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Advance textile processing

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Advance textile processing

  1. 1. SEMINAR ON BSL LTD.(PROCESSING DIVISION) Address: Submitted By: Post Box No.16-17, Altaf Mansuri Mandpam, Kanhiya Kumawat BHILWARA-311001 Lalit Birwa Om Prakash Sharma Rajesh Kumawat Vikas Pareek
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION  BSL LTD, a 1700 Crore LNJ BHILWARA GROUP company, is today a leading manufacturer of fashion fabric and wool worsted yarn in India. Manufacturing a diverse range of polyester/ viscose blended fabrics, wool and blended fabrics, premium light weight fabric and terrier wool fabric.BSL produces over 12 million meters of fabric every year. The company also produces a premium range of worsted suiting's, including those in Kashmiri mohair and angora and camel hair blends. Within a span of 33 years BSL has become a multimillion dollar company and has put Bhilwara on the international map of premium suiting, while its commitment to quality and exceptional product innovation which has enabled BSL to earn the coveted wool mark and ISO – 9002 quality accolades.
  3. 3. DEPARTMENTS OF BSL  Quality Control(R&D): Raw materials such as fibers, yarns, dyes and chemicals are thoroughly tested before they enter the manufacturing process.  Processing & Dyeing: Pre-treatments like scouring,bleaching & Dyeing of fabric is carried out in this departments.  Finishing: Chemical and machenical finishes depend upon fabric quality is done.  Yarn/Fibre/Tops/Silk Dyeing: Various type of blended yarns,fibres,Wool tops dyed on HTHP machines.
  4. 4. QUALITY CONTROL(R&D)  Incoming Material Test  Dyes are evaluated for strength, sublimation, dispersion, washing & light fastness properties.  In case of chemicals & auxiliaries; physical state purity, specific gravity, amine value, cloud point, padding and boiling point are evaluated.  The fibers (wool, polyester, viscose tops & special fiber) are tested for fiber fineness micron (fiber diameter), fiber bundle strength, moisture regain percentage, finish percentage (as per WTO standards and specifications).  At the lab the micron is checked on the Wira Fiber Fineness Meter from UK, certified by the Interwoollab, Brussels.  Polyester viscose and cotton yarns are tested for - Count and several other tests.  Only after the material fulfills the standard specifications, is it allowed to proceed to the production line
  5. 5. FABRIC TEASTING  In this part the fabric is tested at two stages one is before processing and after processing.  In the before processing fabric is tested for various quantities:  Count  Epi&ppi  Std. GSM  Residual shrinkage  Blend percent  In the after process stage these quantities are tested:  Tensile  strength  Washing fastness  Rubbing fastness  Sublimation fastness  Crease recovery angle  Seam slippage  Gram per square meter  Water Proofness Testing  Pilling testing  F. R. Testing( Fire Retardant
  6. 6. SHADE DEVELOPMENT • In this part of testing various shades are developed by mixing the required dyes in various proportions and are checked against the required shade.  Polyester dyeing (disperse dyes): -  Temp: - 135 °c  Ammonium sulphate: - 1 gpl  pH: - 4  Leveling agent: - DFT  Time: - 1 hr  Acrylic dyeing: -  Temp: - 120°c  Common salt  Leveling agent: - DFT  Time: -1 hr
  7. 7.  Vat dyeing: -  Caustic : - 100 gpl  Hydro: -40 gpl  Time: -50 min  Temp : - 70°c   Sulphur dyeing: -  Catalyst sodium sulphide: -30 gpl  Soda: -5 gpl  Temp: - at boil  Time: - 1 hr
  8. 8. FABRIC PROCESSING  For this department the raw material is woven grey fabric. In this department the fabric is processed by various methods. The main processes which are used in BPL INDUSTRIES are the following:- Scouring    Drying    Weight Reduction (Optional)    Heat Setting    Dyeing    Singeing    Chemical Finishing    Mechanical Finishing
  9. 9.  The dyeing operation is done by two methods in BPL INDUSTRIES.  1. Fiber Dyeing  2. Piece Dyeing  1. Fiber Dyed Fabric:  In this type of fabric fibre or yarn is dyed before weaving process or in other words fabric is already dyed. So only pre-treatment is given to F/D fabric. Therefore no. of machines as well as cost of processing is less.  The typical sequence of processes given to fiber dyed fabric is as following:  Stitching    Singeing  [Gas Singeing Machine]    Scouring  [Jumbo Jigger, Relax Scouring Machine]    Drying    Heat Setting  [Stenter]    Chemical Finishing  [Stenter]  Mechanical Finishing  {OD,KD,0/0,Super finish} 
  10. 10.  2. Piece Dyed Fabric:  This class of grey have either a tint of light colour or may be white. So P/D fabric involves dyeing in the processing sequence.  Scouring    Drying    Heat Setting    Jet Dyeing    Drying And Stitching    Singeing    Jigger Dyeing    Drying    Chemical Finishing  Mechanical Finishing
  11. 11.  Machines used in fabric processing :  JIGGER  Function: -this machine is used for the purpose of scouring and dyeing.  Machine particulars: -  No of machines:17  Make of machine:carlico  Water capacity of machine:300 lts  Fabric capacity of machine:400 to 450 m  JUMBO JIGGER  All the features of this machine are same as that of the jigger. The only difference between them is of capacity of the machine. Jumbo jigger is bigger in size thus have more capacity.  Machine particulars: -  No of machine:3  Fabric capacity of machine: 1500 m  Features of machine: - There are two drawing roller to draw the fabric. These rollers are driven. The draw rollers can rotate in the both clockwise & Anti clockwise direction. Liquor is taken in the jigger. Heating of liquor is done by steam coils. Cloth from one roll unwound through the guide rollers gets wound on the other roll. When the first roll is completely unwound the motion reverses automatically & thus cloth passes through solution in the trough twice.
  12. 12.  JET DYEING  U SHAPE JET DYEING: –  Machine particulars: –  No of machines:-4  Make of machine: star engineering pvt. Ltd.  Capicity:700-800mt. HORIZONTAL JET DYEING MACHINE  Machine particulars: –  No of machines:3  Make of machine: Star engineering pvt. Ltd.  Capicity:400 -600mt.  Features:In this machine both the fabric and the liquor are in motion.The machine is in a u shape tube like structure with one end enclosed and other end is provided with a door. At the door there is a reel which is driven by the p.s motor, gives required tension to the fabric. Fabric is circulated in the machine in rope form. Fabric is fed in to the machine and a loop is formed.The fabric is circulated with the pressure of jet from the nozzle and reel. Machine consists of a colour tank, in which the required chemicals & dyes are poured and from which it is transferred to the nozzle.  The liquor is circulated continuously through the filter (to remove the fibers) and heating chamber. Heating is done by steam.  There is a platter situated at the top of the enclosed end which form platting of fabric in the machine.
  13. 13. . •Addition of water . •Loading . •Addition of chemicals •pH check •Addition of dye after 5 min •Temp rise up to 130°c •Holding time 30-45 min •Cooling up to 80°c at rate of 5°c/min • Drain off •Washing
  14. 14.  Recipe and machine parameters:- Parameters M:L Ratio Horizontal-1:8 Verticle-1:3 Speed 500mt/min Cooling up to 80°C Cooling rate 5°C/min Holding time 10 min. Ph 4-5 Dyeing temp. 130°c Dyeing time 90-120 min. Leveling agent DHF Crease removal J-acid
  15. 15. WEIGHT REDUCTION  Machine particulars: -  No of machines: 3  Make of the machine:Anjani industries pvt. Ltd.  Capacity :1000mt. Features: - This machine is based on the high pressure and temperature principle. The machine consists of four compartments, each compartment having respective nozzle with the capacity of 250mts each. One end of the fabric is threaded through the guides and then passed through the nozzle from which it comes to the container situates in front. This end of the fabric is stitched with the other and the loop is made which rotates in the machine. Container is filled with the respective solution. Machine is provided with one more tank i.e. caustic storage tank. After complete process the caustic in the container is pumped to the tank and reused with the next lot.The temp in the machine is maintained by the steam heating system.
  16. 16. Parameters capacity 250mt each nozzle water 1600lts Temp. 95°c Time 90min. Caustic soda 10-15 kg Roto cat 3kg Acetic acid 17%
  17. 17. • water filling • Loading of fabric • Addition of chemical(castic+rotocat) • Temp 95°c • Holding at 95°c for 90min hi • Cooling up to 70°c in 30 min • Caustic recovery • Addition of new water • Hot wash at 90°c • Running water wash • Cooling up to 55°c • Removal of solution • Neutralise with 17% acetic acid for 15 min • Uploading of fabric
  18. 18.  Open Width Scouring Range:  Machine particulars:  Machine Maker: Harish Perfotex  Model: OWRSC-4  No. of Machine:2 Open width Washing ranges are tailor-made and custom built to individual customer needs and are suitable for treating all types and weights of woven and knit fabrics i.e. cotton, cellulose rayon, viscose, synthetics and their blends it is an 5 chamber machine and also consist a cylindrical drying range so its called continuous scouring machine.
  19. 19.  Wetting Trough: In this the fabric is kept in a cold water bath along with the following chemicals. Water-------------------------------- 2000ltr Caustic------------------------------ 1.5gpl Swello SK (Swelling Agent)---- 1 gpl Wettol Liquid------------------------0.4gpl Rapid Scour-------------------------0.4gpl These are basically stain removing agents.  Hot Wash: Temperature------ --------------- ---70 degrees  Relaxing Zone  Here the fabric is allowed to mix and react with all the chemicals so that proper scouring takes place.  Cold Wash & Acid Neutralization Temp –room temp.
  20. 20.  Singeing Machine:  Machine Particulars:  No of machines: - 2  Calico:- (Bombay)  Speed of Calico:- 70-80 m/min.  Osthoff – senge:-(Germany)  Speed of machine: - Osthoffsenge – 100 – 150 m/min  Features:-  The machine which is used for the singeing is gas singeing machine.  The function of this machine is to burn the fibers with the liquid petroleum gas in order to increase the lusture of the fabric and giving it smooth look.  To minimize the pilling on the fabric surface.
  21. 21.  Settings of machine: -  Burner settings:  The angular flame is used for finer fabrics  Straight flame without roller contact is used for the normal fabrics  Straight flame with roller contact is used for severe singeing  Speed of cloth:Depends upon the wt/mt2 of fabric. It can be changed with the help of different gears.   Height of flame: It can be changed by changing the pressure of gas of the burner.   Width of burner:It is changed when the width of cloth is more or less than the width of the burner.
  22. 22.  Cylindrical Drying Machine:-  Machine Particulars:-  Number of machines: 1  Make of machines:-Shakti Textile Engineers Pvt. Ltd.  Features: -The scoured fabric is in wet condition and has to be dried as the wet fabric decreases the efficiency of the stenter. And thus decreasing the efficiency of the process house as it depends of the efficiency of the stenter. parameters Spd of fabric 20 -40mt/min Temp. of machine 150 degree Steam pressure 1-2kg/sq cm Drying efficiency Up to 100% Mangle pressure 2-3kg/sq cm
  23. 23. FINISHING  Finishing is the process of giving value to the fabric. The grade, cost and durability of the fabric depends on the finishing of the fabric. If the customer want some special properties to the fabric, then only all the finishes are given to the fabric. The extent and quality of the finishing process gives the respective value to the cloth.  The finishing process gives following characters to the finished fabric  Crease resistance  Dimensional stability  Lusture  Smoothness  Softness  There are no of machines which are used for the finishing purpose. These machines give different finishing to the fabric to the different extents. These machines are as follows –  Kier Decatising Machine  Calendaring  Shearing  Super Finish  Zero - Zero Finish  Stenter machine
  24. 24. STENTER MACHINE  Machine particulars: -  No of machines – 5 4 machines of 6 chamber & 1 machines of 8 chamber.  Make of machines –  Yamuna Machine Works Pvt. Ltd.  Harish Enterprises Pvt. Ltd.  Production of machine –13000 -28000 mts per shift depending on machine.  Features of machine: The fabric undergoes many processes at a very high temp about 130 to 140. And at this temp polyester being a polymer can shrink or stretch depending on condition. But this change in dimension is not good for final product as it changes many qualities of the fabric.  Thus it is always required to give dimensional stability to the fabric. The process of giving dimensional stability to the fabric is known as heat setting.  Function of this machine is to heat the fabric at a temp of about 200 in stretched form in order to give dimensional stability the fabric. This machine also gives primary finishing to the fabric. This machine regulates the width of the fabric as per the requirement. It increases the pilling resistance of the fabric.
  25. 25.  Working :- This machine consists of no. of parts of machine. The first part is of finishing process. This part is used when chemical finish to the fabric is required.  This consists of a chemical tank which contain finishing chemical. Either one or two dip is given in this chemical as per the requirement of the fabric. Then it provided with the mangle roller to squeeze out excess chemical from the fabric.  Second part of this machine is heating part. Before this the fabric is pined on the pin clips to stretch the fabric to required width. This is done with the help of pinion roller and pressure brush. Then comes heating chamber, in which heating is done with the help of oil heating system.  Third part of this machine is cooling part and in this cooling of hot fabric is done by blowing cold air on the fabric.
  26. 26.  KIER DECATISING MACHINE:-  Machine particulars: -  No of machine: - 2  Make of machine: - Corino machine ALBA  Features: -  The fabric after finishing on open decatising machine is finished on the kier decatising machine. In KD machine the permanent finishing effects are obtained. The finish produces a full, soft-hand or “body” to the fabric as well as imparts lusture and improved feel to the fabric.  This is a fully automatic machine and don’t need any manual work at all. In this machine the decatising or steaming is done in close chamber i.e. kier so its known as the close decatising machine  In multiprogramming KD three operations are performed  LOADING  UNLOADING AND  KIERING   Loading is the process of winding of fabric to be finished with the wrapper cloth on the beam. This is also known as batching.  The unwinding of fabric from the beam and the transfer of the wrapper cloth on the batching beam is known as the unloading.  The process of transferring the loaded beam to the kier and passing of steam at high pressure through perforations and passing the air blow through it is known as kiering
  27. 27. Parameters Beam Capacity 600mt. Beam Diameter 98-103cm. at104cm. Batching automatic stop. Decatising time 15-20min. Speed 75mt./min. [loading & unloading] Kier pressure 3-4 kg/sq cm Kier temp. 1090C
  28. 28.  SHEARING  Machine particulars: -  No of machine: 1  Make of machine: SELLERS  Production: 1200 m / hr  Speed: 20 m/min  Features: -Shearing is the process of cutting the projecting threads or fibers in order to give smoother and attractive look to the fabric. This is done generally in case of woolen fabric as there much pilling in the woolen fabric than any other fabric. This also removes other impurity such as metallic particles and other surface impurities from the fabric. It removes the surface irregularities from the fabric.  The fabric comes from the trolley and gets accumulated in the accumulator to give the uniform and continuous supply of the fabric to the machine, than it passes to the tension rollers then to guiders to ensure optimum tension and full width of the fabric facing the blades.  Then the fabric passes to the brushing rollers which erect the fibers from the surface of the fabric to ensure the complete cutting of the fibers.  There are rotating cylinders having spiral blades on them. The fabric comes in contact with the blades and the knots and loose fibers are cut.Thereare blowers which are engaged in sucking the cut fibers and yarn and avoid the contamination of machine.
  29. 29.  CALENDERING  Machine particulars: -  No. of machine: 2  Production: 7000 m/ shift  Temp: - 60 – 80  Pressure range: - for p/v: 60 kg/ sq. cm & for p/w: 40 – 50 kg/ sq.cm.  Features: -  Calendaring is the process of passing the fabric between two heated rollers at a high pressure and temp to break the fiber rigidity and to give softness to the fabric Machine consists of three different roller. One is made of Teflon, other of steel and last one is made of cotton. All the three rollers are steam heated. Here steel roller is connected to the motor and other rollers are driven by the contact of steel roller.  The cloth coming from the trolley passes through various tension and guide rollers to ensure that full width of the fabric is given to the three rollers.The steel roller has a special polish on the surface, which gives the fabric shine when it comes in contact with this at a high temp.  Fabric passes between the cotton and steel roller at high pressure and temp, and then it passes between steel and Teflon roller at same conditions. This breaks the rigidity of the fabric and thus gives the softness to the fabric.
  30. 30.  ZERO ZERO FINISH OR SANFORAISING  Machine particulars: -  No. of machines: - 1  Make of machine: - DHALL ZERO - ZERO SHRINKAGE RANGE  Production: - 8000 – 9000 m/ shift  Features: -  It is one of the final finishes given to the fabric. it is termed as zero - zero finish as it brings down the harshness of the fabric to minimum level.  As this is the final finishes it gives the final shrinkage to the fabric as required. Generally final width of the fabric is 152 – 154 cm.  Function: -  To give final mechanical finish to the fabric after OD.  To remove wrapper markings created during OD.  To remove wrinkle from from fabric.  To give final shrinkage to the fabric.
  31. 31.  Then the fabric goes to the steel roller which is at high temp. heated by the steam at high pressure. Just below the steel roll there is a rubber felt is present which comes with the fabric on the steel roll. This motion softens the fabric. Opposite motion of the felt and roller is culprit behind the removal of harshness.  The felt gets heated by the steel roller and thus its cooled by the water. After this the fabric can be given again the Decatising finish if required. This is optional and can be skipped by changing the setting of the machine.
  32. 32. TOPS/YARN/FIBRE/SILK PROCESSING  WOOL:-Process secquence of wool dyeing On HTHP machine:- wool is dyed in form of top wt. depends upon micron approximatly 8-10kgs tops used. Loading Add water Chemical add+dye Temp (94-98°c) Holding time(20-50 min) Cooling (98- 70°c) Soaping at 60°c for 20 min Finish
  33. 33.  Recipe For Dyeing Parameters Dye used Metal complex dye Dyeing starts at 50°c Temp. gradient 1°c/min(94 to 98°c) ,2°c/min up to 94°c Holding time Acc. To shade%(20,30,50)min. PH 4-5 by Acetic acid (98%) Levelling agent FBSE(.5%) on wt. of material Water softner Meta soft CL Soaping Tenapol at 60°c for 20 min. Finishing Acetic acid(17%) & Antistatic agent
  34. 34.  POLYESTER: polyester can be dyed in top,fibre and yarn form on HTHP machine.  Process sequence of poly. On HTHP machine. Loading Add water Chemical add+dye Running for 10 min at 70°c Add dye at 135°c Holding the material(50 min Cooled wash R C Treatment Drain Neutralization Finish
  35. 35.  Recipe For Dyeing Parameters Dye used Disperse dye Temp. gradient 1.8°c/min (70°c) 2.5°c/min(135°c) Time 3 hrs for dark shade&2 hrs for light shade Pressure 3.5kg/cm2 Levelling agent FBSE(.5%) Acetic acid(98%) 4-5 Ph Water softner Meta soft CL Finish Sanfotex F (antistatic agent) R C Treatment Caustic&Hydro at 80°c for 30 min
  36. 36.  SILK dyeing :- silk is dyed in hank form on hank dyeing machine.  No. of machine:- 4  Capacity of m/c:-2 ½ kg, 10 kg, 20 kg& 30 kg.  Make of machine:- a) Swastic India  b) Mezzera Italy  Process Sequence . • Degummed+Bleached • Hot wash • Cold wash • Dyeing at 95°c • Holding the sample(20 min) • Cold wash • Checking the sample • Finishing
  37. 37.  Recipe  Degumming:- Bleaching:-  Dyeing:- Balmul MS (soap) 10 gpl Sh 500 4 gpl Temp. 95-98°c Time 30 min PH 8-9 Hydrogen proxide 10 gpl HPZ Proxide killer Temp. 92-95°c Time. 30min PH 8-9 Dye Acid dye Dye level ES(Levelling agent) 2 gpl PH 4-5 by Acetic acid(98%) 3gpl Time 2 hrs Temp 90-92°c