People develop their personality within a social
Without other people, humans would have no
Development rests on the individual’s ability to
establish intimacy with another person.
Anxiety can interfere with satisfying
4. Harry Stack Sullivan
Born Feb. 21, 1892
Oldest existing son of poor
Irish Catholic parents
Lonely childhood existence
Poor relationship with
Close friendship with
5. Harry Stack Sullivan
Poor academic performance
in freshman year at Cornell.
Suffered a schizophrenic
Enrolled for Medicine,
received degree 2 yrs after
Work with William Alanson
6. Harry Stack Sullivan
Private practice in New
His therapy was neither
psychoanalytic nor neoFreudian.
Died of Cerebral
Hemorrhage on Jan. 14,
Rumors of homosexuality
Tensions brought about by a biological
imbalance between the person and
Biological component and interpersonal
Zonal Needs – arises from a specific body
General Needs – over all well being of a
Tenderness is a basic interpersonal need.
Disjunctive, diffuse and vague, call forth
no consistent action for relief.
Transferred through empathy.
Chief disruptive force blocking the
development of healthy interpersonal
Prevents people from learning from
Persisting pursuance of childish wish
Ensures people will not learn from
Its presence is worse than its absence.
Traits or habit patterns
Related to specific zones of the body
Mouth, anus, genitals
Those related to tensions
Conjunctive (Intimacy and Self- System)
18. Self- System
Most complex and inclusive of
Consistent pattern of behavior
protecting them from anxiety.
stumbling block to
favorable changes in personality.
19. Security Operations
Reduces feelings of anxiety or insecurity.
Dissociation = includes impulses, desires, and needs
that a person refuses to allow into awareness. (dreams)
Selective Inattention = refusal to see things that one
does not wish to see. (conscious)
24. Levels of Cognition
Refers to ways of perceiving, imagining, and
Prototaxic – undifferentiated experiences
which are highly personal.
Parataxic – communicated to others in a
Syntaxic – consensually validated and
26. Psychological Disorders
All psychological disorders have an interpersonal
origin and must be understood with reference to
Deficiencies found in psychiatric patients are
found in every person to a lesser degree
Psychological difficulties are not unique, but come
from same interpersonal difficulties we all face
Two broad classes of schizophrenia
Therapist is a participant observer who
establishes an interpersonal relationship
with the patient and provides opportunity
for syntaxic communication
Sullivanian therapists attempt to help
patients develop foresight, discover
difficulties in interpersonal relations, and
restore their ability to participate in
consensually validated experiences