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Psychologist and Learning Theorist-David Ausubel

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  1. 1. David Ausubel A Perspective By Sean Hagon N515
  2. 2. Bio-So Who Was He? <ul><li>David P. Ausubel Born in 1918 and resided in Brooklyn, N.Y. </li></ul><ul><li>Attended University of Penn as a pre-med student and majoring in psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Graduated from medical school at Middlesex University </li></ul><ul><li>Received his Ph D in Developmental Psychology from Columbia University </li></ul>
  3. 3. Professional Life <ul><li>Served in the military with the US Public Health Service </li></ul><ul><li>He taught as a professor of psychology at various colleges including: University of Illinois, University of Toronto, and in the European universities at Berne, the Salesian University at Rome, and the Officer's Training College at Munich. </li></ul><ul><li>Retired in 1973 from academic life to devote himself full time to his psychiatric practice </li></ul><ul><li>He retired from professional life in 1994 while still devoting his time to writing books. </li></ul><ul><li>He died in July of 2008 at the age of 89 </li></ul>
  4. 4. Achievements <ul><li>He wrote a series of books on developmental and educational psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Theory and Problems of Adolescent Development and In Defense of Advanced Organizers </li></ul><ul><li>Education Psychology and specialized topics such as drug addiction, psychopathology, and ego development </li></ul><ul><li>Over 150 articles in psychological and psychiatric journals. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Ausubel’s Major Contributions That Apply To Multimedia <ul><li>Conceived a major instructional mechanism he called “Advanced Organizers ” </li></ul><ul><li>Simply put-This method provided a means for students to organize the ideas to be presented by stating in advance what the lesson will focus on and how it will be structured. </li></ul><ul><li>Lessons begin by linking new knowledge to what was already known through examples, analogies and metaphors. </li></ul><ul><li>Use periodic review questions and then a final summary. All would apply to an online learning e-course. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>As a result, Ausubel's theory, like Gagne's, suggests how teachers or instructional designers can best arrange the conditions that facilitate learning for students. </li></ul><ul><li>The main idea in Ausubel's theory is that knowledge is sequentially and hierarchically organized; that new information is meaningful to the extent that it can be related (attached, anchored) to what is already known. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Principles Related To Multimedia <ul><li>In applying these principles, Ausubel developed his theory of Reception Learning </li></ul><ul><li>This places the teachers and students in specific roles and follows a certain sequential path </li></ul><ul><li>Let’s take a closer look at how these roles would work… </li></ul>
  8. 8. For The Student <ul><li>Relate new ideas that have already been established or learned </li></ul><ul><li>Seek to understand the similarities and differences between new material and related concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Translate what is learned into an organized reference that reflects upon past experience or prior knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Reorganize this existing knowledge to formulate new ideas </li></ul>
  9. 9. For The Teacher <ul><li>Start the lessons with “advanced organizers” that include general principles or by using questions that will aid students in learning to systematically integrate the material. </li></ul><ul><li>Introduce the students to key concepts and briefly describe the learning objective. </li></ul><ul><li>Present new information in small, logically organized steps and in a sequence that is easy to follow. </li></ul><ul><li>Regularly receive responses to engage the learner and confirm that each step is thoroughly understood before moving on to the next one. </li></ul><ul><li>Finish the lesson with a review or summation of the main points. </li></ul><ul><li>Follow up the lesson with questions, activities or assignments that require the learner to encode the material on their own and apply it. </li></ul>
  10. 10. In Summation <ul><li>The general ideas of a subject should be presented first and then progressively differentiated in terms of detail and specifics. </li></ul><ul><li>It’s important for instructional materials to integrate new material with previously presented information by comparing and cross-referencing new and old ideas. </li></ul>
  11. 11. In Other Words… <ul><li>“ Tell them what you are going to tell them; then tell them; then tell them what you told them.” </li></ul><ul><li>- David Ausubel </li></ul>
  12. 12. References <ul><li>The Psychology of Learning and the Art of Teaching By John A. Kaufhold. Published by iUniverse, 2002 </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies For Effective Teaching 2nd Edition By Allan C. Ornstein. Published by Brown & Benchmark, 1995 </li></ul><ul><li>http://tip.psychology.org/ ausubel .html </li></ul><ul><li>http://www3.hi.is/~ joner / eaps / wh _ ausub . htm </li></ul>