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新学习技术应用模式下的标准 - xAPI
之一
Jessie Chuang
Speaker Bio.
Jessie Chuang 是旅居美国多年的华人;关注跨
领域学习技术应用创新、学习设计、方案贵画
与学习数据分析,她目前是 ADL 下 Experience
API (xAPI) 中文实践社群的主持人,参与多项
xA...
Technology is evolving very fast and segmented
Mobile first! (Mobile Learning: http://classroom-aid.com/mlearnings/)
Simul...
Paradigm Shift
3-33 Model
Dan Pontefract (2013) -
learning is a collaborative,
continuous, connected, and
community-based growth
mindset.
What’s Informal Learning?
Saul Carliner 在他的书 “Informal Learning Basics: Informal learning” 中定义,非正
式学习是学习者自己决定学习的过程、地点、目的、内...
70-20-10 Model
Informal Learning Example -1
Sara Lee: a survey of sales and marketing representatives and
representatives of management a...
Informal Learning Example - 2
Google Ireland: an employee found a way to tag employee
skills in order to locate networking...
Informal Learning Example - 3
U.S. Army built a robust discussion forum for Army
commanders and found that it significantl...
Xerox Story -
Community Mind
Explicit knowledge (know-what)
Tacit knowledge (know-how)
by John Seely Brown - A PARC
vetera...
by JSB
Enterprise Social
Network (ESN)
products have been
HOT in recent
years. (Yammer,
Jive…)
A New Approach to Performance Development
Turbomachinery Solutions unit of GE Oil & Gas, provides solutions and services t...
Half-life of Knowledge are Shrinking
“The “half-life of knowledge” is the time
span from when knowledge is gained to
when ...
Link to image source
Networks & Performance Support
Experiential, social learning should become part of every worker’s daily activities.
To fac...
Cascading levels of Performance Support
Source: “What We Got Here Is … an EPSS”
GE Capital
- 需要训练多达 250,000 位(44,000 个零售店) 广佈全世界的零售商
● 适合平板使用介面的网页设计与行动 App
● HTML5 技术
● 使用者可以评分的内容
● 五分钟的课程
● 不需登入 (除非牵涉公...
Qualcomm
- 内部早在 2004 年就开始推行行动学习专案,至今已经进化到第叁阶段了
● Phase I : 将学习材料重新设计,成为员工随身带著走的"知识库"(Learning
Center in the Pocket) 以及效能支持...
SONIC
- 美国最大 Drive-In 连锁餐厅, 号称有 398,929 种让顾客客製化的饮料组合,在
客人点餐之後才开始製作......
● 采用 BYOD,支援 iOS 与
Android 装置。
● 为员工提供效能支持工具
(Per...
International Red Cross (国际红十字会)
- 原本用面对面的培训课程教导各种机构与个人关於急救方法与灾害应变知识......
● 将支持使用者处理紧急情况所需的知识,作成 App,让它在需要时可以及时
被取得,民众可以根...
美林證劵(Merrill Lynch)
- 分布在38 个国家的 6 万名员工,发现行动学习比线上学习有效率且成果较好
● 让员工在公司外工作的空档都能进
行学习。
● 充分利用既有黑莓手机的使用习惯,
例如,人们每天通常使用他们的行动
装置叁...
‘Reclaiming the Art of Teaching’ (Lupton 2013)
-- Mandy Lupton, Queensland University of Technology
Highlights
● Connectivism - tools connect our brains
○ The community mind(brain) is the real expert. (know-what + know-how...
You can’t manage what you don’t measure.
Study found: The more companies characterized themselves
as data-driven, the bett...
Strength in Numbers: How Does Data-Driven
Decisionmaking Affect Firm Performance?
Abstract:
We examine whether firms that ...
New Roles of Executives and HR
They should be asking “What do the data
say?”
They’ll be valued not for their HiPPO-style
a...
What Great Managers Do Differently
Average managers play checkers, while great managers
play chess.
What Great Managers Do Differently
They discover what is unique about each person and then
capitalize on it. Train each pe...
Moneyball: The Art of Winning an Unfair Game
Analytics enabled the Oakland Athletics to
assemble a competitive team, despi...
xAPI as a L&D tool
xAPI is a L&D tool… but it can track not only learning activities but also work flow,
events, social in...
We Want to Know...
● how learning impacts business results
● the correlation between L&D efforts and organizational
key in...
xAPI Recording All Events
openclipart.org
Instructors, Peers, Experts….
Contents: Courses, Books,
Web pages, Games, AR ….A...
Course Webpage Game Simulator
Coaching
Social
Learning
Project
Mobile
Apps
LRS Learning data
is sent to LRS
Other
activiti...
LMS LRS
LRS
Reporting
Tool
Learning records
can be delivered
to LMSs,LRSs
or Reporting
Tools.
37
2 Popular Use Cases of xAPI
Systems integration
Organizations using xAPI to integrate data from multiple LMSs are translat...
Data-Driven Learning Design
PDCA 持续改善迴圈,敏捷地因应变化
X talks (前沿对话)
X talks (前沿对话)
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X talks (前沿对话)

科技在许多层面改变了我们的生活,这里先从实际的故事来观察学习与培训方式的变化,指出当今人力发展地图上的重要方向,例如社会学习、非正式学习、效能支持、移动学习,接著探讨高管应如何管理与掌握多元样貌的学习行为,去对齐趋近组织目标。利用数据作决策在商业竞争中胜出,人力发展也应该如此。Experience API (xAPI) 就是为这目的而产生的新学习标準。目前 xAPI 实施案最多落在两大类需求: 整合跨系统的历程数据、加强销售绩效。
Technologies have changed many aspects of our society, the landscape of learning and development has been changed a lot. What are important directions on the map? What are social learning, informal learning, performance support & mobile learning and their impacts? With such paradigm shifts, you can’t manage what you don’t measure. Many business competitions are won by data-driven solutions and decisions, so shall talent development management. That led to the introduction of Experience API (xAPI).

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X talks (前沿对话)

  1. 1. 新学习技术应用模式下的标准 - xAPI 之一 Jessie Chuang
  2. 2. Speaker Bio. Jessie Chuang 是旅居美国多年的华人;关注跨 领域学习技术应用创新、学习设计、方案贵画 与学习数据分析,她目前是 ADL 下 Experience API (xAPI) 中文实践社群的主持人,参与多项 xAPI 项目的规划与实施。 联络: jessie@classroomaid.org Today’s survey: su.vc/xtalks1
  3. 3. Technology is evolving very fast and segmented Mobile first! (Mobile Learning: http://classroom-aid.com/mlearnings/) Simulations, AR, location-based learning, wearables, IoT ... 3
  4. 4. Paradigm Shift
  5. 5. 3-33 Model Dan Pontefract (2013) - learning is a collaborative, continuous, connected, and community-based growth mindset.
  6. 6. What’s Informal Learning? Saul Carliner 在他的书 “Informal Learning Basics: Informal learning” 中定义,非正 式学习是学习者自己决定学习的过程、地点、目的、内容,随时随地可能发生,甚 至不自觉自己正在学习。例如: 自行存取、按需提供的学习内容,组织学习社群(像 是实践社群)、辅导(mentoring)。 根据 Bersin, Bloom, Cross, 与 Livingstone 的研究,非正式学习占职场学习约 50 ~ 80%, 许多人认为非正式学习对工作的重要性远比训练课程重要。
  7. 7. 70-20-10 Model
  8. 8. Informal Learning Example -1 Sara Lee: a survey of sales and marketing representatives and representatives of management and the HR departments at Sara Lee showed that the most important method of workplace learning among this group was on-the-job experience and networking. Training programs actually rated fairly low.
  9. 9. Informal Learning Example - 2 Google Ireland: an employee found a way to tag employee skills in order to locate networking and mentoring opportunities.
  10. 10. Informal Learning Example - 3 U.S. Army built a robust discussion forum for Army commanders and found that it significantly supported leadership and sharing. Because of their success, the Army has expanded these forums for other Army jobs. Note: Supporting informal learning requires us to assume new roles, including managing organizational knowledge and coaching. A command-and-control attitude could be a dangerous approach.
  11. 11. Xerox Story - Community Mind Explicit knowledge (know-what) Tacit knowledge (know-how) by John Seely Brown - A PARC veteran of 23 years and its director for a decade, has relentlessly explored the techniques of innovation. In particular, he has focused on how individuals and institutions really change. JSB was an early leader in encouraging research organizations to pay as much attention to the behavior of complex systems as to the movement of atoms and bits - to recognize, as the title of his book -- The Social Life of Information. Read more: The informal channels of an organization
  12. 12. by JSB Enterprise Social Network (ESN) products have been HOT in recent years. (Yammer, Jive…)
  13. 13. A New Approach to Performance Development Turbomachinery Solutions unit of GE Oil & Gas, provides solutions and services to upstream and mid- stream customers in seven vertical markets. We have 7,000 employees across three P&Ls, 11 functions, 12 regions, and 15 product lines. A smartphone app to provide continuous dialogue, accepts voice and text inputs, attached documents, even handwritten notes. The aim is to facilitate more frequent conversations between managers and employees and among teams. ● Management: shifting from “command and control” to “empower and inspire” ● Team: a collaboration room where teams could engage and develop new ways of working across teams to optimize the overall results. A fivefold productivity increase in the past 12 months. GE is now rolling it out throughout the company, and it will replace our legacy Employee Management System (EMS) by the end of 2016. Source: HBR - GE’s Real-Time Performance Development
  14. 14. Half-life of Knowledge are Shrinking “The “half-life of knowledge” is the time span from when knowledge is gained to when it becomes obsolete. Half of what is known today was not known 10 years ago. The amount of knowledge in the world has doubled in the past 10 years and is doubling every 18 months according to the American Society of Training and Documentation (ASTD). To combat the shrinking half-life of knowledge, organizations have been forced to develop new methods of deploying instruction.”
  15. 15. Link to image source
  16. 16. Networks & Performance Support Experiential, social learning should become part of every worker’s daily activities. To facilitate this, think of resources and connections instead of courses.
  17. 17. Cascading levels of Performance Support Source: “What We Got Here Is … an EPSS”
  18. 18. GE Capital - 需要训练多达 250,000 位(44,000 个零售店) 广佈全世界的零售商 ● 适合平板使用介面的网页设计与行动 App ● HTML5 技术 ● 使用者可以评分的内容 ● 五分钟的课程 ● 不需登入 (除非牵涉公司机密) ● 面对面训练70% 被删去,省时省钱 ● 层次化设计,学习者视需要决定是否深入 学习 ● 访问客户的故事作为教材 ● 所有学习资源整合成为单一资源库 ● 学习资源以学习目标来组织分类 ● 学习路径以使用者的角色来设计
  19. 19. Qualcomm - 内部早在 2004 年就开始推行行动学习专案,至今已经进化到第叁阶段了 ● Phase I : 将学习材料重新设计,成为员工随身带著走的"知识库"(Learning Center in the Pocket) 以及效能支持工具,包括 : 销售技巧与步骤、简报技巧、 谈判技巧、领导力提升培训、专有名词缩写 (Acronym) 资料库 ...... ● Phase II : 建立与汇整行动学习内容,成为统一入口 (Portal),加上社群学习元 素(公司内部社群)。 ● Phase III : 内部建立了一个完整的行动 App 生态系统 (Employee AppStore), 没有课程,只有 App,涵盖所有层面的需求 : 办公室导览、新进员工训练、新 产品训练、个人工作成长、生产力工具、效能支持工具 ...... 。 ● 相關文章: Enterprise AppStores
  20. 20. SONIC - 美国最大 Drive-In 连锁餐厅, 号称有 398,929 种让顾客客製化的饮料组合,在 客人点餐之後才开始製作...... ● 采用 BYOD,支援 iOS 与 Android 装置。 ● 为员工提供效能支持工具 (Performance Support Tool),包括能协助店经理快 速回答客人问题的产品资讯 (例如: 所点食物内是否含坚 果?),以及,让员工参考可 以快速做出客製化食物的步 骤的影片。
  21. 21. International Red Cross (国际红十字会) - 原本用面对面的培训课程教导各种机构与个人关於急救方法与灾害应变知识...... ● 将支持使用者处理紧急情况所需的知识,作成 App,让它在需要时可以及时 被取得,民众可以根据它们来执行灾害来袭前、後的各种措施。 ● 根据使用者的使用情境与可能需求,整合相关资源、资讯或功能,提供尽可能 的支持,例如 : 依据所在地点提供附近的避难所位置、紧急计画的检查列表、 甚至会发出光与声音的功能,以备受难者无法呼救时使用,例如地震後被埋 在废墟中。
  22. 22. 美林證劵(Merrill Lynch) - 分布在38 个国家的 6 万名员工,发现行动学习比线上学习有效率且成果较好 ● 让员工在公司外工作的空档都能进 行学习。 ● 充分利用既有黑莓手机的使用习惯, 例如,人们每天通常使用他们的行动 装置叁十次以上(一些银行投资理专 每五分钟使用一次),并且在公司外 头使用它们来接收资讯和采取行动。 ● 让员工可以在很短的时间内、在任何 想要进行学习的时间和地点,包括没 有网路覆盖的区域都能学习。
  23. 23. ‘Reclaiming the Art of Teaching’ (Lupton 2013) -- Mandy Lupton, Queensland University of Technology
  24. 24. Highlights ● Connectivism - tools connect our brains ○ The community mind(brain) is the real expert. (know-what + know-how) ○ The health of the learning ecology of the organization depends on effective nurturing of information flow. (connect people, content = KM) ○ Show/share your work, so dots can be connected. ○ Informal learning is on the rise. ○ Think more of networks and on-demand resources, not only courses. ● Mobile learning - tools extend/enhance our brains ○ Trends: mobiles, BYOD, BYOA…. ○ Performance support ○ Embedded learning in works ● You can’t manage what you don’t measure
  25. 25. You can’t manage what you don’t measure. Study found: The more companies characterized themselves as data-driven, the better they performed on objective measures of financial and operational results. In particular, companies in the top third of their industry in the use of data-driven decision making were, on average, 5% more productive and 6% more profitable than their competitors. (from MIT Center for Digital Business, McKinsey’s business technology office, Wharton Business School) Harvard Business Review: Big Data: The Management Revolution
  26. 26. Strength in Numbers: How Does Data-Driven Decisionmaking Affect Firm Performance? Abstract: We examine whether firms that emphasize decision making based on data and business analytics (“data driven decision making” or DDD) show higher performance. Using detailed survey data on the business practices and information technology investments of 179 large publicly traded firms, we find that firms that adopt DDD have output and productivity that is 5-6% higher than what would be expected given their other investments and information technology usage. Furthermore, the relationship between DDD and performance also appears in other performance measures such as asset utilization, return on equity and market value. Citation: Brynjolfsson, Erik and Hitt, Lorin M. and Kim, Heekyung Hellen, Strength in Numbers: How Does Data- Driven Decisionmaking Affect Firm Performance? (April 22, 2011). Available at SSRN: http://ssrn. com/abstract=1819486 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1819486
  27. 27. New Roles of Executives and HR They should be asking “What do the data say?” They’ll be valued not for their HiPPO-style answers but because they know what questions to ask. Companies succeed in the big data era not simply because they have more or better data, but because they have leadership teams that set clear goals, define what success looks like, and ask the right questions. Big data’s power does not erase the need for vision or human insight.
  28. 28. What Great Managers Do Differently Average managers play checkers, while great managers play chess.
  29. 29. What Great Managers Do Differently They discover what is unique about each person and then capitalize on it. Train each person, tailor to his learning styles. Building employees’ strengths is a far more effective approach than a fixation on weaknesses. -- Quotes from Harvard Business Review, and research report from Gallup (a survey of 80,000 managers, and in-depth studies of a few top performers) Citation: What Great Managers Do State of the American Manager
  30. 30. Moneyball: The Art of Winning an Unfair Game Analytics enabled the Oakland Athletics to assemble a competitive team, despite paying the 3rd-lowest salaries. ● Beane led Oakland to win 103 games that year, including an amazing 20-game winning streak. ● But the story didn’t end there. Never be afraid to consider the opinions, knowledge and experience of people, both inside and outside of your business, to help clarify the data.
  31. 31. xAPI as a L&D tool xAPI is a L&D tool… but it can track not only learning activities but also work flow, events, social interactions etc. We can measure learning outcomes as well as performance outcomes. Enterprises can put outputs of the elements of the learning ecosystem (starting from LMS) into the business intelligence ecosystem.
  32. 32. We Want to Know... ● how learning impacts business results ● the correlation between L&D efforts and organizational key indexes. ● how well the training improve employers’ performance in workspace. ● What’s the best next step for the learner? ● How do we help people learn? improve the content? ● What are the habits of really effective employees?
  33. 33. xAPI Recording All Events openclipart.org Instructors, Peers, Experts…. Contents: Courses, Books, Web pages, Games, AR ….Activities (making, exercises, researching, online, offline ….) Learner 35
  34. 34. Course Webpage Game Simulator Coaching Social Learning Project Mobile Apps LRS Learning data is sent to LRS Other activities 36
  35. 35. LMS LRS LRS Reporting Tool Learning records can be delivered to LMSs,LRSs or Reporting Tools. 37
  36. 36. 2 Popular Use Cases of xAPI Systems integration Organizations using xAPI to integrate data from multiple LMSs are translating proprietary methods of reporting to xAPI as a common format. Sales enablement ● Traditional classroom training with observational data (even self-reporting) ● e-learning courseware for salespeople ● developing job aids and other forms of performance support using xAPI ● Use xAPI within their CRM systems to translate lead generation, time-to- close, and other streams of activity—all in an effort to gain a better sense of the relationship between changes in training and changes in performance. Read more: What Does xAPI Adoption Look Like?
  37. 37. Data-Driven Learning Design PDCA 持续改善迴圈,敏捷地因应变化

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  • MarkGrant4

    Apr. 20, 2016

科技在许多层面改变了我们的生活,这里先从实际的故事来观察学习与培训方式的变化,指出当今人力发展地图上的重要方向,例如社会学习、非正式学习、效能支持、移动学习,接著探讨高管应如何管理与掌握多元样貌的学习行为,去对齐趋近组织目标。利用数据作决策在商业竞争中胜出,人力发展也应该如此。Experience API (xAPI) 就是为这目的而产生的新学习标準。目前 xAPI 实施案最多落在两大类需求: 整合跨系统的历程数据、加强销售绩效。 Technologies have changed many aspects of our society, the landscape of learning and development has been changed a lot. What are important directions on the map? What are social learning, informal learning, performance support & mobile learning and their impacts? With such paradigm shifts, you can’t manage what you don’t measure. Many business competitions are won by data-driven solutions and decisions, so shall talent development management. That led to the introduction of Experience API (xAPI).

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