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Marine fisheries statistical system

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This presentation shows as to how marine fisheries statistical system has evolved over the years and describes the present status, issues, challenges and constraints and also proposed approach and institutional role.

Publicada em: Governo e ONGs
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Marine fisheries statistical system

  1. 1. Marine fisheries statistical system in India • Introduction • Measurement needs • Evolution of statistical system for marine fisheries • National status • Methodology for estimation of marine fish landings in India • Increase in scope • Issues and constraints • Proposed approach and institutional role
  2. 2. Marine fisheries statistical system in India Introduction • Good & efficient statistical system is essential for decision making and forming viable public policies • Marine fisheries is an important sector of the nation’s economy supporting the livelihood of the millions of fisher-folk and those who are engaged in the related activities • The marine fisheries sector in India has witnessed a phenomenal growth during the last six and half decades, both quantitatively and qualitatively • The estimated All India total marine fish landings (production) has increased from about 0.5 million tonnes in early fifties to about 3.8 million tonnes in 2013 • Technological changes in the mode and method of harvesting of the marine fishery resources • Increase in the extent of fishing operations • Inter-sector conflicts (traditional, motorised and mechanised) due to competition to exploit the common resources • Increasing demand for export and local markets
  3. 3. Marine fisheries statistical system in India Measurement needs • Exploited fish stocks and the fishery dependent on them are dynamic and require regular monitoring and periodical assessment of the exploited stocks and the fishery • Resource evaluation through stock assessment essential for rational exploitation and objective management • Dynamics of the fishery including craft & gear, infra-structure and most importantly the fisher-folk population including their socio-economic status • Information on these aspects requires objective and scientific data acquisition approaches or systems • Needs should address relevant, accurate and timely data in a form useful to the various stake holders
  4. 4. Marine fisheries statistical system in India Evolution of statistical system for marine fisheries • Earliest reference to estimate marine fish catch by trade enquiry – not scientifically planned • After establishment of CMFRI, a planned survey was conducted during 1948-49. Village wise data were collected on area exploited, number of persons engaged in marine fishing, various types of craft and gear, fishing season, type of fish caught and number of fish landing centres • Fishery data were collected from 1950 by dividing entire coast line into 12 homogeneous survey zones • Between 1950 to 1955 IASRI ( earlier IARS) under ICAR initiated a number of pilot surveys of various designs to evolve a suitable design to estimate marine fish landings in India • The pilot surveys and their results have influenced a great deal in developing the currently used sampling design • To bring out changing pattern of fisheries including the population of fisher-folk, craft and gear, fishery census were carried out by CMFRI in 1957-58, 1961-62 and 1972-73 • A full fledged all India marine fisheries census was carried out in 1980 by CMFRI increasing the scope of the earlier census surveys by including the socio-economic indicators • After a gap of 25 years, comprehensive census was carried out by CMFRI in the years 2005 and 2010 with funding support from DAHD&F of MOA(Govt of India). These surveys enlarged the coverage by covering Andaman& Nicobar Islands and Lakhsadweep
  5. 5. Marine fisheries statistical system in India National status • Marine Fisheries management in territorial waters wrests with State Governments of the coastal states • State Fisheries Departments have been collecting statistics on marine fish landings and other related information • State Fisheries Departments collect catch statistics, reportedly, as per the sampling design developed by CMFRI with some minor modifications and estimate marine fish landings • National level marine fish production statistics are compiled and published by DAHD&F, MOA, Govt of India on an annual basis
  6. 6. Marine fisheries statistical system in India National status (contd.) • State Fisheries Departments transmit the estimates of fish production to DAHD&F through FSI, Mumbai that collates and prepares national level production figures • These estimates are then sent to the Technical Monitoring Committee of DAHD&F, which are reviewed and validated and approved as official national marine fish landings • The methodological support is given by CMFRI as and when required • CMFRI has also developed a comprehensive data repositary on statewise, resourcewise(species level) and gearwise estimates of marine fish landings along with fishing effort that facilitates assessment of exploited stocks, assessment of potential yield, research on fish population dynamics and devlopment of fisheries management advisories
  7. 7. Marine fisheries statistical system in India Sampling Design and Methodology for estimation of marine fish landings • The sampling design devised by CMFRI to estimate resourcewise/regionwise marine fish landings is based on stratified multi-stage random sampling technique • Stratification is over space and time • Over space, the each maritime state is divided into suitable non-overlapping zones on the basis of fishing intensity and geographical consideration. The number of landing centres may vary from zone to zone. These zones are futher stratified depending upon the intensity of landings • There are some major fisheries harbours or centres that are classified as single centre zones for which there is an exhaustive and exclusive coverage • The stratification over time is a calendar month • One zone and a month is a space-time stratum • For estimation of fish landings, the design is two-stage with landing centre days as PSU and boats(craft) landed as SSU
  8. 8. Marine fisheries statistical system in India Sampling Design and Methodology for estimation of marine fish landings (Contd.) • A month is divided in to 3 groups with ten days in each group • From the first five days ( in the first 10 day group) a day is selected at random and the next 5 consecutive days are automatically selected • From this 3 clusters of 2 consecutive days are formed • In the remaining ten days groups, the clusters are selected with an interval of 10 days • Normally, in a month there will be 9 clusters of two days each • From among the total number of landing centres in a zone, 9 centres are selected with replacement and allotted to the selected 9 cluster days, as above • Thus, in a month 9 landing centre days are selected • At the selected centre on the selected date, observation on day landings is made from 1200 hrs to 1800 hrs on the first day and from 0600 hrs to 1200 hrs on the second day • Landings in the intervening period (1800 hrs on first day and 0600 hrs on the second day) are termed as “night landings” and are by enquiry on the second day accounting for a 24 hour period • Night landings are added to the day landings on the selected days to form what is known as a landing centre day • Sampling of boats/crafts is done when there are large numbers of boats landing their catch (>15 boats)
  9. 9. Marine fisheries statistical system in India Sampling Design and Methodology for estimation of marine fish landings (Contd.) Selection of boats Number of units landed Fraction to be examined Less than or equal to 15 100 % Between 16 and 19 First 10 and the balance 50 % Between 20 and 29 1 in 2 Between 30 and 39 1 in 3 Between 40 and 49 1 in 4 Between 50 and 59 1 in 5 etc.
  10. 10. Marine fisheries statistical system in India Sampling Design and Methodology for estimation of marine fish landings Contd.) • In a single centre zone, 16 to 18 days are selected at random • Depending type of landings, observation is made on a cluster of 2 days or a single day • Using the sampling design, the estimates of landings by species along with the fishing effort are obtained for the selected landing centre day • Zonewise estimate of landings for the month are made by pooling the landings over the month and pooling over the zones the annual landings are obtained
  11. 11. Marine fisheries statistical system in India Increase in scope • Economic and social statistics are as vital to fishery assessment & management as the catch and effort statistics • The major sources of information are markets, fishermen and fishing communities, traders and middlemen, but also periodic official statistics assembled for more general purposes • Economic statistics include various costs of production, revenues, price dynamics, income of fishermen etc. • Social information includes the number of fishermen, according to occupational status, formal and information fishermen’s organizations, traditional concepts of property rights to access fishing grounds, and conflicts among different fishermen groups in resource exploitation • Information on gender issues is another aspect which would help in analysing the social dynamics vis-à-vis the management policies
  12. 12. Marine fisheries statistical system in India Issues and constraints Issues • Inconsistencies in national data sets as typified by the changes in the manner in which catches were categorized by species and by gear. • Need to review the classification of type of fishing gear and of species in view of the changes in the fishing methods or catch fish resources as previously designated; • Inadequate channeling of data and information to target user groups • Establishment and adoption of standardized or compatible data compilation methodologies and tools • Strengthening coordination and linkage mechanisms • Analysis of data and production of information packages for regional fishery management • Skill development. • Strengthening coordination and linkage mechanisms
  13. 13. Marine fisheries statistical system in India Issues and constraints Constraints • Delays in compiling and submitting fishery statistics • Incomplete and incorrect or unreliable data • Incompatibility of data • Poor accessibility • Lack of skilled manpower • Lack of commitment • Lack of standardized/compatible data collection and compilation methodologies and tools
  14. 14. Marine fisheries statistical system in India Proposed approach and Institutional role • Information on catch and effort statistics, based on scientific principles of data collection under the guidance of a national agency. • Processing and dissemination of information should be automated to speed up the collation and dissemination. • Develop guidelines to standardise the collection on capture fishery production including post-harvest data and design of required survey forms. • Increase the operational efficiency of the staff engaged in data collection by conducting training programmes from time to time. • Conducting zonal workshops periodically for updating the methodologies and validating the production estimates. • Creation of a centralised National Fisheries Information Centre and state level Fishery Data Centres. The Data Centres should be store house of information on various aspects of marine fisheries including catch, effort, fishing villages, landing centres, fishing harbours, infrastructure, marketing and socio-economic parameters. • Foster linkages between the Fishery Data Centres and the National Fisheries Information Centre and the related data centres with the other national and state agencies through state of the art computerised networking system. • Allocation of sufficient staff and funds for the data collection systems and maintenance of the Data Centres
  15. 15. Marine fisheries statistical system in India Fishery management is the integrated process of information gathering, analysis, planning, consultation, decision-making, allocation of resources and formulation and implementation of regulations, as and when necessary, in order to ensure continued productivity of the resources for the overall benefit of the society. Thus, as rightly observed by the National Statistical Commission, there is an urgent need to strengthen and improve the marine fishery statistical system through concerted efforts of all the agencies concerned so that the information thus emanating from the system is used in management of the rich marine fishery resources of the country for ensuring better livelihood of the coastal rural folk and for enhancing national economy.