DEFINING AND CLASSIFYING GROUPS
Group as two or more individuals, interacting and
interdependent ,who have come together to
achieve particular objectives.
Groups can be either formal or informal
Formal group define by the organization structure with
designated work. In formal group the behavior team
members should engage in are stipulated by and
directed towards organizational goals.
Informal group is neither formally structured nor
organizationally determined .Informal group are natural
formation in the work environment that appear in need
to for social contact
OTHER TYPES OF GROUPS
Interest group: The people may affiliate to attain a
specific objective with each individual is concerned
Friendship Groups: Group often develop because
individual member have one or more common
KURT LEVIN WAS A SMART DUDE
B = f(P,E)
Behavior is a function of
personal qualities and social
SOCIAL IDENTITY THEORY
Our tendency to take personal pride or offence for
the accomplishment of a group in the territory of
social identity theory.
Social identity theory proposes that people have
emotional reactions to the failure or success of their
group because their self esteem gets tied into the
performance of the group.
STAGES OF GROUP DEVELOPMENT
ALTERNATIVE MODEL FOR TEMPORARY GROUPS WITH
Punctuated Equilibrium model
PUNCTUATED EQUILIBRIUM MODEL
A set of phases that temporary groups go through
that involves transition inertia and activity
Phase 1: The first meeting sets the group direction ,
and then a framework of behavioral patterns and
assumption through which the group will approach its
Phase 2: The transition sets a revised direction phase 2
,a new equilibrium or period of inertia in which the group
executes plans created during the transition period.
The group last meeting is characterized by final
burst of activity to finish its work.
GROUP PROPERTY 1 :ROLES
A set of expected behavior pattern attributed to someone
occupying a given position in a social unit.
Shakespeare said ,“All the world’s a stage, and all the
men and women merely players.”
Role Perception : Our view of how we are supposed to
act in a given situation is a role perception.
Role Expectations : Role expectations are the way
others believe you should act in a given context.
Role Conflict :When compliance with one role
requirement may make it difficult to comply with other,
the result is role conflict.
GROUP PROPERTY 2: NORMS
Why employees don’t criticize their bosses in
public? Why not?
“The group norms are acceptable standards of
behavior shared by their members that express
what they ought and ought not to do under certain
1. Hawthorne Studies
3. Deviant Workplace Behavior
The adjustment of ones behavior to align with
norms of the group
DEVIANT WORKPLACE BEHAVIOR
Voluntary behavior that violates significant
organizational norms and, in so doing ,threatens
the well being of the organization or its members.
It is also called as antisocial behavior or workplace
A recent study suggests those working in a group
were more likely to lie ,cheat and steal than
individuals working alone.
GROUP PROPERTY 3: STATUS
Status Characteristics Theory
A theory that states that difference in status
characteristics create status hierarchies within
The power a person wield over others
A person ability to contribute to group goals
An individual person characteristics
GROUP PROPERTY 4: SIZE
Does the size of a group affects the group overall
Smaller groups are faster at completing tasks than
larger one and thus individual perform better in
smaller group than larger one.
The tendency for individuals to expend less efforts when
working collectively than when working individually
GROUP PROPERTY 5: COHESIVENESS
The degree to which group members are attracted
to each other and are motivated to stay in the group
Want to remain members
Willing to share information
Strong interpersonal bonds
Want to support each other
Resolve conflict effectively
More satisfied and experience less stress
Members of cohesive teams
"We've developed an incredibly
talented team of people running our
major businesses, and, perhaps
more important, there's a healthy
sense of collegiality, mutual trust,
and respect for performance that
pervades this organization.”
Former CEO of General Electric
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