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Presented by Joel Acosta
• CLT origins, can be found in changes in the British
Language teaching tradition in the 1960s.
• Back then, the Situational Language teaching
approach was the norm.
• SLT consisted in internalizing the structures of a
• Mostly, learning grammar rules without vocabulary
• The SLT did not fill the need to develop language
competence in Language teaching.
• A group of experts saw the need to focus in communicative
proficiency rather than mastery of structures. (Richards, J.C.
& Rodgers, T.S. p.64)
• Sandra J. Savignon, Christopher Candlin, D.A. Wilkins and
Henry Widdowson along with others promoted the CLT
• Along with the changes in Europe it helped to reform the
Communicative Language Teaching
• CLT approach
• CLT objectives
• Learner´s role
• Teacher´s role
SCHOLARS BRITISH APPLIED LINGUISTS who advocated CLT
Cristopher Candlin (2001) and Henry Widdowson (1990).
They began to see that a focus on structure was also not helping
language students. They saw a need for students to develop
communicative skill and functional competence in addition to
mastering language structures
John Firth (1937), M.A.K Halliday (1978)
Language is viewed as ‘‘meaning potential,’’ and the ‘‘context of
situation’’ is viewed as central to understanding language systems
and how they work.
Language philosophers: John Austin (1962) &John Searle (1965)
They based on the assumption that “(…) the minimal units of
human communication are not linguistic expressions, but rather the
performance of certain kinds of acts, such as
• making statements,
• asking questions,
• giving directions,
• thanking, and so on”
Contradicted Chomsky’s theory on what Competence referred to.
He coined the term Communicative Competence. He developed
the Communicative Approach in the 1970s. This Approach
replaced Situational Language Teaching.
Dell Hymes (1971), John Gumperz (1972), William Labov (1970)
CLT emphasizes interaction and problem solving as both the
means and the ultimate goal of learning English - or any language.
As such, it tends to emphasize activities such as role play, pair work
and group work. (Teflpedia)
CLT is the product of educators and linguists who had grown
dissatisfied with the audiolingual and grammar-translation methods
of foreign language instruction. (Center for Applied linguistics)
CLT aims at developing procedures for the teaching of the four
skills that acknowledge the interdependence of language and
communication. It aims at having students become
communicatively competent.(Yemen Times)
Strategic Competence Pedagogy
Creation of an atmosphere
The teacher is facilitator
Use of concepts
Use of strategies
Sociocultural use of language Behaviorism
Interactional function Cognitivism
Personal function Constructivism
Interpersonal relationship Functionalism
Cooperativism rather than individualism
• The objective of language learning is: to learn to
express communication functions and categories of
• Purpose of CLT: Let students communicate fluently in a
target language (L2).
• Develop “communicative competence”(Hymes, 1972).
• Contrary to the traditional Grammar translation
• Lists, rules, translations
CLT Approach Principals
• Use Language as:
- means of communication
- object of learning
- means of expressing values
• Focus on communication rather than structure
• Language learning within the school curriculum
• Focus on meaningful tasks
• The learner role as a negotiator, between himself, the
learning process, interaction with the group’s activities and
• In other words, the learner should contribute as much as he
gains in the classroom, learning in an interdependent way.
(Richards J., C., Rodgers T. S.(p.77).
• Two main roles:
• First, to facilitate the communication process between all
participants in the classroom, and a guide between
students activities and texts.
• Second, to act as an independent participant within the
learning-teaching group. (Richards J.C., Rodgers T. S.(p.77).
• Materials are seen as a way of influencing the quality of
classroom interaction and language use.
• They have promote communicative language use.
• Some Instructional Materials are:
– Visual cues
– Taped cues
– Pictures (Flash cards)
The Role of Instructional Materials
• Realia (from real life, authentic)
• Wh- questions (Why, What, When, Where, Who)
• Role Plays
Other Instructional Materials
• This approach can help future teachers develop their students’
oral communication skills.
• Students will lose the fear of communicating in a second
language, in this case English as a Second Language. (ESL)
• It can help promote confidence and security in the classroom
environment, in everyday use, and when travelling abroad.
• CLT is a new way of encouraging students to speak more and to
get involve in their classroom activities
Richards, J ; Rodgers, T. “Approaches and Methods in Language
Teaching” 5th ed.1989. Melbourne. Cambridge University Press
Celce-Murcia, M. (1991). Language Teaching Approaches. In M.
Celce-Murcia (Ed.), Teaching English as a Second or Foreign
Language. (pp.3-10). Boston, Massachusetts: Heinle & Heinle.