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KAYCE JOY L. SALIENDREZ
MR. JOEY SEMILLA
Kayce Joy L.Saliendrez BEED III Page 1
ANSWERS IN ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION
1. Regarding the global warming, why is the “atmosphere” the
most vulnerable part of the Earth’s atmosphere?
It is most vulnerable because it is so thin. Indeed, the Earth‘s
atmosphere is so thin that we have the capacity to dramatically alter
the concentration of some o fit basic molecular components. In
particular, we have vastly increased the amount of carbon dioxide--the
most important of the so-called greenhouse gases.
2. How do scientists measure CO2 in the snow?
They use some instrument to measure the Co2 in the snow. The
scientist measures CO2 in the snow by using the color (blue) as a sign
of COLD and (red) as a sign of WARM.
3. Describe the connection between he temperature and CO2.
The correlation between temperate and CO2 concentrations over the last
1,000 years--as measured in the ice core record by Thompson‘s team--is
striking. Nevertheless, the so-called global warming skeptics often say that
global warming is really an illusion reflecting nature‘s cyclical fluctuations.
Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a "greenhouse gas." It absorbs energy from the
Sun and then releases it back into the atmosphere. This "greenhouse effect"
keeps the Earth warmer than it would be if this process did. A major reason
for the drop in atmospheric CO2 as temperatures decrease is that colder
oceans are able to dissolve more CO2. There is a constant exchange of
CO2 between the atmosphere and the oceans. Gas is dissolved and also
released into the atmosphere. The balance is determined largely by
temperature not occur. The drops in CO2 concentration do not always begin
until after a cooling period has begun. Then, as an ice age is ending, the
concentrations may remain low for some time into the warming period. This
means that the CO2 changes cannot be the driving force in initiating these
major climate shifts. But as the climate cools, the concentration of
CO2 drops and this has a further cooling effect. And as the climate is
warming, more CO2 is released into the atmosphere, further increasing
global temperatures. This is called a positive feedback loop.
Kayce Joy L.Saliendrez BEED III Page 2
4. When have the ten hottest years on record taken place?
The hottest year on record during this entire period was 2005.
5. What changes take place in the oceans when the temperature get
As the oceans get warmer, storms get stronger. In 2004, Florida was
hit by 4 unusually powerful hurricanes. That same year, Japan set an all-
time record for typhoons. The previous record was 7. In 2004, 10 typhoons
hit Japan. The emerging consensus links global warming to increasingly
destructive power of hurricanes, increasing the strength of the average
hurricane a full half-step on the well-known 5-step scale. As water
temperatures go up, wind velocity goes up.
6. Explain what’s happening to the permafrost.
Permafrost is defined solely by temperature. It can contain over 30
percent ice, or practically no ice at all. It can be overlain by several meters
of snow, or little or no snow. This recent climate warming brought soil
temperatures to a surprisingly high level, about 1 to 3°C warmer than long-
term averages. Within some areas, temperatures are very close to 0°C and
at some sites long-term degradation has already started. Areas of forest are
now referred to as ‗drunken forests‘, and as it melts the trees fall over.
―The slow melting of the permafrost layer which underlies much of the
Arctic tundra could turn the ground into a messy quagmire. This could affect
northern transportation since in many areas surface travel is possible only
when the ground is frozen solid.‖ In fact the number of days vehicles can
use perma-roads each year has reduced from 225 days per year, to less
than 25 days per year over the past 30 years. Buildings and other structures
such as pipelines built directly on permafrost are becoming unstable as well,
and sometimes causing landslides.
The frozen ground stores a lot of carbon, with upper layers estimated
to contain more organic carbon than is currently contained in the
atmosphere. Thawing of this frozen ground results in the release of carbon in
the form of greenhouse gases which will have a positive feedback effect to
Kayce Joy L.Saliendrez BEED III Page 3
7. Describe how the arctic ice cap melts.
Since the 1970s, the extent & thickness of the Artic ice cap has
diminished precipitously. There are now studies showing that if we continue
with business as usual, the Artic ice cap will completely disappear each year
during summertime. At present, it plays a crucial role in cooling the Earth.
Preventing its disappearance must be one of our priorities. The melting of
the ice cap represents bad news for creatures like polar bears they have
been drowning in significant numbers.
8. What area of the world is currently feeling the most impact from
global warming? Why is this?
Bangladesh, Sudan, Caribbean, Australia, Siberia, Tuvalu, Great
Barrier Reef, Alps, Britain. Based on what I‘ve watch there are lots of
area that is currently feeling the most impact from global warming
aside from it is industrialized country they have lots of factories that
affect they‘re environment and health. Since they are so industrialized,
many establishments emit CO2 in the atmosphere. Thus contributing
much in the global warming.
9. How does population growth impact global warming?
The growth of the human population and the growth of consumption
adds up to an ever-escalating carbon output. Two factors are acting as
catalysts of increased carbon levels in our atmosphere; Increasing
consumption among the wealthy. Increasing population among the poor. As
the population increases, more and more human consumption increases.
And as human consumption increase, global warming gets worse because
more greenhouse gases are emitted in our atmosphere.
10. Why are there bigger quantities of CO2 emissions now because of
our modern technologies?
The word "technology" is a broad term and does not simply refer to
high-tech inventions or computerization, which is actually the misconception.
Technology comprises the crafting of materials and transforming them into
implements that allow man to control or manipulate natural resources in
order to meet his needs. Due to modernization, more technology are
produced, and more carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases are also
emitted. As I read other articles in the Reader‘s Digest, one of the big
problems in U.S is the increasing E-Waste of the people. Every day they
produced thousand up to millions of tons of E-waste which greatly contribute
Kayce Joy L.Saliendrez BEED III Page 4
to global warming. Furthermore in the U.S., the mining industries brought
acid mine drainage problems that led to a series of chemical reactions. It
resulted into contamination of both surface and groundwater as natural
sources of drinking water. The growth, development and propagation of fish
and other aquatic life became disrupted. Waste water pipes, bridges and
other metal structures submerged underwater resulted to corrosion and
subsequently acid run-offs.Moreover, Technology that was used for warfare
brought other detriments that emanated from the manufacture of chemical
weapons for mass destruction. Large amounts of Mercury waste material
was said to have been released in the environment at the time when nuclear
weapons were being manufactured. TNT or Trinitrotoluol, is a known
environmental hazard because of its ability and persistence to seep into the
ground. The most frightening of all are the weapons of Biological Warfare
which can be used even if there are no wars being waged but simply to sow
terror. Infectious microorganisms in some form or substance will be released
to cause death by way of diseases that will affect all living things, man,
animals and plants.
11. Which country has the highest CO2 emission?
One of the countries that have the highest CO2 emission is the US
because it is industrialized country they have different discoveries that might
affect the environment. The electromagnetic radiation emits some instances
problem because of it. In 2008, the top carbon dioxide (CO2) emitters were
China, the United States, the European Union, India, the Russian Federation,
Japan, and Canada. These data include CO2 emissions from fossil fuel
combustion, as well as cement manufacturing and gas flaring. Together,
these sources represent a large proportion of total global CO2 emissions.
12. What will happen if global continues to get worse?
If global warming continues, it will have devastating effects on humans and
wildlife. Some animals might actually do better, but mostly the oceans will
rise compared to where they are today and lots of places will drown. Most
experts now agree that a 2 degree raise in global temperature is certain by
2100. This is going to have far reaching consequences. The biggest, I think,
will be the global distribution of water. Most predictions show that dry areas
get drier and wet areas will get wetter and this causes us problems in
producing the food we need. Indeed, producing the food we need to feed a
Kayce Joy L.Saliendrez BEED III Page 5
global population over the next 50 to 100 years will be a major challenge –
one enhanced by the impact that climate change will have.
Another big issue will be sea-level rise. Higher temperatures will raise global
sea levels – likely by around 50 cm by 2100. Given that more than 200
million people live in coastal areas at sea-level this will be a huge issue in
terms of either coastal defense construction or re-location.
Global warming creates many problems, and not just that the air gets
too hot. One problem is that global warming results in more typhoons,
hurricanes, and storms. Do you know how water circulates? It falls down
from the clouds as rain, then it flows into rivers and oceans, then it
evaporates into the sky, and finally it falls down as rain again. The amount
of water that evaporates from the oceans increases when temperatures rise.
When it rains more, it floods more often. As everyone knows,
hurricanes and floods can cause tremendous damage. Houses get blown or
swept away, roads and bridges are destroyed, and many people die. Also, as
temperatures rise, ice melts. Indeed, the Arctic and Antarctic ice caps have
been melting away in recent years. Polar bears in the Arctic and emperor
penguins in Antarctica are in trouble.
There are some ecological problems that can result from global
warming. One of these problems is that the bugs in our world aren‘t being
killed by the frost anymore. There are also new diseases such as sars from
the other new species. Lately, global warming has been melting parts of
Greenland and Antarctica. If both Antarctica and Greenland melted 100%,
sea level all over our planet would raise around 40 feet.
Kayce Joy L.Saliendrez BEED III Page 6
1. Name daily choices people make that either increase or
decrease the earth.
1 of the 3 factors that could lead to a collision between civilization and
earth is that the population is growing quite quickly. More people = more
water, which could affect our water supply. The 2nd factor is that the
technology is growing quite quickly as well and the society doesn‘t need
manual equipment/tools. The 3rd factor is that the evolution of the planet is
growing fast. We don‘t really notice or care that global warming is happening
so it seems like nothing is changing.
2. The bigger the problem of global warming gets, how does it
affect: the soil and land; the people of the earth; the season
Those things are being affected by the global warming, because it
increases the soil and land when people used in a wrong way like people
cutting trees then expect that landslide or flashflood is the outcome of it
and people will affected while animals too and the climate might change
also because we are not aware of everything.
The main potential changes in soil-forming factors (forcing variables)
directly resulting from global change would be in organic matter supply
from biomass, soil temperature regime and soil hydrology, the latter
because of shifts in rainfall zones as well as changes in potential
evapotranspiration. Soil changes because of a potential rise in sea level
resulting from a net reduction in Antarctic ice cap volume and ocean
warming are discussed in Brammer and Brinkman (1990) and are
summarized at the end of this paper.
The biggest single change in soils expected as a result of these
postulated forcing changes would be a gradual improvement in fertility and
physical conditions of soils in humid and subhumid climates. Another major
change would be the poleward retreat of the permafrost boundary,
discussed by Goryachkin and Targulian (1990). Other widespread changes
would be in degree rather than in kind. Certain tropical soils with low
physico-chemical activity, such as in the Amazon region, may undergo a
radical change from one major soil-forming process to another (Sombroek,
1990), as discussed below under Processes in soils.
Kayce Joy L.Saliendrez BEED III Page 7
The changes in temperature but particularly in rainfall to be expected
as a result of global warming are subject to major uncertainties for several
reasons. Different global circulation models do not lead to mutually
consistent results (an example for Europe is given by Santer, 1985), and
they are not yet adequately verified. Also, the interaction with changes in
location and intensity of major ocean currents and resultant possible
modifications in sea surface temperatures is still most uncertain, as well as
the interaction with possible major changes in cloudiness and land cover
and the resulting changes in albedo and actual evapotranspiration.
Indirect effects of climate change on soils through CO2-induced
increases in growth rates or water-use efficiencies, through sea-level rise,
through climate-induced decrease or increase in vegetative cover, or a
change in human influence on soils because of the changes in options for the
farmer, for example, may well each be greater than direct effects on soils of
higher temperatures or greater rainfall variability and larger or smaller
Global climate change will affect people and the environment in many
ways. Some of these impacts, like stronger hurricanes and severe heat
waves, could be life threatening. Others, like spreading weeds, will be less
serious. And some effects, like longer growing seasons for crops, might even
be good! However, as the Earth keeps getting warmer, the negative effects
are expected to outweigh the positive ones.
3.Explain the process of how CO2 gets trapped and causes the
earth’s temperature to rise.
Fossil fuels such as gasoline, methane and propane contain mostly
carbon. When these fuels are burned, they react with oxygen and produce
Because of our heavy use of fossil fuels, the amount of carbon dioxide in
the atmosphere has been increasing since the industrial revolution. The
destruction of forests which use carbon dioxide also contributes to the
increase in carbon dioxide.
Most of the light energy from the sun is emitted in wavelengths
shorter than 4,000 nanometers (.000004 meters). The heat energy
released from the earth, however, is released in wavelengths longer than
4,000 nanometers. Carbon dioxide doesn't absorb the energy from the sun,
Kayce Joy L.Saliendrez BEED III Page 8
but it does absorb some of the heat energy released from the earth. When
a molecule of carbon dioxide absorbs heat energy, it goes into an excited
unstable state. It can become stable again by releasing the energy it
absorbed. Some of the released energy will go back to the earth and some
will go out into space.
So in effect, carbon dioxide lets the light energy in, but doesn't let all of the
heat energy out, similar to a greenhouse.
Currently, the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is increasing at
the rate of about one part per million per year. If this continues, some
meteorologists expect that the average temperature of the earth will
increase by about 2.5 degrees Celsius. This doesn't sound like much, but it
could be enough to cause glaciers to melt, which would cause coastal
4. Where and why do “Skeptics of global warming come from and
why do they take the position that they do?
Skeptics of global warming come from and take position by
unbelieving those person are disposed to skepticism especially regarding
religion or religious principles that produce some difficulties evidence about
5. Why do think it’s important for you to take a stand on global
It is very important for me to take a stand in global warming because I‘m
one of millions up to billions of people in the world who is greatly affected
by this ecological problem. I should be vigilant about this problem since I‘m
also a human living in Earth which is greatly affected by global warming.
6. How would you take stand? What would you do differently in
As I a student I can contribute in lessening the effect of global
warming in my own little way. Let‘s start it at home. Let‘s practice the 3R‘s:
Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle. Moreover, I can also participate in activities
concerning our environment. It could be in our school, and community.
Kayce Joy L.Saliendrez BEED III Page 9
7. What are current environmental tragedies taking place in the
world e.g. record temperatures in Los Angeles, Libya, Saudi Arabia,
20 million people affected by flooding in Pakistan; 24 million acres
of wheat ruined because of extreme heat in Russia? Bring in a
newspaper or magazine article about an environmental tragedy
somewhere in the world and share it with the class, also describe
your personal feelings after reading about the tragedy?
Devastating toxic events are the new normal
April 7, 2014
On March 22nd, almost 170,000 gallons of heavy marine fuel poured into
Galveston Bay on the Texas coast after two commercial boats collided in the
busy waterway. In Indiana, on March 24th, energy giant BP spilled as many
as 1600 gallons of oil — a mix of domestic crude and tar sands oil from
Canada — into Lake Michigan, the primary source of drinking water for
Chicago's seven million residents. And on March 17th, 20,000 gallons of
pipeline oil leaked into a nature preserve in southwest Ohio. Meanwhile,
January's Elk River chemical spill, which contaminated the drinking water of
Kayce Joy L.Saliendrez BEED III Page 10
300,000 West Virginians, continues to frighten citizens, many of whom are
still not drinking or bathing in it.
Pollution has long been an accepted cost of cheap energy production,
particularly in states desperate for jobs. Big Energy is a powerful presence in
Washington, working hard to block and gut environmental regulation and to
defang the agencies tasked with protecting the country's natural resources.
Weak or outdated laws governing toxic chemicals, and the absence
of standardized oversight, tracking mechanisms or meaningful punishment
for oil spills and leaks gives industry the leeway to keep polluting.
In the last twelve months, a rash of devastating oil, coal ash and chemical
incidents have highlighted how extreme environmental degradation is now
Kayce Joy L.Saliendrez BEED III Page 11
GLOBAL WARMING/CARBON BUILD-UP DESCRIBED IN A NUTSHELL
1. Matter and energy are neither created nor destroyed, but may change
forms and locations?
It connotes that it is a serious matters or problems to us that our
physical and intellectual energy might decrease because of what people do
in their environment. Everything in this earth might change into different
way that our needs might night support us.
2. Carbon Dioxide (Co2) moves back and forth from photosynthesis (what
trees and plants do) to cellular respiration (what humans do without being
They are just pretending that they do not put it anything but the real is
they put different things on the plants for easily growing.
3. Trees and plants take in carbon dioxide and water vapor and put out
oxygen and glucose. Humans do just the opposite; they take in oxygen and
glucose and put out carbon dioxide and water vapor. The balance between
these two systems has been perfect up until the industrial age during which
man‘s impact on the earth has been getting larger and larger?
Yes, human do the opposite, but we can‘t deny the fact that some people
do not set aside this! Maybe because they can‘t. But it is badly needed by
everyone and it supposed to give an important thing for them. It‘s a call for
us to realize that it is not just an easy way but rather it invests a lot of
changes in our world.
4. ―The problem‖ that our environment is experiencing is that human activity
here on earth is now altering the rates of these flows between humans and
existing amount of trees and plants on the earth. More Carbon dioxide, CO2,
is being produced by humans than the trees and plants can take in as a
result, the excess amount of carbon gets stored in the earth‘s atmosphere
each year instead of being used up by the existing trees and plants. This
make it so more heat is trapped in the atmosphere every year from the
sun‘s rays and explains why the earth‘s warming continues to get worse
In this case, we need a lot of cooperation and participation to
widespread this problem, for them to know what will happen in next
generation if this process will continue and continue again. It‘s not easy
but if we have companion we can easily give a lot of detail about it.
Kayce Joy L.Saliendrez BEED III Page 12
Global Warming is the increase of Earth's average surface
temperature due to effect of greenhouse gases, such as carbon
dioxide emissions from burning fossil fuels or from deforestation,
which trap heat that would otherwise escape from Earth. This is a
type of greenhouse effect. Earth's climate is mostly influenced by the
first 6 miles or so of the atmosphere which contains most of the
matter making up the atmosphere. This is really a very thin layer if
you think about it.
Based on what I’ve watched, the movie entitled “the
Inconvenient Truth” Global warming has been a big alarm to us
Human. In this movie there are 3 misconceptions about global
warming which are ;That there is disagreement about what and how
global warming is happening. That global warming seems fake due
to the lack of speed of how long it takes to see a difference in global
warming. That we don’t have the tools or are unable to decrease or
help the issue about global warming. Which in fact we should be
ware of our environmental problems because we are greatly affected
by this problem. We are all living in one planet so we need to be
vigilant about this. Let us not go easy on this matter. This is a big
deal to us.
Let us start taking action inside our home, community, country and
into the world. Some things that you can do to help global warming
and reducing the amount of CO2 emissions are: Change light bulbs
to compact fluorescent bulbs: you can save 150 pounds of CO2Turn
off the lights when not required: you can save thousands of
CO2.Plant trees: you can save 1 ton of CO2. Adjust the thermostat:
Kayce Joy L.Saliendrez BEED III Page 13
you can save around 2,000 pound of CO2.Don’t purchase packaged
products: you can save 1,200 pounds of CO2.Recycle: you can save
2,400 pounds of CO2.