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Answers in environmental education @kaye

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Answers in environmental education @kaye

  1. 1. qwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqw ertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwert yuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyui opasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopa sdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdf ghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghj klzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklz xcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcv bnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbn mqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmq wertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwe rtyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwerty uiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuio pasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopas dfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfg hjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjk Submitted by: KAYCE JOY L. SALIENDREZ Submitted to: MR. JOEY SEMILLA
  2. 2. Kayce Joy L.Saliendrez BEED III Page 1 ANSWERS IN ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION Specific Questions: 1. Regarding the global warming, why is the “atmosphere” the most vulnerable part of the Earth’s atmosphere? It is most vulnerable because it is so thin. Indeed, the Earth‘s atmosphere is so thin that we have the capacity to dramatically alter the concentration of some o fit basic molecular components. In particular, we have vastly increased the amount of carbon dioxide--the most important of the so-called greenhouse gases. 2. How do scientists measure CO2 in the snow? They use some instrument to measure the Co2 in the snow. The scientist measures CO2 in the snow by using the color (blue) as a sign of COLD and (red) as a sign of WARM. 3. Describe the connection between he temperature and CO2. The correlation between temperate and CO2 concentrations over the last 1,000 years--as measured in the ice core record by Thompson‘s team--is striking. Nevertheless, the so-called global warming skeptics often say that global warming is really an illusion reflecting nature‘s cyclical fluctuations. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a "greenhouse gas." It absorbs energy from the Sun and then releases it back into the atmosphere. This "greenhouse effect" keeps the Earth warmer than it would be if this process did. A major reason for the drop in atmospheric CO2 as temperatures decrease is that colder oceans are able to dissolve more CO2. There is a constant exchange of CO2 between the atmosphere and the oceans. Gas is dissolved and also released into the atmosphere. The balance is determined largely by temperature not occur. The drops in CO2 concentration do not always begin until after a cooling period has begun. Then, as an ice age is ending, the concentrations may remain low for some time into the warming period. This means that the CO2 changes cannot be the driving force in initiating these major climate shifts. But as the climate cools, the concentration of CO2 drops and this has a further cooling effect. And as the climate is warming, more CO2 is released into the atmosphere, further increasing global temperatures. This is called a positive feedback loop.
  3. 3. Kayce Joy L.Saliendrez BEED III Page 2 4. When have the ten hottest years on record taken place? The hottest year on record during this entire period was 2005. 5. What changes take place in the oceans when the temperature get warmer? As the oceans get warmer, storms get stronger. In 2004, Florida was hit by 4 unusually powerful hurricanes. That same year, Japan set an all- time record for typhoons. The previous record was 7. In 2004, 10 typhoons hit Japan. The emerging consensus links global warming to increasingly destructive power of hurricanes, increasing the strength of the average hurricane a full half-step on the well-known 5-step scale. As water temperatures go up, wind velocity goes up. 6. Explain what’s happening to the permafrost. Permafrost is defined solely by temperature. It can contain over 30 percent ice, or practically no ice at all. It can be overlain by several meters of snow, or little or no snow. This recent climate warming brought soil temperatures to a surprisingly high level, about 1 to 3°C warmer than long- term averages. Within some areas, temperatures are very close to 0°C and at some sites long-term degradation has already started. Areas of forest are now referred to as ‗drunken forests‘, and as it melts the trees fall over. ―The slow melting of the permafrost layer which underlies much of the Arctic tundra could turn the ground into a messy quagmire. This could affect northern transportation since in many areas surface travel is possible only when the ground is frozen solid.‖ In fact the number of days vehicles can use perma-roads each year has reduced from 225 days per year, to less than 25 days per year over the past 30 years. Buildings and other structures such as pipelines built directly on permafrost are becoming unstable as well, and sometimes causing landslides. The frozen ground stores a lot of carbon, with upper layers estimated to contain more organic carbon than is currently contained in the atmosphere. Thawing of this frozen ground results in the release of carbon in the form of greenhouse gases which will have a positive feedback effect to global warming.
  4. 4. Kayce Joy L.Saliendrez BEED III Page 3 7. Describe how the arctic ice cap melts. Since the 1970s, the extent & thickness of the Artic ice cap has diminished precipitously. There are now studies showing that if we continue with business as usual, the Artic ice cap will completely disappear each year during summertime. At present, it plays a crucial role in cooling the Earth. Preventing its disappearance must be one of our priorities. The melting of the ice cap represents bad news for creatures like polar bears they have been drowning in significant numbers. 8. What area of the world is currently feeling the most impact from global warming? Why is this?  Bangladesh, Sudan, Caribbean, Australia, Siberia, Tuvalu, Great Barrier Reef, Alps, Britain. Based on what I‘ve watch there are lots of area that is currently feeling the most impact from global warming aside from it is industrialized country they have lots of factories that affect they‘re environment and health. Since they are so industrialized, many establishments emit CO2 in the atmosphere. Thus contributing much in the global warming. 9. How does population growth impact global warming? The growth of the human population and the growth of consumption adds up to an ever-escalating carbon output. Two factors are acting as catalysts of increased carbon levels in our atmosphere; Increasing consumption among the wealthy. Increasing population among the poor. As the population increases, more and more human consumption increases. And as human consumption increase, global warming gets worse because more greenhouse gases are emitted in our atmosphere. 10. Why are there bigger quantities of CO2 emissions now because of our modern technologies? The word "technology" is a broad term and does not simply refer to high-tech inventions or computerization, which is actually the misconception. Technology comprises the crafting of materials and transforming them into implements that allow man to control or manipulate natural resources in order to meet his needs. Due to modernization, more technology are produced, and more carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases are also emitted. As I read other articles in the Reader‘s Digest, one of the big problems in U.S is the increasing E-Waste of the people. Every day they produced thousand up to millions of tons of E-waste which greatly contribute
  5. 5. Kayce Joy L.Saliendrez BEED III Page 4 to global warming. Furthermore in the U.S., the mining industries brought acid mine drainage problems that led to a series of chemical reactions. It resulted into contamination of both surface and groundwater as natural sources of drinking water. The growth, development and propagation of fish and other aquatic life became disrupted. Waste water pipes, bridges and other metal structures submerged underwater resulted to corrosion and subsequently acid run-offs.Moreover, Technology that was used for warfare brought other detriments that emanated from the manufacture of chemical weapons for mass destruction. Large amounts of Mercury waste material was said to have been released in the environment at the time when nuclear weapons were being manufactured. TNT or Trinitrotoluol, is a known environmental hazard because of its ability and persistence to seep into the ground. The most frightening of all are the weapons of Biological Warfare which can be used even if there are no wars being waged but simply to sow terror. Infectious microorganisms in some form or substance will be released to cause death by way of diseases that will affect all living things, man, animals and plants. 11. Which country has the highest CO2 emission? One of the countries that have the highest CO2 emission is the US because it is industrialized country they have different discoveries that might affect the environment. The electromagnetic radiation emits some instances problem because of it. In 2008, the top carbon dioxide (CO2) emitters were China, the United States, the European Union, India, the Russian Federation, Japan, and Canada. These data include CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion, as well as cement manufacturing and gas flaring. Together, these sources represent a large proportion of total global CO2 emissions. 12. What will happen if global continues to get worse? If global warming continues, it will have devastating effects on humans and wildlife. Some animals might actually do better, but mostly the oceans will rise compared to where they are today and lots of places will drown. Most experts now agree that a 2 degree raise in global temperature is certain by 2100. This is going to have far reaching consequences. The biggest, I think, will be the global distribution of water. Most predictions show that dry areas get drier and wet areas will get wetter and this causes us problems in producing the food we need. Indeed, producing the food we need to feed a
  6. 6. Kayce Joy L.Saliendrez BEED III Page 5 global population over the next 50 to 100 years will be a major challenge – one enhanced by the impact that climate change will have. Another big issue will be sea-level rise. Higher temperatures will raise global sea levels – likely by around 50 cm by 2100. Given that more than 200 million people live in coastal areas at sea-level this will be a huge issue in terms of either coastal defense construction or re-location. Global warming creates many problems, and not just that the air gets too hot. One problem is that global warming results in more typhoons, hurricanes, and storms. Do you know how water circulates? It falls down from the clouds as rain, then it flows into rivers and oceans, then it evaporates into the sky, and finally it falls down as rain again. The amount of water that evaporates from the oceans increases when temperatures rise. When it rains more, it floods more often. As everyone knows, hurricanes and floods can cause tremendous damage. Houses get blown or swept away, roads and bridges are destroyed, and many people die. Also, as temperatures rise, ice melts. Indeed, the Arctic and Antarctic ice caps have been melting away in recent years. Polar bears in the Arctic and emperor penguins in Antarctica are in trouble. There are some ecological problems that can result from global warming. One of these problems is that the bugs in our world aren‘t being killed by the frost anymore. There are also new diseases such as sars from the other new species. Lately, global warming has been melting parts of Greenland and Antarctica. If both Antarctica and Greenland melted 100%, sea level all over our planet would raise around 40 feet.
  7. 7. Kayce Joy L.Saliendrez BEED III Page 6 General Questions: 1. Name daily choices people make that either increase or decrease the earth. 1 of the 3 factors that could lead to a collision between civilization and earth is that the population is growing quite quickly. More people = more water, which could affect our water supply. The 2nd factor is that the technology is growing quite quickly as well and the society doesn‘t need manual equipment/tools. The 3rd factor is that the evolution of the planet is growing fast. We don‘t really notice or care that global warming is happening so it seems like nothing is changing. 2. The bigger the problem of global warming gets, how does it affect: the soil and land; the people of the earth; the season and animals? Those things are being affected by the global warming, because it increases the soil and land when people used in a wrong way like people cutting trees then expect that landslide or flashflood is the outcome of it and people will affected while animals too and the climate might change also because we are not aware of everything. The main potential changes in soil-forming factors (forcing variables) directly resulting from global change would be in organic matter supply from biomass, soil temperature regime and soil hydrology, the latter because of shifts in rainfall zones as well as changes in potential evapotranspiration. Soil changes because of a potential rise in sea level resulting from a net reduction in Antarctic ice cap volume and ocean warming are discussed in Brammer and Brinkman (1990) and are summarized at the end of this paper. The biggest single change in soils expected as a result of these postulated forcing changes would be a gradual improvement in fertility and physical conditions of soils in humid and subhumid climates. Another major change would be the poleward retreat of the permafrost boundary, discussed by Goryachkin and Targulian (1990). Other widespread changes would be in degree rather than in kind. Certain tropical soils with low physico-chemical activity, such as in the Amazon region, may undergo a radical change from one major soil-forming process to another (Sombroek, 1990), as discussed below under Processes in soils.
  8. 8. Kayce Joy L.Saliendrez BEED III Page 7 The changes in temperature but particularly in rainfall to be expected as a result of global warming are subject to major uncertainties for several reasons. Different global circulation models do not lead to mutually consistent results (an example for Europe is given by Santer, 1985), and they are not yet adequately verified. Also, the interaction with changes in location and intensity of major ocean currents and resultant possible modifications in sea surface temperatures is still most uncertain, as well as the interaction with possible major changes in cloudiness and land cover and the resulting changes in albedo and actual evapotranspiration. Indirect effects of climate change on soils through CO2-induced increases in growth rates or water-use efficiencies, through sea-level rise, through climate-induced decrease or increase in vegetative cover, or a change in human influence on soils because of the changes in options for the farmer, for example, may well each be greater than direct effects on soils of higher temperatures or greater rainfall variability and larger or smaller rainfall totals. Global climate change will affect people and the environment in many ways. Some of these impacts, like stronger hurricanes and severe heat waves, could be life threatening. Others, like spreading weeds, will be less serious. And some effects, like longer growing seasons for crops, might even be good! However, as the Earth keeps getting warmer, the negative effects are expected to outweigh the positive ones. 3.Explain the process of how CO2 gets trapped and causes the earth’s temperature to rise. Fossil fuels such as gasoline, methane and propane contain mostly carbon. When these fuels are burned, they react with oxygen and produce carbon dioxide. Because of our heavy use of fossil fuels, the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has been increasing since the industrial revolution. The destruction of forests which use carbon dioxide also contributes to the increase in carbon dioxide. Most of the light energy from the sun is emitted in wavelengths shorter than 4,000 nanometers (.000004 meters). The heat energy released from the earth, however, is released in wavelengths longer than 4,000 nanometers. Carbon dioxide doesn't absorb the energy from the sun,
  9. 9. Kayce Joy L.Saliendrez BEED III Page 8 but it does absorb some of the heat energy released from the earth. When a molecule of carbon dioxide absorbs heat energy, it goes into an excited unstable state. It can become stable again by releasing the energy it absorbed. Some of the released energy will go back to the earth and some will go out into space. So in effect, carbon dioxide lets the light energy in, but doesn't let all of the heat energy out, similar to a greenhouse. Currently, the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is increasing at the rate of about one part per million per year. If this continues, some meteorologists expect that the average temperature of the earth will increase by about 2.5 degrees Celsius. This doesn't sound like much, but it could be enough to cause glaciers to melt, which would cause coastal flooding. 4. Where and why do “Skeptics of global warming come from and why do they take the position that they do? Skeptics of global warming come from and take position by unbelieving those person are disposed to skepticism especially regarding religion or religious principles that produce some difficulties evidence about everything. 5. Why do think it’s important for you to take a stand on global warming? It is very important for me to take a stand in global warming because I‘m one of millions up to billions of people in the world who is greatly affected by this ecological problem. I should be vigilant about this problem since I‘m also a human living in Earth which is greatly affected by global warming. 6. How would you take stand? What would you do differently in your life? As I a student I can contribute in lessening the effect of global warming in my own little way. Let‘s start it at home. Let‘s practice the 3R‘s: Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle. Moreover, I can also participate in activities concerning our environment. It could be in our school, and community.
  10. 10. Kayce Joy L.Saliendrez BEED III Page 9 7. What are current environmental tragedies taking place in the world e.g. record temperatures in Los Angeles, Libya, Saudi Arabia, 20 million people affected by flooding in Pakistan; 24 million acres of wheat ruined because of extreme heat in Russia? Bring in a newspaper or magazine article about an environmental tragedy somewhere in the world and share it with the class, also describe your personal feelings after reading about the tragedy? Devastating toxic events are the new normal April 7, 2014 On March 22nd, almost 170,000 gallons of heavy marine fuel poured into Galveston Bay on the Texas coast after two commercial boats collided in the busy waterway. In Indiana, on March 24th, energy giant BP spilled as many as 1600 gallons of oil — a mix of domestic crude and tar sands oil from Canada — into Lake Michigan, the primary source of drinking water for Chicago's seven million residents. And on March 17th, 20,000 gallons of pipeline oil leaked into a nature preserve in southwest Ohio. Meanwhile, January's Elk River chemical spill, which contaminated the drinking water of
  11. 11. Kayce Joy L.Saliendrez BEED III Page 10 300,000 West Virginians, continues to frighten citizens, many of whom are still not drinking or bathing in it. Pollution has long been an accepted cost of cheap energy production, particularly in states desperate for jobs. Big Energy is a powerful presence in Washington, working hard to block and gut environmental regulation and to defang the agencies tasked with protecting the country's natural resources. Weak or outdated laws governing toxic chemicals, and the absence of standardized oversight, tracking mechanisms or meaningful punishment for oil spills and leaks gives industry the leeway to keep polluting. In the last twelve months, a rash of devastating oil, coal ash and chemical incidents have highlighted how extreme environmental degradation is now standard practice.
  12. 12. Kayce Joy L.Saliendrez BEED III Page 11 GLOBAL WARMING/CARBON BUILD-UP DESCRIBED IN A NUTSHELL 1. Matter and energy are neither created nor destroyed, but may change forms and locations? It connotes that it is a serious matters or problems to us that our physical and intellectual energy might decrease because of what people do in their environment. Everything in this earth might change into different way that our needs might night support us. 2. Carbon Dioxide (Co2) moves back and forth from photosynthesis (what trees and plants do) to cellular respiration (what humans do without being destroyed). They are just pretending that they do not put it anything but the real is they put different things on the plants for easily growing. 3. Trees and plants take in carbon dioxide and water vapor and put out oxygen and glucose. Humans do just the opposite; they take in oxygen and glucose and put out carbon dioxide and water vapor. The balance between these two systems has been perfect up until the industrial age during which man‘s impact on the earth has been getting larger and larger? Yes, human do the opposite, but we can‘t deny the fact that some people do not set aside this! Maybe because they can‘t. But it is badly needed by everyone and it supposed to give an important thing for them. It‘s a call for us to realize that it is not just an easy way but rather it invests a lot of changes in our world. 4. ―The problem‖ that our environment is experiencing is that human activity here on earth is now altering the rates of these flows between humans and existing amount of trees and plants on the earth. More Carbon dioxide, CO2, is being produced by humans than the trees and plants can take in as a result, the excess amount of carbon gets stored in the earth‘s atmosphere each year instead of being used up by the existing trees and plants. This make it so more heat is trapped in the atmosphere every year from the sun‘s rays and explains why the earth‘s warming continues to get worse each year. In this case, we need a lot of cooperation and participation to widespread this problem, for them to know what will happen in next generation if this process will continue and continue again. It‘s not easy but if we have companion we can easily give a lot of detail about it.
  13. 13. Kayce Joy L.Saliendrez BEED III Page 12 Reflection Global Warming is the increase of Earth's average surface temperature due to effect of greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide emissions from burning fossil fuels or from deforestation, which trap heat that would otherwise escape from Earth. This is a type of greenhouse effect. Earth's climate is mostly influenced by the first 6 miles or so of the atmosphere which contains most of the matter making up the atmosphere. This is really a very thin layer if you think about it. Based on what I’ve watched, the movie entitled “the Inconvenient Truth” Global warming has been a big alarm to us Human. In this movie there are 3 misconceptions about global warming which are ;That there is disagreement about what and how global warming is happening. That global warming seems fake due to the lack of speed of how long it takes to see a difference in global warming. That we don’t have the tools or are unable to decrease or help the issue about global warming. Which in fact we should be ware of our environmental problems because we are greatly affected by this problem. We are all living in one planet so we need to be vigilant about this. Let us not go easy on this matter. This is a big deal to us. Let us start taking action inside our home, community, country and into the world. Some things that you can do to help global warming and reducing the amount of CO2 emissions are: Change light bulbs to compact fluorescent bulbs: you can save 150 pounds of CO2Turn off the lights when not required: you can save thousands of CO2.Plant trees: you can save 1 ton of CO2. Adjust the thermostat:
  14. 14. Kayce Joy L.Saliendrez BEED III Page 13 you can save around 2,000 pound of CO2.Don’t purchase packaged products: you can save 1,200 pounds of CO2.Recycle: you can save 2,400 pounds of CO2.