic voyages of enormous fleets of wooden ships, the
largest ever built- this was during in the 15th century.
56. King Offa’s Coin
The coin of Kind Offa, of Mercia, stands as a remarkable evidence
of the influence Muslims had on human civilizations. Holding the
coin, you can see its explicit imitation of the gold dinar of the caliph
al-Mansur, of the Abbasid dynasty, even though the Arabic
inscription may not seem to have been perfectly copied. The
original copy bywhich it was inspired was inspired was made in the
Islamic year AH 157 (AD 773-74).
61. Muslims were the first to invent
The history of coffee goes back to the story of Kaldi, the 9th-century Ethiopian Muslim
goat herder who discovered coffee while trying to gather his goats, and found them to
have eaten from the coffee leaves and became more active.
The use of Coffee as a drink Europe was greatly influenced by traditional Muslim
preparation of the drink. It involved boiling a mixture of coffee powder, sugar and
water. The Cappuccino was specifically inspired by a certain Marco d’Aviano, a
priest from the Capuchin monastic order, who was fighting against the Turks at the
Battle of Vienna in 1683. Adter the victory of the Europeans, the Viennese made
coffee from the abandoned sacks of Turkish coffee. But to contain its very strong
taste, they mixed it with cream and honey, which made its color a little bit brownish,
resembling the color of the modern day cappuccino.
64. The three- course meal
Fine dining and the modern three- course meal was
nothing but another achievement by Ziryab which he
spread after settling in Andalus, sending his invention all
through Europe, at a time when eating habits there were
a complete mess.
It was Ziryab who said that meals should start with soup,
then a main course of fish or meat, and end with fruits.
68. It was also Ziryab
When he arrived in Andalusia, Ziryab’s influence proved many-fold.
Besides being a talented musician and a man of a good taste for
fine dining, he was also a trend-setter and stylist who also taught
Through the 9th Century, Baghdad was the Paris and Italy of its
age. Ziryab brought along toothpaste, deodorant, haircut styles.
He was a man of fine taste and elegance. It was because of Ziryab
that fine and luxurious dresses were brought to Spain. He started
the fashion industry in Andalusia.
71. Al- Astrulabi
Ali ibn Isa al- Asturlabi was a 9th century Muslim astronomer and
geographer who wrote a treatise on the astrolabe. During the reign
measure the circumference of the Earth.
Al-Astrulabi is said to have managed to actually measure the
circumference of the Earth.
Miswake has myriads of proven health and cleanness
merits, ranging from eliminating bad breath to keeping
teeth strong and healthy.
Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, is reported to
have scrubbed his teeth with Miswak before every prayer.
83. Spas and public baths
Checking public bathrooms during the 10th century Muslim world, one
could find hygiene elements that compete with today’s modern products
wrapped in colorful packages and carrying scary brand names.
Muslims, ordered to wash, tactfully, before each prayer, hadpersonal
cleanness part of everyday life. Not just that, they used soap, mixed it
with water as a cleaning liquid easy to use. 13th century manuscripts can
describe many recipes for soap-making, some based on sesame oil, among
86. Sake Dean Mohamed
He was one of the famous early Indian immigrants to the
UK, where he established what was known as Mohamed
Indian Vapour, Baths on Brighton seafront, today’s
He was appointed as the shampooing Surgeon of both
George IV and William IV.
90. Sinan Architecture
Sinan was an architect and civil engineer during the
Ottoman rule. He worked for sultans Suleiman the
Magnificent, Selim II, and Murad III. He led the
construction of over 300 major projects, among other
smaller ones, including his Islamic primary schools (sibyan
mektebs). Later, his student designed the Sultan Ahmed
Mosque in Istanbul and helped design the Taj Mahal in
the Mughal Empire.
At the time Hampton Court had to daily change rushes, underneath of which
dirty floors would contain vomiting, leakage of dogs and scraps of fish, Muslims
were keen on having clean an colorful carpets, that inspire in them a feeling of
Paradise and had always been associated with it. Muslims invented creative
weaving techniques that made beautiful carpets.
In the 11th century, Ibn Badis, a Tunisian Muslim scientist, produced great work
on ink and coloring of dyes that were used for carpets.
98. How does it work?
Al-Jazari’s piece of art comprised of a weight powered
water clock in the form of a fake elephant figure, besides a
number of other elements placed on top of the elephant,
designed to move and make a sound each half an hour.
99. Al Jazari’s Clock isn’t just prized for being a mechanical
breakthrough, but it’s also an early sign of
multiculturalism. The elephant represents the Indian and
African cultures, whereas the dragon stands as a symbol
representing Chinese and the Asian culture. As for the
phoenix, it represents the ancient Civilization of
Egyptians, the water work represents the ancient Greek
culture, and the turban, normally used by Muslim scholars
and Shaikhs, represents the Islamic culture.
105. Camera Obscura
Simply put, Camera Obscura is an optical device that
projects a specific surrounding image on a screen. It is
used for a variety of entertainment purposes and surely
marked the beginning of our modern day photography
and the contemporary device of the camera taking
different forms and of varying levels of advancement and
Culture of Excellence
Our Muslim brothers and sisters upon the shoulders of
whom the great civilization of Andalusia was built, were
sincere in every single act they did. They sought after
prominence and worked hard to earn it. Similarly they
held fast to their faith and that’s why they earned the
support and aid of Almighty Allah.
108. Our Muslim brothers and sisters upon the
shoulders of whom the great civilization of
Andalusia was built, were sincere in every single
act they did. They sought after prominence and
worked hard to earn it. Similarly they held fast to
their faith and that’s why they earned the support
and aid of Almighty Allah.
109. They preserved their identity and thus never got
lost in the shades of other cultures they were
exposed to. They built and provided their input, in
almost all fields of life, and thus stood up as
pioneers rather than followers. They exported
their experience and inventions, and this is how
they became sought after, as a leading civilization
that greatly impacted humanity, and still does.