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Decoding Culture: Beyond the Fluff and Back to Business

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My talk at the DC Scrum User Group meetup on January 22, 2018.

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Decoding Culture: Beyond the Fluff and Back to Business

  1. 1. excella.com | @excellaco excella.com @excellaco Decoding Culture Beyond the Fluff and Back to Business Jeff Gallimore DCSUG January 22, 2018
  2. 2. excella.com | @excellaco “Culture eats strategy for breakfast.” – Peter Drucker https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/ea/Drucker5789.jpg
  3. 3. excella.com | @excellaco Merriam-Webster’s 2014 Word of the Year Culture.
  4. 4. excella.com | @excellaco The DevOps movement. http://core0.staticworld.net/images/article/2014/06/devops-100314993-primary.idge.jpg
  5. 5. excella.com | @excellaco Culture is a key aspect of DevOps. (So is Sharing, which is related to culture.) Culture Automation Lean Measurement Sharing
  6. 6. excella.com | @excellaco Take 15 seconds to yourself to come up with an answer for how you would describe your organization’s culture. Describe your organization’s culture. I’m going to call on a few people to give their answers.
  7. 7. excella.com | @excellaco jk!!! ! ! !
  8. 8. excella.com | @excellaco “Please describe your organization’s culture.” https://c1.staticflickr.com/2/1206/874357185_e02e570cdd_b.jpg
  9. 9. excella.com | @excellaco And then words… https://17eb94422c7de298ec1b-8601c126654e9663374c173ae837a562.ssl.cf1.rackcdn.com/Images//umbrella%20redesign/careers/Careers_CulturePage_InfoGraphic.png
  10. 10. excella.com | @excellaco Culture is hard to describe. https://muskmellon.files.wordpress.com/2012/05/i-cant-explain-2.jpg
  11. 11. excella.com | @excellaco Culture is hard to measure. http://metro.co.uk/2011/10/12/researchers-begin-counting-grains-of-sand-on-cornish-beach-182702/
  12. 12. excella.com | @excellaco Culture is hard to change. https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/originals/83/8e/c7/838ec73c30a14adda966c04553bb09d0.jpg
  13. 13. excella.com | @excellaco Why is culture important? http://img06.deviantart.net/bd80/i/2011/300/1/6/so_what_button_by_blueberryblack-d4e49uz.jpg
  14. 14. excella.com | @excellaco 46x more frequent deploys. 440x faster lead times. 96x faster MTTR. 5x lower change failure rate. https://puppet.com/sites/default/files/inline-images/Puppet-DOR-cover.jpg
  15. 15. excella.com | @excellaco Culture predicts both IT performance and organizational performance. (p. 15)
  16. 16. excella.com | @excellaco Because science. Forsgren, N., J. Humble (2016). “The Role of Continuous Delivery in IT and Organizational Performance.” (p. 10) https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2681909 (p. 10)
  17. 17. excella.com | @excellaco More successful organizations. http://i.cdn.turner.com/nba/nba/.element/media/2.0/teamsites/celtics/media/history-championships-970x442.jpg
  18. 18. excella.com | @excellaco Happier employees. https://c1.staticflickr.com/5/4129/4972978130_bc61453ffa_b.jpg
  19. 19. excella.com | @excellaco What is culture? http://i.vimeocdn.com/video/454221405_1280x720.jpg
  20. 20. excella.com | @excellaco Westrum’s Culture Typology
  21. 21. excella.com | @excellaco “Having a Just Culture means that you’re making effort to balance safety and accountability.” https://codeascraft.com/2012/05/22/blameless-postmortems/
  22. 22. excella.com | @excellaco “Work that gets learned-by-doing lives by this pact: Technical errors and their consequences are to be acknowledged and transformed into an occasion for positive experience, learning, improvement.” (p. 38) “The world is complex – live with it. And learn from it what you can.” (p. 117)
  23. 23. excella.com | @excellaco "An air traffic control provider reported a 50% drop in incidents reported in the year following criminal prosecution of controllers involved in a runway incursion incident.” (p. 109) The organization lost the opportunity to learn from the unreported incidents. Creating a climate of fear.
  24. 24. excella.com | @excellaco Balance accountability and learning. https://www.flickr.com/photos/mikecogh/8035396680
  25. 25. excella.com | @excellaco Psychological safety. “If I make a mistake on our team, it is not held against me.”
  26. 26. excella.com | @excellaco A Google study found psychological safety was “far and away the most important” dynamic that set successful teams apart from other teams. https://rework.withgoogle.com/blog/five-keys-to-a-successful-google-team/
  27. 27. excella.com | @excellaco Because more science. Edmondson, A. (1999). “Psychological Safety and Learning Behavior in Work Teams.” (p. 9) http://www.jstor.org/stable/2666999?origin=JSTOR-pdf&seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents
  28. 28. excella.com | @excellaco The safer you feel, the more you learn. The more you learn, the better you perform. Safety Learning Performance
  29. 29. excella.com | @excellaco How do you change culture? https://media.licdn.com/mpr/mpr/AAEAAQAAAAAAAATsAAAAJGNhYjkzMDRmLThhZTUtNDBjYi1iOTRhLTA2Nzc0YWFlMTU3Mw.jpg
  30. 30. excella.com | @excellaco Assess. https://content.linkedin.com/content/dam/business/talent-solutions/global/en_us/blog/2014/10/measure-quality.jpg
  31. 31. excella.com | @excellaco Strongly disagree Disagree Somewhat disagree Neither agree nor disagree Somewhat agree Agree Strongly agree Failure causes inquiry. ! ! ! ! ! ! ! How strongly do you agree or disagree with the following? On my team... https://devops-research.com/img/dora.png
  32. 32. excella.com | @excellaco DORA can provide insights on cultural capabilities, like • Westrum organizational culture. • Climate for learning. • Collaboration between teams. • Job satisfaction. …against industry benchmarks. https://devops-research.com/
  33. 33. excella.com | @excellaco Assessing culture. All items measured on a Likert-type scale, 1=Strongly disagree to 7=Strongly agree 1. On my team, information is actively sought. 2. On my team, failures are learning opportunities, and messengers of them are not punished. 3. On my team, responsibilities are shared. 4. On my team, cross-functional collaboration is encouraged and rewarded. 5. On my team, failure causes enquiry. 6. On my team, new ideas are welcomed. 7. On my team, failures are treated primarily as opportunities to improve the system.
  34. 34. excella.com | @excellaco 1. On my team, information is actively sought. 2. On my team, failures are learning opportunities, and messengers of them are not punished. 3. On my team, responsibilities are shared. 4. On my team, cross-functional collaboration is encouraged and rewarded. 5. On my team, failure causes enquiry. 6. On my team, new ideas are welcomed. 7. On my team, failures are treated primarily as opportunities to improve the system. Our Own Culture Assessment 1. Strongly Disagree 2. Disagree 3. Somewhat Disagree 4. Neither Agree Nor Disagree 5. Somewhat Agree 6. Agree 7. Strongly Agree
  35. 35. excella.com | @excellaco Educate. http://www.supportingeducation.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/Apple-chalkboard-book.jpeg
  36. 36. excella.com | @excellaco Knowing is half the battle. http://cdn.churchm.ag/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/knowing-is-half-the-battle.jpg
  37. 37. excella.com | @excellaco Speak to the head and the heart. http://lauriehaller.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/20150518-1.jpg
  38. 38. excella.com | @excellaco Winning IT and organizational performance. http://i2.cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/150606190815-american-paharoah-crossing-line-super-169.jpg
  39. 39. excella.com | @excellaco Burnout is real and has a human toll. Read John Willis’ “Karojisatsu” post on the IT Revolution blog. https://www.flickr.com/photos/44534236@N00
  40. 40. excella.com | @excellaco Think. https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/12/The_Thinker_close.jpg
  41. 41. excella.com | @excellaco Change your mindset. http://inutile.club/estatis/brain-transplant/img/scheme.png
  42. 42. excella.com | @excellaco 1. People do not come to work to do a bad job. 2. Everyone is doing the best they can given the information they have at the time. New Assumptions
  43. 43. excella.com | @excellaco Shift from ”Who?” to “Why?” Why did you do what you did? Why did that action make sense to you at the time? Why did the system allow you to do that?
  44. 44. excella.com | @excellaco What would you think if this happened to you?
  45. 45. excella.com | @excellaco The U.S. Navy came to different conclusions about collisions involving two of its ships last year.
  46. 46. excella.com | @excellaco "Both of these accidents were preventable and the respective investigations found multiple failures by watch standers that contributed to the incidents.” – ADM John Richardson, Chief of Naval Operations Human Error
  47. 47. excella.com | @excellaco "Many of the decisions made that led to this incident were the result of poor judgment and decision making of the Commanding Officer. That said, no single person bears full responsibility for this incident. The crew was unprepared for the situation in which they found themselves through a lack of preparation, ineffective command and control, and deficiencies in training and preparations for navigation.” (p. 20, 59) More Human Error
  48. 48. excella.com | @excellaco Act. https://www.flickr.com/photos/atoach/8094737104
  49. 49. excella.com | @excellaco Model the behavior. 1. Frame work as learning problems, as opposed to execution problems.
  50. 50. excella.com | @excellaco Experiments. “I have not failed 700 times. I have not failed once. I have succeeded in proving that those 700 ways will not work. When I have eliminated the ways that will not work, I will find the way that will work.” – Thomas Edison http://cdn8.openculture.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/640px-Thomas_Edison2.jpg
  51. 51. excella.com | @excellaco
  52. 52. excella.com | @excellaco DO: Get commitment from all the appropriate players. DON’T: Use an ad hoc or improvisational approach. DO: Use the scientific method. DON’T: Use experiments as a tool for evil.
  53. 53. excella.com | @excellaco Just don’t.
  54. 54. excella.com | @excellaco Model the behavior. 1. Frame work as learning problems, as opposed to execution problems. 2. Acknowledge your own fallibility. 3. Model curiosity by asking a lot of questions.
  55. 55. excella.com | @excellaco You’re taking risks. Show courage.
  56. 56. excella.com | @excellaco You can be a hero. https://www.flickr.com/photos/mleung311/8854935471
  57. 57. excella.com | @excellaco To the supervisors, managers, leaders, and anyone who considers themselves a boss… http://static.spin.com/files/120628-bruce.png
  58. 58. excella.com | @excellaco “The supposition is prevalent the world over that there would be no problems in production or service if only our production workers would do their jobs in the way that they were taught. Pleasant dreams. The workers are handicapped by the system, and the system belongs to the management.” Deming, “Out of the Crisis” (p. 121) https://www.census.gov/history/img/deming.jpg
  59. 59. excella.com | @excellaco Speed of the leader. Speed of the team. https://c1.staticflickr.com/2/1049/5142119589_1aaf74ded4_b.jpg
  60. 60. excella.com | @excellaco You control consequences and rewards. http://lvannorman.weebly.com/uploads/1/9/5/8/19580573/2662697_orig.jpg?241
  61. 61. excella.com | @excellaco Toyota and GM entered into a joint venture in 1984 at GM’s Fremont facility. GM had closed the Fremont facility in 1982. The GM-Fremont employees were “considered the worst workforce in the automobile industry in the United States” by the UAW.
  62. 62. excella.com | @excellaco Same physical plant. 85% of the same workforce. 43.1 labor hours per car in 1978. 20.8 labor hours per car in 1986. Same… but different.
  63. 63. excella.com | @excellaco You can create transformations.
  64. 64. excella.com | @excellaco It reflects how we think and what we value. It shows up in how we act. It is changeable. Culture.
  65. 65. excella.com | @excellaco Think different. http://alumni.sae.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/growth-fixed-mindset.jpg
  66. 66. excella.com | @excellaco Act different.
  67. 67. excella.com | @excellaco We can make some beautiful changes. https://www.flickr.com/photos/esqenzo/268064771
  68. 68. excella.com | @excellaco Perform better. https://pbs.twimg.com/media/CAJjx9dVAAAimmQ.jpg
  69. 69. excella.com | @excellaco Feel better. https://c1.staticflickr.com/8/7244/7291435622_7639b9faf4_b.jpg
  70. 70. excella.com | @excellaco Culture matters. It affects each of us.
  71. 71. excella.com | @excellaco We each have personal experience with culture. http://bournedirectory.com/uploads/3/4/6/1/34614287/912045_orig.jpg
  72. 72. excella.com | @excellaco We each have power for change. http://refe99.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/Im-going-to-change-my-life-today.jpg
  73. 73. excella.com | @excellaco Jeff Gallimore jeff.gallimore@excella.com @jgallimore http://itsanicelife.com https://www.linkedin.com/in/jgallimore Me
  74. 74. excella.com | @excellaco