O slideshow foi denunciado.
Seu SlideShare está sendo baixado. ×

Introduction to Engineering Design

Próximos SlideShares
Engineering Design Process
Engineering Design Process
Carregando em…3

Confira estes a seguir

1 de 40 Anúncio

Mais Conteúdo rRelacionado

Diapositivos para si (20)

Semelhante a Introduction to Engineering Design (20)


Mais de MANJUNATH N (20)

Mais recentes (20)


Introduction to Engineering Design

  2. 2. Foundational Questions  What is engineering?  What is engineering design?  Difference between engineering analysis and engineering design  What is the difference between product and process design?  What is the context of the design process?  Engineering design vs. design in other academic disciplines?  Why design?
  3. 3. “…the purposive adaptation of means to reach a pre-conceived end…” E.T. Layton, Jr. What is engineering?
  4. 4. Human creativity  The use of technology to make products and systems for societal benefit. “The profession in which a knowledge of the mathematical and natural sciences gained by study, experience, and practice is applied with judgment to develop ways to utilize, economically, the material forces of nature for the benefit of mankind. Engineering as a “Thinking-Making” Activity
  5. 5. When did the engineering disciplines begin? 3000 BC Civil 1000 BC Military AD 1700 Mechanical AD 1800 Materials Agricultural Electrical AD 1900 Chemical Aerospace AD 1950 Computer, Nuclear, Biochemical Biomedical
  6. 6. Engineering and Science 6 “Both the engineer and scientist are thoroughly educated in the mathematical and natural sciences, but the scientist primarily uses this knowledge to acquire new knowledge, whereas the engineer applies this knowledge to design and develop usable devices, structures and processes. In order words. The scientist seeks to know, the engineer aims to do”.
  7. 7. Engineering and Art  Starts with a blank page  Visualization  Ideas transmitted from mind to paper  Usually a solution to a ‘problem’  More logical  Design is actually created 7 Similarities Differences
  8. 8. What is engineering design?8
  9. 9. What is engineering design?  Engineering design is the set of decision-making processes and activities used determine the form of an object given the functions desired by the customer.  Engineering design is the process of devising a system, component, or process to meet desired needs. It is a decision-making process (often iterative), in which the basic science and mathematics and engineering sciences are applied to convert resources optimally to meet a stated objective. Among the fundamental elements of the design process are the establishment of objectives and criteria, synthesis, analysis, construction, testing and evaluation.
  10. 10. 10
  11. 11.  Problem identification  Synthesis  Analysis  Application  Comprehension  Solution Orderly stepwise approach Problem Solving
  12. 12. 12
  13. 13. Brainstorming Rule : There are no stupid ideas in a brainstorm Process of Engineering Design Need Analysis of Problem Statement of Problem Conceptual Design Selected Schemes Embodiment of Schemes Detailing Working drawings, etc..
  14. 14. Define problem and goal  Consider:  What do you want to accomplish?  What are the requirements?  Are there any limitations?  Who is the customer? • Identify and describe the issue and the ultimate objective
  15. 15. The design process begins with some initial problem statement.  Initial Problem Statement  Design a robot to play football game.  Design problems are often ill-structured and open-ended.  Asking questions is a great way to begin defining the problem to be addressed. Page 15 Problem Definition
  16. 16. Page 16 Problem Definition Documentatio n Define the problem in detail without implying a particular solution
  17. 17. Objectives, constraints, functions & requirements  Some items are absolute – others negotiable  Functionality (inputs, outputs, operating modes)  Physical (size, weight, temperature)  Reliability, durability, security  Power (voltage levels, battery life)  Performance (speed, resolution)  Ease of use  Conformance to applicable standards  Compatibility with existing product(s)  Cost Page 17
  18. 18. Both functional & non-functional requirements used for a design.  Functional requirements:  support a given load  grasp a given size  reach a given distance  move at given speed  etc.  Non-functional requirements (usually form-focused)  size, weight, color, etc.  power consumption  reliability  durability  etc. Page 18
  19. 19. Research  Gather information and investigate existing technologies related to the problem  Talk to individuals who share this problem and could benefit from possible solutions
  20. 20. Imagine possible solutions  Brainstorm ideas.  Be creative and build upon the ideas of others.  Explore and compare many possible designs within your group.  Be open-minded!
  21. 21. Choose a solution  What materials and tools are needed?  Consider environmental, cultural, time, and financial issues and constraints.  Select the most feasible idea and assign team tasks. $$$
  22. 22. Create & test prototype  Build a prototype  Prototype - an operating version of a solution.  Often made with different materials (cheaper) than the final version.  Allows you to test your solution and supply feedback  Push yourself and the group for creativity, imagination, and excellence in design.
  23. 23. Improve  Share results and continue to seek how your team could make the solution better.  Iterate your design to make the product the best it can be.  Iterate - to repeat an already completed task to incorporate new information (3)
  24. 24. Environmental Design  Changing human needs mean the need for the design of new infrastructures  Design with a focus on natural processes  Designs should mimic nature – i.e., self- adaptive, self-sustaining, and resilient
  25. 25. 1.Establish design specifications 2.Generate design alternatives Conceptual Design Page 25 Documentatio n Design involves creativity within boundaries. Consider any viable solution concept.
  26. 26. Preliminary Design • proof-of-concept • simulation results • qualitative and/or quantitative • scale models – cardboard, straws, paper clips, paper, pencils, white glue, etc. • computer models (CAD) • mathematical models 1.“Flesh out” leading conceptual designs 2.Model, analyze, test, and evaluate conceptual designs Page 26 Documentatio n Nail down enough design details that a decision can be made
  27. 27. Design Decision 1. Select the optimal design based on the findings from the previous stage • evaluate design alternatives against specifications • a “better” technical solution may not make the cut due to differences between design objectives and constraints Page 27 Documentation The “optimal” design solution may or may not be obvious
  28. 28. Detailed Design 1.Refine and optimize choices made in preliminary design 2.Articulate specific parts and dimensions 3.Fabricate prototype and move toward production Page 28 Documentatio n Time to go from idea to reality
  29. 29. Production, Integration & Test Production, Integration & Test 1.Build sub-assemblies 2.Integrate completed sub- assemblies 3.Test, practice, improve … repeat Page 29 Documentatio n Turn your design to reality and verify it works
  30. 30. Design Step
  31. 31. Engineering Design vs Engineering Analysis  Engineering analysis: Predicted behavior is the solution to an analysis problem  Formulating  Solving  Checking  Engineering design:  Formulating  Generating  Analyzing  Evaluating
  32. 32. Issues in design Utility and cost Single and multi-functionality Batch or mass production Patents Aesthetics Integrity of product (wholeness) Whole life-cycle planning Health effects and safety Recycling and disposal End of product life and replacement issues Failure modes Effects on society
  33. 33. Ethical issues design Philosophical and practical ethics Codes of Ethics - Health and welfare of humans and nature - Informing client/employers of consequences - Statements and information in truthful manner - Treating people fairly (avoiding conflict of interest) - Limits of professional competence - Building professional reputations according to merits - Continuing professional development - Issues with intellectual property. Issues Life systems preservation Maintenance of quality of life Maintaining high standards of personal and professional conduct Managing intra-professional customs, identifiers, habits, and limits.
  34. 34. Economic analysis  What is the relevance of economic analysis to design?  Economic assumption : Measure of value is “monetary”  Process cost in context of the company  Reporting costs, financial status, and transactions.  Value today, value tomorrow.  Material cost, labour cost, indirect cost  Manufacturing cost, storage cost, transport cost  Product cost scaling and correction factors
  35. 35. Types of Designs  Original design or innovative design  Adaptive design  Redesign  Selection design  Industrial design 36
  36. 36. Original design  This form is at the top of the hierarchy  Employs an original, innovative concept to achieve a need  Sometimes, but rarely, the need itself be original  Original designs occur rarely, but when occurs they usually disrupt existing markets 37
  37. 37. Adaptive design  Occurs when the design team adapts a known solution to satisfy a different need to produce a novel application  Adaptive designs involve synthesis  Relatively common in design 38
  38. 38. Redesign  Employed to improve an existing design  Redesign to reduce failure in service, or to redesign a component so as to reduce its cost  Accomplished without any change in the working principle or concept of the original design  Redesign by changing some of the design parameters, it is often called Variant design 39
  39. 39. Other types of design  Selection design  Most of products employ standard components  Selecting the components with the needed performance, quality, and cost  Industrial design  Deals with improving the appeal of a product to the human senses, especially its visual appeal  More artistic than engineering  Consideration of how the human user can best interface with the product 40
  40. 40. Doubts . . . . .?41