O slideshow foi denunciado.
Utilizamos seu perfil e dados de atividades no LinkedIn para personalizar e exibir anúncios mais relevantes. Altere suas preferências de anúncios quando desejar.
Carregando em…3
1 de 18

Fundamental principle of curriculum development and instruction



Baixar para ler offline

principle of curriculum development an instruction

Audiolivros relacionados

Gratuito durante 30 dias do Scribd

Ver tudo

Fundamental principle of curriculum development and instruction

  2. 2. SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES At the end of the lesson, you are expected to:  Appreciate the importance of principles and practices in curriculum development  Learn the art of curriculum development through the various illustrations and cases presented here in this lesson.  Know what principles and practices will contribute to the development of the curricula in their own school systems  State and identify the various curriculum and instructional practices in their own locale, read on them and give recommendation for their modification, restructuring of reformation.
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION Principles of curriculum development and instruction form the base on which the entire school program rests. As such, they should be the heart of every study in curriculum instruction. Much more, integration of these fundamental principles, and using employing them in curriculum making and in the instructional activity are crucial to educational improvement
  4. 4. FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT AND INSTRUCTION All through the first three chapters, we have probably assimilated in our consciousness the goal which this course of study is pursuing. This goal is definitely educational improvement both in large scale provisions for the various school programs and instructional areas as well as the teaching-learning activities
  5. 5. FUNDAMENTALPRINCIPLESOFCURRICULUM DEVELOPMENTANDINSTRUCTION The treatment here of the fundamental principles which this author considers significant to the purpose of this study, is believed to reinforce whatever knowledge gained in this area. Proper understanding of the principle underlying curriculum development and the instructional system can lead to the refinements of our thoughts and mind-set. The fundamental principles of curriculum development and instruction are;
  6. 6. 1. EFFECTIVE AND EFFICIENT TEACHING IS THE PURPOSE OF ALL CURRICULUM ACTIVITY It can probably be said that the end-all-of all activities contained in the curriculum is teaching the right through efficiency. Curriculum makers and curriculum students must understand the reality that we can never sap all possibilities of continuous improvement. It is then imperative that curriculum content must provide a broad and flexible base for greater learning opportunities. FUNDAMENTALPRINCIPLESOFCURRICULUM DEVELOPMENTANDINSTRUCTION
  7. 7. 2. Curriculum Development Should Be A Reflection of Man’s Total Aspiration For Freedom and Good Quality Life FUNDAMENTALPRINCIPLESOFCURRICULUM DEVELOPMENTANDINSTRUCTION The entirely of curriculum development must be a reflection of the quest of mankind for freedom and good life. Every single activity of curriculum development from planning, organization, evaluation, reformation, to restructuring is expected to be towards the attainment of those ends. The content therefore is expected to cultivate in the learners the ability to break-away from ignorance that binds and inhibits them to be free. Both the core contents and the professional subject areas ought to empower the learners to discern the truth and enable them to live by the truth. This will ensure their break-away from the bondages of this world that often lead them to the trappings of folly
  8. 8. 3. Curriculum Development Should Perpetuate the Universality of Education FUNDAMENTALPRINCIPLESOFCURRICULUM DEVELOPMENTANDINSTRUCTION Perpetuation of the universality of education is the essence of curriculum development. It should boost the “education for all” appeal of our time, where content and instruction must be truly beyond the socio-cultural factors, particularly in the two phases of basic education i.e. elementary and high school.
  9. 9. 4. Curriculum Should Contain Truthful and Realistic Presentation of Learning Concepts FUNDAMENTALPRINCIPLESOFCURRICULUM DEVELOPMENTANDINSTRUCTION The very spirit quickens life in the curriculum and instruction is the honest and realistic learning concepts. Since these learning concepts bear upon human affairs and conduct, they certainly affect human life. Attitude, beliefs, judgments and reasoning are influenced by these learning concepts. Half-truth and half-false concepts which are banal in many of our curricula can never be true. These, however, have found some glorious position in the schools. The result is the compounded misuse of education, not to mention the subliminal rejection of the principle of honesty and reality- based thinking which put learners “at risk”
  10. 10. 5. Curriculum Development and Instruction Must be Ingrained in a Sound Value Framework FUNDAMENTALPRINCIPLESOFCURRICULUM DEVELOPMENTANDINSTRUCTION Designing a curriculum entails determination of what its value will be. In the broader context of education this value of framework is a medium of change and progress both for the individual learner and the society as well. It is therefore understandable why “value free” education did not work positively in the United States or elsewhere. If human aspirations of freedom and good life are to be attained, a serious commitment to totally integrate sound values in all curricular activities is in order. This simply means a going back to the basics, where godly values of obedience, self-discipline, honestly, hard work, perseverance, meekness, gentles, faith, love, joy, and peace to be pursued.
  11. 11. 5. Curriculum Development and Instruction Must be Ingrained in a Sound Value Framework FUNDAMENTALPRINCIPLESOFCURRICULUM DEVELOPMENTANDINSTRUCTION The natural longing of man for the pursuit of knowledge and truth can be likened to the endless span of the earth’s firmament. As man continuously searches for wisdom, to resolve the many questions that life possesses, teaching and learning will always occupy a magnificent position in human undertakings
  12. 12. 6. Teaching and Learning are Human Processes That Are Without Limitations FUNDAMENTALPRINCIPLESOFCURRICULUM DEVELOPMENTANDINSTRUCTION The natural longing of man for the pursuit of knowledge and truth can be likened to the endless span of the earth’s firmament. As man continuously searches for wisdom, to resolve the many questions that life possesses, teaching and learning will always occupy a magnificent position in human undertakings.
  13. 13. 6. Teaching and Learning are Human Processes That Are Without Limitations FUNDAMENTALPRINCIPLESOFCURRICULUM DEVELOPMENTANDINSTRUCTION Realizing this truth is crucial in the determination of curriculum content and learning experiences that can transcend human boundaries. These learning opportunities and experiences should be provided to bring about the “transfer of training”. This means equipping the learners with the ability to properly apply what has been learned by the learners to the learning of other concepts in other situations, (Krug, 1957). Example, the knowledge of the anatomical parts of lower vertebrate forms like frogs, and cats, could be applied to learn human anatomy. The infinite teaching-learning possibilities then, offer wide ranging, choices for educators, particularly curriculum developers and teachers to configure activities that will give desirable learning outcomes. This is no doubt attainable because such principles of the limitless character of teaching and learning as human processes brings the continuous unfolding of the human nature.
  14. 14. 7. Fundamental Principles and the School System’s Environment FUNDAMENTALPRINCIPLESOFCURRICULUM DEVELOPMENTANDINSTRUCTION We have identified so far six (6) fundamental principles of curriculum development and instruction. These are viewed as essentials in curriculum and instructional improvement. In this theorem we shall attempt to investigate the interfacing nature between these curriculum and instructional principles and the present environment of the school system. Anent to this will be a thoughtful analysis of the far reaching effects and implications of the school environment in education.
  15. 15. Characteristics of the school System’s Environment THE EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT The school as an integral part of the social system’s institutions is experiencing the same social pressure and turbulence that the social system does. The emergence of the “global village” due to the tremendous advancements in science and technology, and the ascent of the so-called information highways and by-ways that are fashioning the knowledge society of the future are pushing schools to undergo radical changes. The economic slump especially in the Asia-Pacific region has practically put schools to a disadvantage. The sharp decline in school enrollment is likely to fall further, especially so with the rising cost of schooling.
  16. 16. On the one hand, there is a proliferation of a permissive atmosphere that undermines of traditional values and cultures once held important and indispensable in the educational process. This is effect in one of the reasons for the degeneration of the moral fabric of human society, a phenomenon that is catalytic to the unprecedented rise of such problems as social injustice, criminality, violence, environmental, debauchery, graft and corruption among others. Unfortunately, the environment in which the schools exist expects these schools to perform an incredible miracle to solve this social malady instantly. And yet the reality remains that a malady that has spiraled over the years cannot be resolved in a flashed of a moment.
  17. 17. Characteristics of the school System’s Environment THE INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT The School System as a Synergy In consideration of the school system’s environment we cannot just ignore the “synergy view model” for the school systems. The school is like a synergy, they said. It has inputs, i.e. learners, capital (money or other resources), and outputs (graduates). The inputs are processed via the curriculum and the school program, instruction, guidance and counseling, extra-curricular activities included. The teachers, administrators and the other non-teaching staff of the school system constitute the processors. Their outputs have to pass through a quality control system i.e. evaluation system, usually a test driven system. The continuity which comprises its external environment has much to say on the kind of synergy processes the school has and ought to have. This oftentimes creates problems in curriculum and instruction since public opinion and public attitude are generally not uniform.
  18. 18. The ideals, ideas, attitudes, judgments, knowledge, skills and other things, material or non-material a school system considers significantly important and desirable, constitute the value system of that school. The value system finds its meaning and significance in the school system through its power to influence and shape the culture of school and its people. The curriculum educational resources, medium of instruction and methodology represent the instrumental values of the school. These are so because they are avenues toward the terminal values which are philosophy, goals, and objectives of the educational system. Whether the instrumental and the terminal values a school prefer will determine the reputation even the destiny of that school and its output (graduates). This is so because the social behavior of the people of the school interaction culture, among others are guided by these values. School system have varied values and system. These variation are attributable to the difference in cultures, institutions, objectives, social and religious orientations, Hence, they could serve as culture media for the fulfillment of the institutions’ and the individuals’ quest for progress