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Ob. managing change 09.10.2011

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Ob. managing change 09.10.2011

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  2. 2. TOPIC COURSE Human & Organizational Behavior 2
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  5. 5. Change for change’s sake is bad. But some change can be good. The Bio-cul-tura l Sci-ence & Man-age-me nt blog has pub-lished this great graphic on resis-tance to change. 5
  6. 6. What is the meaning of this story? Resistance You’ll never You have to stop being a caterpillar in get me up order to become a butterfly. Change is not always a conscious on one of decision. Change will occur, inevitably. those We can choose to be active participants butterfly in change. Or not, maybe. Metamorphosis is an uncontrollable things! process with an unclear result. "In the change from being a caterpillar to becoming a butterfly, you're nothing more than a yellow, gooey sticky mess." It is dangerous to think you know the answer 6
  7. 7. People fear the uncertainties of change. The slightest suggestion that things won’t stay the same can cause panic…but the real problem isn’t the change…it’s people’s reaction to that change.‖ -Dr. Alan Zimmerman Change is hard because people overestimate the value of what they have— and underestimate the value of what they may gain by giving that up.‖ -James Belasco and Ralph Stayer ―Flight of the Buffalo‖ 7
  8. 8. Change To Make Different in Some Particular: ALTER To Make Radically Different: TRANSFORM To Give a Different Position, Course or Direction -- Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary 8
  9. 9. Why change ? Change is necessary in life to keep us… Moving Growing Interested ―…Imagine life 9 without change. It would be static...boring...dull.‖
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  14. 14.  How prevalent is Resistance to Change at WORK ? – It is generally acknowledged that in an average organization, when the intention for change is announced: 15% of the workforce is eager to accept it 15% of the workforce is dead set against it 70% is sitting on the fence, waiting to see what happens 14
  15. 15. HOW PEOPLE RESPOND TO CHANGES THEY LIKE AT WORK ? Three-stage process Unrealistic optimism Reality shock Constructive direction HOW PEOPLE RESPOND TO CHANGES THEY FEAR AND DISLIKE AT WORK ? Getting off on the wrong track Laughing it off Growing self-doubt Destructive direction 15
  16. 16.  Motivation – Some Good Reason to Give up the Status Quo  Vision – A Clear and Practical Vision of the Desired Future State  Next Steps – an Understanding of the Next Steps Required to Progress Toward the Vision  If One Is Missing, Little Change Will Take Place 16
  17. 17. Typical human reactions to change can be illustrated by means of the following diagram, which resembles the steps of a ladder or a staircase: It starts with step 1 of utter surprise and goes up all the way 10. ACHIEVEMENT through the steps up to step 10, where achievement is possible and people start Steady 9. CONTROL to say "let's do it". The stages of gradual Improve- acceptance are: ment 8. HASTE I want it now 7. COMMITMENT It is going to work 6. ACCEPTANCE Lets give it a try 5. REJECTION ONCE AGAIN I told it wouldn’t work 4. GRUDGING ACCEPTANCE I dint like it, but 3. CYNICISM We've tried it before 17 2. REJECTION I don’t believe it 1. SURPRISE What ?
  18. 18. All of us are different. Some are extroverts, others introverts. Some are quick starts, others fact- finders. Some are liberals, others conservatives. All of us, says Winters, have natural ways in which we respond to conflict— natural ways in which we each respond to change. Understanding the natural way of how people handle change can therefore be important for top leaders in managing change sensitively. Winter’s formulation of the six ―types‖ of employee reactions to the changing workplace is a useful tool to enable this understanding. 18
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  20. 20. Don’t Resist Resistance • Resistance Is – Inevitable – A Natural Function of Change – Manageable • Resistance Is Not – Necessarily Logical – A Sign of Disloyalty – To Be Taken Personally – A Sign That the Change Project Is Out of Control 20
  21. 21. Deal With the Four ―F’s of Loss and Change‖ • Letting Go of Familiar Past (Perhaps a Romanticized View) • Confronting Feelings About an Uncertain Future • Dealing With Loss of Face • Redesigning a Focus on New Realities • Working on These in Public, Facilitated Forums Allows People to Constructively Express Their Anxiety and Anger and Helps to Reduce Passive-Aggressive Inertia and Sabotage 21
  22. 22. Sometimes people who resist change have discovered weaknesses in the process of organizational change. This type of resistance is beneficial because these weaknesses can be eliminated before we start with the process of change. Some important thing when we talk about resistance to changes is the level of resistance. The level of resistance can be: As you can see from the picture if the level of resistance is small there is a probability that the change process will not give the desired level of success. This situation can have two cases: 22
  23. 23. WHY DO EMPLOYEES RESIST TO CHANGE? Surprise Inertia Misunderstanding and lack of skills Poor Timing Lack of Trust Fear of Failure Personality Conflicts Threat to Job Status/Security Breakup of Work Group Competing Commitments –Education and communication –Participation and involvement –Facilitation and support –Negotiation and agreement –Manipulation and co-optation –Explicit and implicit coercion 23
  24. 24. Triggered by fear Don’t take it personally Listen to the message Struggle = Engagement  You have to kiss many frogs before you find the Frog Prince 24
  25. 25. WHAT IS ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE MANAGEMENT? Definition The organized, systematic application of knowledge, tools, and resources of change that provide organizations with a key process to achieve their business strategy Goal Provide the structure & guidance 25 necessary to effectively prepare organizations for the successful acceptance of cultural change
  26. 26.  Anticipatory changes Reactive changes Incremental changes Strategic change •External Forces –Market Place –Govt Laws and Regulations –Technology –Labor market –Economic Change •Internal Forces –Changes in Organisational Strategies –Workforce change –New Equipment –Employee Attitude 26
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  29. 29. ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE MANAGEMENT TOOLS Organizational & Project Attributes Assessment Project Readiness Assessment Stakeholder Analysis Sponsor Roadmap DTI Readiness Methodology Communication Standards Reporting/tracking standards 29 Control Book Measures of Success/Lessons Learned
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  31. 31. Managing the Dynamic of Change An organization, like a mobile, is a web of interconnections. A change in one area throws a different part off balance. Managing these ripple effects is what makes managing change a dynamic proposition with unexpected challenges. 31
  32. 32. Managing Change Structure Work specialization, Departmentalization, Chain of Command Span of Control, Formalization, Job Redesign Technology Work Process, Methods and Equipments People Attitude, Expectations, Perception and Behavior 32
  33. 33. CHANGE MANAGEMENT STANDARDS  Manage the strategy  Develop and manage the plan  Track/report readiness  Develop training strategy  Reinforce/Support  Celebrate success  Analyze feedback and prepare to manage resistance  Prepare with the project team  Assess change/culture  Develop/educate team http://dti.delaware.gov/majorproj/standards.shtml 33
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  35. 35. Implementing a successful change in organization is tough. Even setting up of a state of the art technology along with providing all the necessary training and equipments, does not guarantee a successful change. The right way to manage change begins with a simple model but involves a process that can be complex and delicate. It entails careful planning, detailed design, and thorough implementation. 35
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  38. 38. Two Approaches to Organization Change Organization Development (OD) Formal top-down approach Grassroots Change An unofficial and informal bottom-up approach 38
  39. 39. Planned change programs intended to help people and organizations function more effectively. Applying behavioral science principles, methods, and theories to create and cope with change. OD creates fundamental change in the organization, as opposed to fixing a problem or improving a procedure. OD programs generally are facilitated by hired consultants, 39
  40. 40. Deepen the sense of organizational purpose. Strengthen interpersonal trust. Encourage problem solving rather than avoidance. Develop a satisfying work experience. Supplement formal authority with knowledge and skill based authority. Increase personal responsibility for planning and implementing. Encourage willingness to change 40
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  42. 42. Unfreezing, changing, and refreezing social systems Unfreezing: neutralizing resistance by preparing people for change. Changing: implementing the planned change 42 Refreezing: systematically following a change program for lasting results.
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  45. 45. Assessing the Organization Risk Determination 110 Table Small incremental Large Disruptive Medium Risk change to a change High Risk Change to a Change resistant organization Resistant Organization Organizational 44 Attributes Small incremental Large Disruptive change to a change-able Change to a Change-able Low Risk organization Medium Risk Organization 22 12 24 60 Change Characteristics 45 [1] Modified from Prosci.
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  47. 47. ACHIEVING SUCCESSFUL ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE 1. Dedicate resources to Organizational Change Management 2. Secure visible executive sponsorship early in the project 3. Repeat key messages early and often 4. Involve employees in the change process 47 5. Create a transition strategy with achievable timeframes
  48. 48. GREATEST SUCCESS FACTORS Active and visible sponsorship Use of organizational change management processes & tools Effective communications Employee involvement Effective project leadership and planning Source: Prosci Benchmarking Report 48
  49. 49. Addressed Primarily by Organizational Change Management People Addressed Primarily Addressed by Business Primarily Process Redesign Process Technology by Package Type Type Type Type Type Type People and process issues are sometimes overlooked in planning for this type of project. They need to be addressed for the project to be a success. 49
  50. 50. Organizational Change Phases and Communication Comfort Unaware Insight Denial Anxiety What will I do differently tomorrow? 50
  51. 51. Change Management Process is used as a basis for putting together a Change Management Plan or Change Management Project that is specific to your needs. Our five phase, structured Change Management Process has helped some of the world's largest and most successful companies deal with what has become a constant today---Change! 51
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  53. 53. UNDERSTANDING THE CHANGE PROCESS We need to be able to work with change at the very micro-level (persuading individuals within organizations to work in new or different ways) We also need need to be influencing the agenda at the 53 macro-level – changing public opinions
  54. 54. UNDERSTAND AND OWN THE PAST  The Past Bounds Future Success  Identify Critical Success Factors From Previous Successful Changes in the Organization  Surveys  Interviews  Lessons Learned Sessions  Acknowledge Past Failures  Explicitly Plan on Countermeasures 54
  55. 55. Stimulating Innovation CREATIVITY  The ability to combine ideas in a unique way or to make an unusual association. INNOVATION Turning the outcomes of the creation process into useful products, services, or work methods 55
  56. 56. INPUT TRANSFORMATION OUTPUTS Creative Individuals, Creative Environment, Innovative Products, Groups and Process and Situation Work Method Organizations 56
  57. 57. Structural Variables •Organic structure HR Variables •Communication •High commitment to T & D •Abundant resources •High job security •High interunit stimulate •Creative people •Work and network support Innovative Variables Cultural variables •Acceptance of ambiguity •Positive feedback •Low external control •Tolerance of risks •Tolerance of conflicts •Focus on ends •Open system focus 57
  58. 58. •Adopt an organic structure •Make available plentiful resources •Engage in frequent inherent communication •Minimize extreme time pressures on creative activities •Provide explicit support for creativity 58
  59. 59. •Accept Ambiguity, have low external control •Tolerant impractical •Tolerant risk taking •Tolerate conflict •Focus on ends rather than means •Develop an open system focus •Provide positive feedback 59
  60. 60. •Actively promote T & D to keep employee’s skills updated •Offer high job security to encourage risk taking •Encourage individual to be ―Champion‖ to change 60
  61. 61. • Things Often Get Worse Before They Get Better • Increase the Communication – Change the Medium and Words – Focus on What Is Ahead – Provide As Much Information As Possible • Allow Resistance to Surface and Manage It 61
  62. 62. • There Is a Need to Develop a Comprehensive Plan for the Change • There Is a Need to Get the Organization Ready for the Change • But If It Takes Too Long, People Lose Interest and Motivation • So, Plan for Short Projects That Will Engage the People 62
  63. 63. Say It Once, Say It Twice, and Say It Again • Keep It Simple – No Jargon • Use Language of the People • Use Storytelling • Use Different Mediums – Memos – Group Meetings – Stories in Newsletters – One-on-one Meetings – (Have Different Levels of Impact) • Change Style of Communication Depending Upon – Where You Are in the Change – Who You Are Communicating With • Walk the Talk, Be Honest 63
  64. 64. What to Watch Out for • Virtual Change Management… "Sure We Can Do That for You… What Exactly Did You Have in Mind?" • Change Management Lite…Good Communication and Training to the Masses. You Can Sort Out These Pesky Role Changes Later on While You're Trying to Get Your Work Processes Adjusted • Change management.Com…Web Enabled Change Management Through Your Company's Own Special Portal. "What We'll Put on That Web Site Will Have So Much Sizzle That Your Guys Are Really Gonna' Go for the Change." 64
  65. 65.  become more business-like and to focus on changes in the business environment  reposition ourselves rapidly in a dynamic global environment  inform our SWOT analysis  systematise planning, project management and improvement at all levels, using the ADRI model  ensure we do not ―leave things to chance‖. IATUL June 04 65
  66. 66.  Enterprise Transformation is driven by an underlying strategy that organizes and energizes People to understand, embrace and make full use of new Process and Technology  Degree of success of this endeavor is measured by the level and nature of the Business Impact achieved 66
  67. 67.  Organizational Change Management is ―all of the actions required for an organization to understand, prepare for, implement and take full advantage of significant change‖.  The goals of Change Management are: • The successful design, implementation, measurement and maintenance of an organization’s change initiative • Enhancement of their on-going capacity for managing change 67
  68. 68. CONCLUSION  improved clarity of goals and purpose  active involvement and participation of staff in achieving the mission  innovative services and programs  increased client and stakeholder satisfaction with Library services  a collective responsibility and passion for ongoing successful management of change IATUL June 04 68
  69. 69. Organizational Change Web Links  Employee Resistance to Organizational Change ©2002 by Albert F. Bolognese  http://www.newfoundations.com/OrgTheory/Bologne se721.html  Basic Context for Organizational Change Written by Carter McNamara, PhD | Applies to nonprofits and for-profits unless noted  http://www.mapnp.org/library/mgmnt/orgchnge.htm  Teaching the Caterpillar to fly by by Scott J. Simmerman, Ph.D.  http://www.squarewheels.com/content/teaching.html  Sample Organizational Change Management Plan  http://www.hhs.gov/ufms/ufmscmpfinal.pdf 69
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Notas do Editor

  • Bio­cul­tural Sci­ence & Man­age­ment blog has pub­lished this great graphic on 50 REASON NOT TO CHANGE