6. FUNCTIONS OF CELL
Maintenance of shape and size of cell
7. TRANSPORT-What it
Its highly selective filter, permits nutrients leaves the waste products from the
Play an important role in cell to cell communication
It detects Chemical messengers arriving at the cell surface.
11. ACTIVE TRANSPORT
The process needs energy (ATP) for transportation of drug molecules
Molecule moves into the cell against its concentration gradient in the lipid
Transport small particle ions through the membrane i.e. glucose,
aminoacids, organic acids and inorganic ions (SO4–, PO4–, K+ etc).
Ions movement directly depend on ATP
Ions movement does not directly require ATP; energy coupled process
12. PRIMARY ACTIVE
In primary active transport,
hydrolysis of energy rich
molecules such as ATP provide
energy required for transport of
molecules form lower
concentration to higher
concentration across membrane.
In secondary active transport, one type of molecule migrates
from higher concentration to lower concentration, releasing
This released energy is used to transport other molecule from
its lower concentration to higher concentration across cell
Further categorized into three types:
Uniport : Moves only one kind of molecule in same direction
Symport : Moves different kind of molecule in same direction
Anti port :Moves molecule in opposite direction
16. PASSIVE TRANSPORT
A process that does not require energy to move molecules from a HIGH to
Diffusion is the movement of small
particles across a selectively
permeable membrane like the cell
membrane until equilibrium is
These particles move from an area
of high concentration to an area of
outside of cell
inside of cell
20. ION PAIR TRANSPORT
Drugs which are ionized undr all pH conditions are transported through Ion-Pair
Quateranary Ammonium compound
Ion pair transport is a passive transport mechanism in which the drug forms a reversible
neutral complex with endogenous ion of the GIT, passively diffused through the
membrane and reaches systemic circulations.
Propanolol is a basic drug that forms a ion pair with oleic acid and absorbed
22. Facilitated diffusion is a type of passive transport
that allows substances to cross membranes with
the assistance of special transport proteins. Some
molecules and ions such as glucose, sodium ions,
and chloride ions are unable to pass through
the phospholipid bilayer of cell membranes.
Through the use of ion channel proteins and
carrier proteins that are embedded in the cell
membrane, these substances can be transported
into the cell.
25. A vesicular transport protein, is a membrane protein that regulates or facilitates the
movement of specific molecules across a vesicle's membrane
Material move in or out of cell by mean of vesicles Also known as Bulk transport
Vesicular Transport Includes:
It is a type of active transport that moves particles, such as large molecules, parts of
cells, and even whole cells, into a cell. Three Types of Endocytosis includes:
3.Recepter mediated endocytosis
26. Ingestion of a smaller cell or cell fragment, a
microorganism, or foreign particles by means
of the local infolding of a cell's membrane
Process by which liquid droplets are
ingested by living cells. Pinocytosis
is one type of endocytosis, the
general process by which cells
engulf external substances
Also called clathrin-mediated endocytosis,
is a process by which cells absorb
metabolites, hormones, other proteins –
and in some cases viruses The specificity
results from a receptor-ligand interaction.
28. Cell transports secretory products
through the cytoplasm to the plasma
Exocytosis occurs when a cell
produces substances for export, such as
a protein, or when the cell is getting rid
of a waste product or a toxin.
30. PARACELLULAR PATHWAY
It involves the aqueous route of
It refers to the transfer of drug by
passing through the intracellular spaces
between the cells.
The cells are joined together via closely
fitted junction on other apical side.
In general, absorptive epithelia, such as
that of small intestine tend be leakier
than other epithelia.
31. Lipophilicity of drug isn't needed.
Avoids drug degradation because of living thing
32. Transport of drug through the pores of biological
The drug molecules dissolve in the aqueous medium at
the site of absorption and move along with the solvent
through the aqueous pores.
Examples of drug that use Paracellular transport is
cimetidine, atenolol .urea , water , sugar .