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Relationships and biodiversity pre lab review

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Relationships and biodiversity pre lab review

  1. 1. New York State LabRelationships andBiodiversityPre-lab Review
  2. 2. Evolution• Gradual change over time• If two organisms sharesimilarities, they are likelyrelated – share a commonancestor• The more similarities, themore closely related
  3. 3. Evidence of Evolutionary Relationships• Structural evidence:– Comparative anatomy• Homologous structures• Vestigial structures– Comparative embryology
  4. 4. Evidence of Evolutionary Relationships• Molecular evidence:– Comparative Biochemistry• Similar pigments (in plants)• Similar enzyme-controlled chemical reactions• Similarities in DNA structure• Similar proteins
  5. 5. Structural Evidence in Plants• External structure• Seeds• Internal structure:– Conducting tissue – carries materials– Xylem – carries water and nutrients– Phloem – carries food
  6. 6. Molecular Evidence in Plants• Pigments – absorb light• Chromatography – lab technique to separatepigments in plants
  7. 7. Molecular Evidence in Plants• Enzymes – speed up chemical reactions• Enzymes are specific
  8. 8. Molecular Evidence in Plants –Enzymes
  9. 9. Molecular Evidence in Plants• Gel electrophoresis – labtechnique to separatefragments of DNA fromorganisms
  10. 10. Molecular Evidence in Plants –Gel Electrophoresis
  11. 11. Molecular Evidence in Plants• Similarities in DNA code for amino acidsequence in particular proteins
  12. 12. Molecular Evidence in PlantsProtein Synthesis
  13. 13. Molecular Evidence in Plants

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