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Immigration after 1880

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Immigration after 1880

  1. 1. Immigration after 1880
  2. 2. TN Curriculum Standards: • 1.0-Understand how industrial development affected the United States culture. • Understand how the influx of immigrants after 1880 affected U. S. culture. SPI 6.4- Identify patterns of immigration and the causal factors that led to immigration to the U.S. SPI 6.5- Distinguish the differences in assimilation of “old” vs. “new” immigration. SPI 6.6- Read and interpret a primary source document reflecting the dynamics of the Gilded Age of American Society.
  3. 3. Melting Pot: theory vs. reality
  4. 4. The “Old” Immigrants • From 1800-1880, more than 10 million immigrants came to the U.S. • They were mostly Protestants from Northwestern Europe. • This group would be referred to as the “old” immigrants. • They were accepted into American culture.
  5. 5. “Old” Immigrants The “old” immigrants were accepted because: • They looked the same • Spoke the same languages as the Americans who were already here • Worshipped the same .
  6. 6. The “New” immigrants • From 1891-1910, a new wave of immigrants came to the U.S. • They came from Southern or Eastern Europe (Czech, Greek, Hungarian, Italian, Polish, Russian, and Slovaks, Arabs, Armenians, Chinese, French Canadians, and Japanese). • They were not as accepted as the old immigrants.
  7. 7. The “New” Immigrants • They looked different. • They worshipped differently. • They spoke different languages.
  8. 8. Reasons for Coming to the U.S. • Plenty of land and work • Higher standard of living • Democratic political system • Opportunity for social advancement
  9. 9. The Journey Most of the immigrants heard about the great opportunities that the U.S. had to offer from RR and steamship promoters. These stories were often exaggerated. Steamships charged a low rate to attract passengers. The ocean journey was extremely difficult. Most traveled in the steerage (accommodations below deck on the ship’s lower levels near the steering mechanisms). The quarters were cramped with no privacy and very little ventilation.
  10. 10. Immigrants (Below deck) in the steerage
  11. 11. Reaching America
  12. 12. Arriving in America Those with criminal records (or without means to support themselves) were sent back. Those that passed inspection went through inspectors where they had to tell about their background, job skills, and relatives. People with mental disorders or contagious diseases like tuberculosis or other serious health policies were deported. At Ellis Island, the 1st thing that they saw was the Statue of Liberty. They had to go through a physical exam. Newcomers 1st set their foot on U. S. soil at Ellis Island in New York Harbor or at Angel Island in San Francisco Bay. These islands were known as immigrant stations.
  13. 13. Nativist political cartoon
  14. 14. A New Life • Many immigrants found that that the U.S. offered them a better life than in their homeland. • Others that settled in crowded cities faced many hardships. • They could only find low- paying (unskilled) jobs. • As a result of this, they were generally forced into poor housing in/near neighborhood slums.
  15. 15. Tenement Housing
  16. 16. A New Life • Immigrant/Ethnic Communities- pockets of diverse immigrant communities where they were able to find institutions and neighbors that help them make the transition financially and culturally into American life. • Religious institutions- neighborhood churches, synagogues, and temples provided community centers that helped immigrants maintain a sense of identity and belonging.
  17. 17. A New Life Some churches offered economic assistance, daycare for children, gymnasiums, reading rooms, sewing classes, social clubs, and training courses for new immigrants. Many religious and non-religious organizations were formed to assist the newcomers. The organizations were known as benevolent societies (helped in case of sickness, unemployment, death, offered loans to start businesses, set up insurance plans). Cultural practices- immigrants were often encouraged by employers and public institutions to adopt American values. Older immigrants tend to cling more to their ties in the old country, while their children adopted American cultural practices. Immigrant worker-did the country’s “dirty work” (work that was difficult and physically exhausting). They worked in the mines, in construction, and in sweatshops. They worked extremely long hours and received extremely low wages. Some worked as long as 15 hours a day.
  18. 18. Immigrant labor
  19. 19. Settling into Ethnic Communities Immigrants made up most of the population in Northern cities like New York, Chicago, Milwaukee, and Detroit. They lived in ethnic communities lie “Little Italy” and “Lower East Side” because there they could speak their own native languages and worship in their own synagogues. It gave them a sense of being back in their homeland. Immigrants that learned English and fully assimilated into American culture fared better than those that did not.
  20. 20. Ethnic Communities
  21. 21. Chinese Immigration Chinese had a large population (430 million) in the late 1800s and an even higher unemployment rate. There was widespread poverty. The Taiping Rebellion broke out in China and those that could leave left by the thousands. They came to America to work on the RR. They located to mostly Western cities. They worked as skilled laborers or as merchants. Many native-born American business owners kept them out of their businesses, so Chinese immigrants began opening their own businesses. Japanese immigrants also began leaving their homeland for economic opportunities in America.
  22. 22. Chinese laborers (late 1800s)
  23. 23. Nativism The huge waves of immigrants from Europe led to an extreme dislike of immigrants by native-born Americans. This feeling was known as NATIVISM.
  24. 24. Nativism
  25. 25. Reasons Nativists were against Immigration • They believed that there were more Catholic immigrants coming in than there were Protestant Americans. • They feared that they would undermine the labor unions by working for less. • Nativists began to form anti-immigrant organizations. These organizations agreed not to hire or vote for any Catholics.
  26. 26. Anti-Catholic political cartoon
  27. 27. Anti-Irish Sentiment Another group that was despised by these anti- immigrant/anti-Catholic groups was the Irish. Since they had to take the lowest paying jobs or the dirtiest jobs, they were thought to be lazy, ignorant, and unworthy of any sympathy at all. Legislators moved to pass laws to limit immigration. By the late 1800s, they passed laws banning convicts and mentally disabled people from immigrating to the U.S. Immigrants also had to pay a 50 cents tax per person to come here.
  28. 28. Anti-Irish Ads/political cartoons
  29. 29. Chinese Exclusion
  30. 30. Chinese Exclusion • Legislators (particularly in CA) passed laws that banned Chinese immigration for 10 years. Chinese immigrants that were already in the country were banned from becoming citizens. • Although the Chinese protested by campaigning and suing in court, Congress did not lift the ban until 1943 (41 years later). • When Japanese immigration increased, the San Francisco Board of Education required Chinese, Japanese, and Korean children to attend racially segregated schools.
  31. 31. Chinese Exclusion • Before, this had only applied to Chinese school-age children. • When Japanese officials in Japan found out about the forced segregation, they were furious. They voiced their concerns with then president Theodore (Teddy Roosevelt) and he struck a deal with the school board. • He agreed to pass legislation to limit Japanese immigration in exchange for them integrating the school for Asian immigrants. This deal became known as the Gentlemen’s Agreement. • Legislators would later propose giving immigrants literacy tests before they could be admitted to the U. S.
  32. 32. Chinese Exclusion
  33. 33. Separation by Class (pg. 224 in text) • The wealthy, the middle class, and the working class (poor) lived in separate sections of town (much like today). • Because of industry, more Americans moved from working class to middle class. The middle class was mostly made up of doctors, lawyers, engineers, teachers, social workers,…etc. • As they began to make more money, they began to move further away from the city (to escape crime and pollution). • Most middle class families at this time had at least one live-in servant.
  34. 34. The Working Poor Most families that fell into the working class category could only dream of owning a home. They lived in crowded apartments known as tenement housing. Families also took in boarders to supplement their low wages. Within the working class, white males made more than African-American men, immigrants, and women. The whole family generally worked. Children were also forced to work in terrible work conditions. Most of them were illiterate since they had to go to work and not school. Since there was no Medicaid, Medicare, or Social Security at this time, 70% of people who were over the age of 65 lived with their adult children.
  35. 35. Jacob Riis forced poverty awareness with his writings and his pictures about the slums
  36. 36. Jacob Riis’s photos
  37. 37. Riis’s photos