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Theories of growth and development

  1. 1. THEORIES OF GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT PREPARED BY: Manisha praharaj
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION  The period of growth and development extends throughout the life cycle.  Changes occur is from conception to the adolescence.  Growth and development is a process where the person thinks normally, eventually & takes a responsible place in society.
  3. 3.  It is important for a nurse to understand the early periods as well as the total life cycle of an individual to better understand the behavior of parents and others who provide care of the child.
  4. 4. WHY IS IT IMPORTANT?????  To know the expected growth of a child at a given age.  To plan for the nursing management of total care of the child.
  5. 5.  To better understand the reason for particular condition & illness those occur in various age groups.
  6. 6.  To teach parent how to observe and to use their knowledge so that they may help their children achieve optimal growth & development.
  7. 7. TERMINOLOGIES AND DEFINITION GROWTH: Growth refers to an increase in physical size of whole or any of its part and can be measured in inches/ centimeters and in pounds/ kilograms. Marlow; 6th edition
  8. 8. DEVELOPMENT – Development refers to progressive increase in skill and capacity. Marlow; 6th edition
  9. 9. CHARACTERISTICS GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT
  10. 10. CHARACTERISTICS OF GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT  It is similar to all.  It proceed from general to specific.  Development proceed at different rates.  Growth is complex & continuous.
  11. 11.  Development comes from maturation and learning.  There are individual difference.  Development proceed in stages.  There are predictable pattern Of growth and development.  Early development is more significant than later significant.
  12. 12. PHYSICAL GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT
  13. 13. TYPES OF PHYSICAL GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT BIOLOGICAL SENSORY MOTOR GROWTH GROWTH GROWTH
  14. 14. BIOLOGICAL GROWTH changes in general body growth: • Changes results from different rates of growth in different parts of the body during consecutive stages of development. eg :- the infants head constitutes 1/4th of the entire length of the body at birth, where as the adult’s head is only 1/8th of body length.
  15. 15. Length or height: • Some children reach adult heights in their early teens, but others continue to grow throughout late adolescence. • The periods of rapid growth are infancy & puberty.
  16. 16. Weight: Weight is influenced by all the increments in size & is probably the best gross index of nutrition & health.
  17. 17. Head circumference: The circumference of the head is an important measurement since it is related to intracranial volume.
  18. 18. Thoracic diameter: Chest measurements increase as the child grows & the shape of the chest changes. At birth the transverse & antero-posterior diameters are nearly equal. The transverse diameter increases more rapidly than does the antero-posterior diameter.
  19. 19. MOTOR DEVELOPMENT • Motor development depends on the maturation of the muscular, skeletal & nervous systems. The sequences of skills follow the cephalo - caudal & proximal direction. • Motor development is termed as – 1. Gross motor 2. Fine motor
  20. 20. Gross motor activities include – • Turning, reaching, sitting, standing & walking.
  21. 21. Fine motor development is - the involvement of reflexes. The child learns to use hands & fingers for thumb apposition, palmer grasp, release, pincer grasp and so on.
  22. 22. SENSORY DEVELOPMENT • The sensory system is functional at birth, the child gradually learns the process of associating meaning with a perceived stimuli. • As myelination of the nervous system is achieved, the child is able to respond to specific stimuli.
  23. 23. THEORIES OF GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT
  24. 24. TYPES OF THEORIES INTELECTUAL DEVELOPMENT THEORY BY (JEANS PIAGET AND KHOLBERG) MORAL DEVELOPMENT THEORY BY (JEANS PIAGET AND KHOLBERG)
  25. 25. PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT THEORY BY (ERIC H ERIKSON) SPIRITUAL DEVELOPMENT THEORY BY ( JAMES W FOWLER)
  26. 26. PSYCHO – SEXUAL DEVELOPMENT THEORY BY (SIGMUND FREUD) GILLIGAN’S THEORY OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT
  27. 27. VYOTSKY’S SOCIOCULTURAL THEORY GARDNER’S MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES THEORY
  28. 28. PIGETS’ THEORY OF INTELECTUAL DEVELOPMENT
  29. 29. According to Piget, there are four stages of development - 1. Sensory motor stage 2. Pre – operational stage 3. Concreter operational stage 4. Formal operational stage
  30. 30. SENSORIMOTOR STAGE (0 – 2 YEARS) • Sensorimotor (Birth to 2 yrs) - Sensory organs & muscles become more functional. • In this stage child mainly concern with learning about physical object.
  31. 31. • Stage 1: Use of reflexes (Birth to 1month) Movements are primarily reflexive • Stage 2: Primary circular reaction (1-4 months) Perceptions center around one’s body. Objects are perceived as extensions of the self. • Stage 3: Secondary circular reaction (4-8 months) Becomes aware of external environment. Initiates acts to change the movement.
  32. 32. • Stage 4: Coordination of secondary schemata (8-12 months)Differentiates goals and goal- directed activities. • Stage 5: Tertiary circular reaction(12-18 months) Experiments with methods to reach goals. Develops rituals that become significant. • Stage 6: Invention of new means (18-24 months) Uses mental imagery to understand the environment. Uses fantasy.
  33. 33. b. Pre-operational (2-7 years) - • Emerging ability to think Pre-conceptual stage (2-4 year) - • Thinking tends to be egocentric .Exhibits use of symbolism. Intuitive stage(4-7 years) - • Unable to break down a whole into separate parts. Able to classify objects according to one trait.
  34. 34. c. Concrete Operations (7-11 years) • Learns to reason about events in the here- and-now. • Children develop the capacity to think systematically, but only when they can refer to actual objects and use hands-on activities. • Then they begin to internalize some tasks. This means they no longer need to depend on what is seen.
  35. 35. • They become capable of reversing operations. For example, they understand that 3 + 1 is the same as 1 + 3. When real situations are presented, they are beginning to understand others’ points of view.
  36. 36. d. Formal Operations (11+ years) • Able to see relationships and to reason in the abstract. • According to Piaget, young people develop the capacity to think in purely abstract ways. Problem solving and reasoning are key skills developed during this stage.
  37. 37. KHOLBERG’S STAGES OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT
  38. 38. LEVEL I: (Pre-conventional) -(Birth to 9 years) Authority figures are obeyed. • Stage 1: (Punishment & obedience orientation) • A deed is perceived as “wrong” if one is punished; the activity is “right” if one is not punished
  39. 39. Stage 2: ( Instrumental-relativist orientation ) “Right” is defined as that which is acceptable to & approved by the self. When actions satisfy one’s needs, they are “right.”
  40. 40. LEVEL II: Conventional (9-13 years) • Cordial interpersonal relationships are maintained. • Approval of others is sought through one’s actions.
  41. 41. Stage 3: (Interpersonal concordance) : Authority is respected. Stage 4: (Law and order orientation): Individual feels “duty bound” to maintain social order.
  42. 42. LEVEL II: Conventional (9-13 years) • Cordial interpersonal relationships are maintained. • Approval of others is sought through one’s actions.
  43. 43. LEVEL III: • Post-conventional (13+ years) Individual understands the morality of having democratically established laws. Stage 5: (Social contract orientation) • It is “wrong” to violate others’ rights.
  44. 44. Stage 6: (Universal ethics orientation) • The person understands the principles of human rights & personal conscience .Person believes that trust is basis for relationships.
  45. 45. GILLIGAN’S THEORY OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT
  46. 46. Level – 1 (Orientation of Individual Survival Transition): • Concentrates on what is best for self, Selfish. • Dependent on others.
  47. 47. Transition 1: From Selfishness to Responsibility: • Recognizes connections to others. • Makes responsible choices in terms of self and others.
  48. 48. Level – 2 (Goodness as Self-sacrifice) : • Puts needs of others ahead of own, • Feels responsible for others, • Is dependent, • May use guilt to manipulate others when attempting to “help.”
  49. 49. Transition 2: From Goodness to Truth : • Decisions based on intentions & consequences, not on others’ responses, • Considers needs of self and others, Wants to help others while being responsible to self, • Increased social participation.
  50. 50. Level – 3 (Morality of Nonviolence) : • Sees self and others as morally equal, assumes responsibilities for own decisions, basic tenet to hurt no one including self, conflict between selfishness and selflessness, Self-judgment is not dependent on others’ perceptions but rather on consequences & intentions of actions.
  51. 51. FOWLER’S THEORY OF SPIRITUAL DEVELOPMENT
  52. 52. Pre-stage: (Undifferentiated faith) Infant :Trust, hope and love compete with environmental inconsistencies or threats if abandonment.
  53. 53. Stage 1: (Intuitive- projective faith) Toddler-preschooler : • Imitates parental behaviors and attitudes about religion and spirituality. • Has no real understanding of spiritual concepts.
  54. 54. Stage 2: (Mythical-literal faith) School-aged child : • Accepts existence of a deity. • Religious & moral beliefs are symbolized by stories. • Appreciates others’ view points. • Accepts concept of reciprocal fairness.
  55. 55. Stage 3: (Synthetic-conventional faith) Adolescent : • Questions values & religious beliefs in an attempt to form own identity. Stage 4: (Individuative-reflective faith) Late adolescent &young adult: • Assumes responsibility for own attitudes & beliefs.
  56. 56. Stage 5: (Conjunctive faith) Adult : • Integrates other perspectives about faith into own definition of truth. Stage 6: (Universalizing faith) Adult : • Makes concepts of love & justice tangible.
  57. 57. VYOTSKY’S SOCIOCULTURAL THEORY
  58. 58. • Vygotsky, believed that children learn through social and cultural experiences. Interactions with peers and adults help children in this process. • While interacting with others, children learn the customs, values, beliefs, and language of their culture. For this reason, families and teachers should provide plenty of social interaction for young children.
  59. 59. • Vygotsky believed language is an important tool for thought and plays a key role in cognitive development. • One of Vygotsky’s most important contributions was the zone of proximal development (ZPD).
  60. 60. GARDNER’S MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES THEORY
  61. 61. 1. Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence • Ability to control one’s own body movements and manipulate objects. • Use of fingers, hands, arms, and legs to solve problems, express ideas, construct, and repair.
  62. 62. 2. Musical-Rhythmic Intelligence • Ability to recognize, create, and appreciate pitch, rhythm, tone quality. • Ability to use different forms of musical expression.
  63. 63. 3. Logical-Mathematical Intelligence • Ability to use logic, reason, mathematics to solve problems. • Ability to apply principles of cause-and- effect and prediction. • Appreciation of patterns as well as relationships.
  64. 64. 4. Verbal-Linguistic Intelligence • Ability to use well-developed language skills to express self and understand others. • Sensitivity to sounds, rhythm, and meaning of words.
  65. 65. 5. Interpersonal Intelligence • Ability to understand feelings, behaviors, and motives of others. • Ability to work effectively with others.
  66. 66. 6. Intrapersonal Intelligence • Ability to understand personal strengths, weaknesses, talents, and interests. • Knowledge of skills, limitations, emotions, desires, and motivations.
  67. 67. 7. Visual-Spatial Intelligence • Ability to form mental images. • Ability to visualize the relationship of objects in space. 8. Naturalistic • Ability to distinguish between living things such as plants and animals.
  68. 68. ERICSON’S PSYCHOSOCIAL THEORY
  69. 69. Stage 1: Trust vs. mistrust – (Birth to 1 year) • Infant learn to trust parents who care for them and sensitive to their needs. • If basic needs of infants are not met the infant develops sense of mistrust.
  70. 70. Stage 2: Autonomy vs. shame (1 to 3 years) – • During this stage, toddlers use their new motor and mental skills. They want to be independent and do things for themselves. • At this age, toddlers start to become self- sufficient. They need to learn to choose and decide for themselves. To do this, toddlers need a loving, supportive environment.
  71. 71. • Positive opportunities for self feeding, toileting, dressing, and exploration will result in autonomy, or independence. • On the other hand, overprotection or lack of adequate activities results in self-doubt, poor achievement, and shame.
  72. 72. Stage 3: initiative vs. guilt ( 3 to 6 years)– • This a period of energetic and active imagination. • The child can develop a sense of accomplishment and satisfaction in his or her activities. • Children at this stage need to develop a sense of purpose. This happens when adults direct children’s urges toward acceptable social practices. As the child oversteps his limits he or she experiences a feeling of guilty.
  73. 73. Stage 4: industry vs. inferiority (6 to 12 yrs) – • At this time, children enjoy planning and carrying out projects. • This helps them learn society’s rules and expectations. • During this stage, children gain approval by developing intellectual skills such as reading, writing, and math.
  74. 74. • The way family, neighbors, teachers, and friends respond to children affects their future development. • Children can become frustrated by criticism discouragement, or if parents demand too much control. • Feelings of incompetence and insecurity will emerge.
  75. 75. Stage 5: identity vs. role confusion (12 to 15 years) – • In this stage two tasks are who they are and what is their place in this world. • Success makes individual well adjusted and individual who have not made any commitment to any occupation inferiority feeling may develop.
  76. 76. Stage 6: intimacy vs. absorption (late adolescence) – • In this stage adult forms intimate relationships with others. • They develops a sense of intimacy with peers. • Failure to develop such intimacy results in psychological isolation.
  77. 77. PSYCHO – SEXUAL DEVELOPMENT THEORY BY (SIGMUND FREUD)
  78. 78. Stage 1: oral stage (0 to 1 years) – • During this stage, the mouth is the pleasure center for development. • Freud believed this is why infants are born with a sucking reflex and desire their mother's breast. • If a child's oral needs are not met during infancy, he or she may develop negative habits such as nail biting or thumb sucking to meet this basic need.
  79. 79. Stage 2: anal stage (1-3 years of age) - • During this stage, toddlers and preschool-aged children begin to experiment with urine and feces. • The control they learn to exert over their bodily functions is manifested in toilet-training. • Improper resolution of this stage, such as parents toilet training their children too early, can result in a child who is uptight and overly obsessed with order.
  80. 80. Stage 3: Phallic (3-6 years of age): • During this stage, preschoolers take pleasure in their genitals and, according to Freud, begin to struggle with sexual desires toward the opposite sex parent (boys to mothers and girls to fathers).
  81. 81. • For boys, this is called the Oedipus complex, involving a boy's desire for his mother and his urge to replace his father who is seen as a rival for the mother’s attention. • The Electra complex, involves a girl's desire for her father's attention and wish to take her mother’s place.
  82. 82. Stage 4: Latency (6-12 years of age): • During this stage, sexual instincts subside, and children begin to further develop the superego, or conscience. Children begin to behave in morally acceptable ways and adopt the values of their parents and other important adults.
  83. 83. Stage 5: Genital (12+ years of age): • During this stage, sexual impulses reemerge. If other stages have been successfully met, adolescents engage in appropriate sexual behavior, which may lead to marriage and childbirth.
  84. 84. CONCLUSION Studying and understanding child growth and development are important parts of teaching young children. No two children are alike. Children differ in physical, cognitive, social, and emotional growth patterns. Understanding child development will help make you a successful caregiver or early childhood teacher. Theories of development can help caregivers understand how to best work with children.

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